Matching Items (17)

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Assessing Working Memory in Children: The Comprehensive Assessment Battery for Children – Working Memory (CABC-WM)

Description

Working memory predicts a significant amount of variance for a variety of cognitive tasks, including speaking, reading, and writing. However, few tools are available to assess working memory in children.

Working memory predicts a significant amount of variance for a variety of cognitive tasks, including speaking, reading, and writing. However, few tools are available to assess working memory in children. We present an innovative, computer-based battery that comprehensively assesses different components of working memory in school-age children.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-06-12

A Catalog of the Expressive Vocabularies of Seven Preschool Children

Description

Preschoolers' vocabularies are an important component of their receptive and expressive language skills. This study was designed to catalog preschoolers' expressive vocabularies to provide an accurate estimate of how many

Preschoolers' vocabularies are an important component of their receptive and expressive language skills. This study was designed to catalog preschoolers' expressive vocabularies to provide an accurate estimate of how many words and which words seven preschoolers knew. In this study a LENA digital recorder was used to record language samples of the children (age range 40 months to 69 months) over 4-6 days. Their language samples were transcribed and individual root words were extracted. The children spoke an average of 1,698 unique words (range 1,522 \u2014 1,957 words). There were 539 words produced by all of the children in the study as well as 820 words produced by 6 of the 7 children. These data provide preliminary information that will be useful for designing a larger, more comprehensive study of children's vocabulary with the goal of teachers and speech-language pathologists being able to use this information to determine if a child's vocabulary is smaller than other children when they enter elementary school. This can inform assessment and intervention decisions as well as provide guidance to preschool curriculum developers.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Sequential processing deficits in adults with dyslexia: The role of serial order and spatial orientation of letters during word pair comparison and spelling

Description

The purpose of this project was to investigate the hypothesis that adults with dyslexia tend to have lower accuracies in and take longer to process tasks involving the serial order

The purpose of this project was to investigate the hypothesis that adults with dyslexia tend to have lower accuracies in and take longer to process tasks involving the serial order of letters, compared to age and gender-matched controls. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated word pairs for differences. Half of the word pairs that they evaluated were the same, whereas the remaining word pairs differed along specific parameters such as sequential rearrangements ("left" vs "felt"), left/right reversals ("cob" vs "cod"), up/down reversals ("best" vs "pest"), homophones ("grown" vs "groan"), visual letter similarities ("tight" vs "fight"), and generic substitutions ("moan" vs "loan"). The response times and accuracies of both groups were recorded. In Experiment 2, the participants spelled single words to dictation using the spelling subtest from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test\u2014II. Spelling errors were evaluated for errors such as sequential rearrangements, left/right reversals, homophones, substitutions, orthographic violations, omissions, and insertions. An example of a spelling error is the word "excitement" misspelled as "excietment", which involves a sequential rearrangement error. Another example is the word "apparently" misspelled as "aparently,", which involves an error of omission. Error frequencies within these error types for both groups were recorded. Experiment 3 evaluated whether left/right reversal errors during the letter-naming Rapid Automatized Naming and Rapid Alternating Stimulus (RAN/RAS) task were associated with left/right errors during word pair comparison and spelling and whether these visual reversal errors were also associated with errors of serial order. The group with dyslexia was split into two groups: group 1 included participants who did not make any left/right reversals during the RAN/RAS task and group 2 included participants who did make left/right reversals during the RAN/RAS task. The accuracies and reaction times of these three groups during the comparison and spelling assessments were recorded. The results of experiment 1 revealed that that adults with dyslexia had a significantly higher reaction time and lower accuracy during the sequential rearrangement and left/right reversal conditions. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the group with dyslexia made significantly more spelling errors during the homophone and omission conditions. The results of Experiment 3 showed associations between the sequential rearrangement and left/right conditions in both the word pair comparison and spelling task for participants with dyslexia who made left/right reversals during the RAN/RAS task. Overall, the participants with dyslexia who made left/right reversals during the RAN/RAS task seemed to have greater difficulty understanding the orientation of letters that occur on a horizontal plane, since this underlying pattern of errors was also seen throughout the spelling and word comparison tasks. These results show that left/right reversals and errors of serial order are evident in some, but not all adults with dyslexia. These errors may also characterize a distinct subtype of dyslexia. Further, errors of left/right reversal and serial order appear to be associated, so left/right reversals may represent a special form of serial order error that involves a change in the order of visual processing in the horizontal but not vertical axis of letter orientation.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-12

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An Examination of Standardized Measures of Vocabulary in Children with Hearing Loss

Description

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of word type, phonotactic probability, word frequency, and neighborhood density on the vocabularies of children with mild-to-moderate hearing loss compared

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of word type, phonotactic probability, word frequency, and neighborhood density on the vocabularies of children with mild-to-moderate hearing loss compared to children with normal hearing. This was done by assigning values for these parameters to each test item on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (Version III, Form B) to quantify and characterize the performance of children with hearing loss relative to that of children with normal hearing. It was expected that PPVT IIIB scores would: 1) Decrease as the degree of hearing loss increased. 2) Increase as a function of age 3) Be more positively related to nouns than to verbs or attributes. 4) Be negatively related to phonotactic probability. 5) Be negatively related to word frequency 6) Be negatively related to neighborhood density. All but one of the expected outcomes was observed. PPVT IIIB performance decreased as hearing loss increased, and increased with age. Performance for nouns, verbs, and attributes increased with PPVT IIIB performance, whereas neighborhood density decreased. Phonotactic probability was expected to decrease as PPVT IIIB performance increased, but instead it increased due to the confounding effects of word length and the order of words on the test. Age and hearing level were rejected by the multiple regression analyses as contributors to PPVT IIIB performance for the children with hearing loss. Overall, the results indicate that there is a 2-year difference in vocabulary age between children with normal hearing and children with hearing loss, and that this may be due to factors external to the child (such as word frequency and phonotactic probability) rather than the child's age and hearing level. This suggests that children with hearing loss need continued clinical services (amplification) as well as additional support services in school throughout childhood.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Relations Between Central Executive Function and Scores on an ADHD Rating Scale in Second Grade Children

Description

Purpose: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to have central executive deficits in working memory as well as less academic success than children with typical development. The purpose

Purpose: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to have central executive deficits in working memory as well as less academic success than children with typical development. The purpose of this study was to determine which components of central executive function were most closely related to parental rating scores of attention.
Method: Two hundred twenty three 2nd graders with typical development, dyslexia, developmental language disorder (DLD), or dyslexia/DLD completed three central executive tasks from the Comprehensive Assessment Battery for Children–Working Memory (Gray, Alt, Hogan, Green, & Cowan, n.d.). Parents of the children completed the ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Home Version for their child. None of the participants had been diagnosed with ADD/ADHD
Results: When diagnostic group performance was compared we found significant differences on each central executive task. When ADHD group performance was compared we found a significant between-group performance only on the n-back visual task with the high-risk group scoring lower than the other two groups. ADHD rating scores predicted a significant amount of variance for each central executive task, but percentages were small (3%-6%).
Discussion: Working memory is known to be related to attention control. Stronger attentional control is associated with a higher working memory performance. Our study showed that children most at risk for ADD/ADHD based on parent ratings scored lowest on the visuospatial task, likely because rehearsal of visuospatial information is not possible so relies more heavily on attention. This study is a step toward considering how attention affects working memory performance so that both can be considered when designing instruction and interventions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-12

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Word Learning Development in Elementary Aged Children

Description

The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in word learning ability when assessing phonological and semantic representations in elementary-age children with typical development. Methods: The study included 116

The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in word learning ability when assessing phonological and semantic representations in elementary-age children with typical development. Methods: The study included 116 2nd graders and 25 6th graders who were tested using the Assessment Battery for Children - Word Learning. Children played virtual pirate games that tested their ability to store, retrieve, and recall phonological and semantic representations of nonwords. Results: Based on effect sizes, the largest differences in word learning ability occurred for tasks requiring phonological working memory. Overall, 6th graders had higher performance means in all aspects of word learning. Both groups performed better on tasks that required less phonological or semantic detail. Discussion: Findings align with previous research reporting that as children develop, their capacity to store, retrieve, and recall phonological information increases as a result of increased phonological loop capacity and rehearsal speed. Similarly, as children age they perform better on tasks requiring visuospatial working memory such as storing and recreating the semantic representations of new words. These findings have implications for the word learning process in children with typical development.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Audiovisual perception of dysarthric speech in older adults compared to younger adults

Description

Everyday speech communication typically takes place face-to-face. Accordingly, the task of perceiving speech is a multisensory phenomenon involving both auditory and visual information. The current investigation examines how visual information

Everyday speech communication typically takes place face-to-face. Accordingly, the task of perceiving speech is a multisensory phenomenon involving both auditory and visual information. The current investigation examines how visual information influences recognition of dysarthric speech. It also explores where the influence of visual information is dependent upon age. Forty adults participated in the study that measured intelligibility (percent words correct) of dysarthric speech in auditory versus audiovisual conditions. Participants were then separated into two groups: older adults (age range 47 to 68) and young adults (age range 19 to 36) to examine the influence of age. Findings revealed that all participants, regardless of age, improved their ability to recognize dysarthric speech when visual speech was added to the auditory signal. The magnitude of this benefit, however, was greater for older adults when compared with younger adults. These results inform our understanding of how visual speech information influences understanding of dysarthric speech.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Professional development in early childhood education: effects of a virtual community of practice on implementing best practices

Description

This mixed methods study examined whether participation in a virtual community of practice (vCoP) could impact the implementation of new skills learned in a professional development session and help to

This mixed methods study examined whether participation in a virtual community of practice (vCoP) could impact the implementation of new skills learned in a professional development session and help to close the research to implementation gap.

Six participants attended a common professional development session and completed pre- , mid- , and post-intervention surveys regarding their implementation of social emotional teaching strategies as well as face-to-face interviews.

Both quantitative and qualitative data was examined to determine if participation in the vCoP impacted implementation of skills learned in the PD session. Quantitative data was inconclusive but qualitative data showed an appreciation for participation in the vCoP and access to the resources shared by the participants. Limitations and implications for future cycles of research are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Enhanced Milieu Training with Phonological Emphasis (EMT+PE) A Pilot Telepractice Parent Training Study

Description

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of parent training in the Enhanced Milieu Teaching with Phonological Emphasis (EMT+PE) intervention program, using a secure internet-based conferencing software

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of parent training in the Enhanced Milieu Teaching with Phonological Emphasis (EMT+PE) intervention program, using a secure internet-based conferencing software (telepractice), on parent strategy use and child speech and language outcomes for children with repaired cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P). Three participant dyads composed of a parent and child participated in this study. Children ranged in age from 21 to 27 months at the beginning of this study and all had a diagnosis of nonsyndromic CL/P. Participating dyads received three in- person training sessions and three weekly telepractice intervention sessions. Assessment and intervention sessions were administered by a trained Speech Language Pathologist (SLP) and a graduate SLP student clinician. Parents demonstrated a positive intervention effect by significantly increasing their use of EMT+PE intervention strategies during training. Based on preliminary results, parents were able to maintain their increased use of strategies following the conclusion of intervention as well. Telepractice proved to be a valid service delivery model for conducting early intervention sessions and for supporting the early speech and language development for children with CL/P.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Phonological awareness and executive function in children with speech sound impairment

Description

A substantial amount of research demonstrates that preschoolers' phonological awareness skills are a robust predictor of children's later decoding ability. Several investigators examined performance of children with speech sound impairment

A substantial amount of research demonstrates that preschoolers' phonological awareness skills are a robust predictor of children's later decoding ability. Several investigators examined performance of children with speech sound impairment (SSI), defined as inaccurate production of speech sounds in the absence of any etiology or communication impairment, on phonological awareness tasks. Investigators found that children with SSI scored below their typically developing peers (TD) on phonological awareness tasks. In contrast, others found no differences between groups. It seems likely that differences in findings regarding phonological awareness skills among children with SSI is the fact that there is considerable heterogeneity among children with SSI (i.e., speech errors can either be a phonological or articulation). Phonology is one component of a child's language system and a phonological impairment (SSI-PI) is evident when patterns of deviations of speech sounds are exhibited in a language system. Children with an articulation impairment (SSI-AI) produce speech sound errors that are affected by the movements of the articulators, not sound patterns. The purpose of the study was to examine whether or not children with SSI-PI are at greater risk for acquiring phonological awareness skills than children with SSI-AI. Furthermore, the phonological awareness skills of children with SSI-PI and SSI-AI were compared to those of their typical peers. In addition, the role of executive function as well as the influence of phonological working memory on phonological awareness task performance was examined.

Findings indicate that the SSI-PI group performed more poorly on an assessment of phonological awareness skills than the SSI-AI and TD groups. The SSI-PI group performed significantly more poorly on tasks of executive function and phonological working memory than the TD group. The results of this study support the hypothesis that children with SSI-PI may be more vulnerable to difficulties in reading than children with SSI-AI and children with TD.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015