Matching Items (38)

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The Perception of The Mental Game within Archery

Description

This study used an online survey methodology looking at all levels of archers and coaches to understand their perceptions of the shooting process and Mental Game importance. The survey asked about the archer's skill level and their training style, as

This study used an online survey methodology looking at all levels of archers and coaches to understand their perceptions of the shooting process and Mental Game importance. The survey asked about the archer's skill level and their training style, as well as their perception of the importance of each step in the shooting process and the different parts of the Mental Game. The study also processed the impact of performance of an archer based on their perception of importance of the different steps of the shooting process and the Mental Game. Depending on if the archer has ever had a coach, certain steps of the shooting process and certain parts of the Mental Game was impacted by having a coach at one time. While, the level of coach also impacts how the Mental Game is perceived. Throughout this study, imagery was the most impacted by the level of coach the participant is, if the participants have ever had a coach, and how the participants perform.

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2018-05

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Investigating Team Coordination in Baseball Using a Novel Joint Decision Making Paradigm

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A novel joint decision making paradigm for assessing team coordination was developed and tested using baseball infielders. Balls launched onto an infield at different trajectories were filmed using four video cameras that were each placed at one of the typical

A novel joint decision making paradigm for assessing team coordination was developed and tested using baseball infielders. Balls launched onto an infield at different trajectories were filmed using four video cameras that were each placed at one of the typical positions of the four infielders. Each participant viewed temporally occluded videos for one of the four positions and were asked to say either “ball” if they would attempt to field it or the name of the bag that they would cover. The evaluation of two experienced coaches was used to assign a group coordination score for each trajectory and group decision times were calculated. Thirty groups of 4 current college baseball players were: (i) teammates (players from same team/view from own position), (ii) non-teammates (players from different teams/view from own position), or (iii) scrambled teammates (players from same team/view not from own position). Teammates performed significantly better (i.e., faster and more coordinated decisions) than the other two groups, whereas scrambled teammates performed significantly better than non-teammates. These findings suggest that team coordination is achieved through both experience with one’s teammates’ responses to particular events (e.g., a ball hit up the middle) and one’s own general action capabilities (e.g., running speed). The sensitivity of our joint decision making paradigm to group makeup provides support for its use as a method for studying team coordination.

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2017-06-07

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I’ll Show You the Way: Risky Driver Behavior When “Following a Friend”

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Previous research examining social influences on driving behavior has primarily focused on the effects of passengers and surrounding vehicles (e.g., speed contagion). Of current interest was the interaction between drivers that occurs in a “following a friend” scenario, i.e., the

Previous research examining social influences on driving behavior has primarily focused on the effects of passengers and surrounding vehicles (e.g., speed contagion). Of current interest was the interaction between drivers that occurs in a “following a friend” scenario, i.e., the driver of one vehicle (the leader) knows how to get to the desired destination while the driver of a second vehicle (the follower) does not. Sixteen participants drove through a simulated city in a driving simulator under three conditions: (i) a baseline condition in which they could choose their own route, (ii) a navigation system condition in which they were given audible route instructions, and (iii) a “follow a friend” condition in which they required to follow a simulated vehicle. In the follow a friend condition, drivers engaged in significantly more risky behaviors (in comparison to the other conditions) such as making more erratic and higher speed turns and lane changes, maintaining overall higher speed, as well as maintaining a shorter time headway when following a lead vehicle. These effects suggest a relationship to time pressure caused by a fear of getting lost.

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2017-05-09

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ASU Oculus Fitness Correlation

Description

The purpose of the Oculus Exercise research project we conducted was to find a way to entice individuals to attend a gym more often and for longer periods of time. We have found that many activities are being augmented by

The purpose of the Oculus Exercise research project we conducted was to find a way to entice individuals to attend a gym more often and for longer periods of time. We have found that many activities are being augmented by the increasingly popular virtual reality technology, and within that space "gamifying" the activity seems to attract more users. Given the idea of making activities more entertaining to users through "gamification", we decided to incorporate virtual reality, using the Oculus Rift, to immerse users within a simulated environment to potentially drive the factors previously identified in respect to gym utilization. To start, we surveyed potential users to gauge potential interest in virtual reality and its usage in physical exercise. Based on the initial responses, we saw that there was a definite interest in "gamifying" physical exercises using virtual reality, and proceeded to design a prototype using Unreal Engine 4 -- which is an engine for creating high quality video games with support for virtual reality -- to experiment how it would affect a standard workout routine. After considering several options, we decided to move forward with designing our prototype to augment a spin machine with virtual reality due to its common usage within a gym, and the consistent cardiovascular exercise it entails, as well as the safety intrinsic to it being a mostly stationary device. By analyzing the results of a survey after experimenting upon a user test group, we can begin to correlate the benefits and the drawbacks of using virtual reality in physical exercise, and the feasibility of doing so.

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2016-05

Modeling and measuring cognitive load to reduce driver distraction in smart cars

Description

Driver distraction research has a long history spanning nearly 50 years, intensifying in the last decade. The focus has always been on identifying the distractive tasks and measuring the respective harm level. As in-vehicle technology advances, the list of distractive

Driver distraction research has a long history spanning nearly 50 years, intensifying in the last decade. The focus has always been on identifying the distractive tasks and measuring the respective harm level. As in-vehicle technology advances, the list of distractive activities grows along with crash risk. Additionally, the distractive activities become more common and complicated, especially with regard to In-Car Interactive System. This work's main focus is on driver distraction caused by the in-car interactive System. There have been many User Interaction Designs (Buttons, Speech, Visual) for Human-Car communication, in the past and currently present. And, all related studies suggest that driver distraction level is still high and there is a need for a better design. Multimodal Interaction is a design approach, which relies on using multiple modes for humans to interact with the car & hence reducing driver distraction by allowing the driver to choose the most suitable mode with minimum distraction. Additionally, combining multiple modes simultaneously provides more natural interaction, which could lead to less distraction. The main goal of MMI is to enable the driver to be more attentive to driving tasks and spend less time fiddling with distractive tasks. Engineering based method is used to measure driver distraction. This method uses metrics like Reaction time, Acceleration, Lane Departure obtained from test cases.

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2015

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The impact of coordination quality on coordination dynamics and team performance: when humans team with autonomy

Description

This increasing role of highly automated and intelligent systems as team members has started a paradigm shift from human-human teaming to Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT). However, moving from human-human teaming to HAT is challenging. Teamwork requires skills that are often missing

This increasing role of highly automated and intelligent systems as team members has started a paradigm shift from human-human teaming to Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT). However, moving from human-human teaming to HAT is challenging. Teamwork requires skills that are often missing in robots and synthetic agents. It is possible that adding a synthetic agent as a team member may lead teams to demonstrate different coordination patterns resulting in differences in team cognition and ultimately team effectiveness. The theory of Interactive Team Cognition (ITC) emphasizes the importance of team interaction behaviors over the collection of individual knowledge. In this dissertation, Nonlinear Dynamical Methods (NDMs) were applied to capture characteristics of overall team coordination and communication behaviors. The findings supported the hypothesis that coordination stability is related to team performance in a nonlinear manner with optimal performance associated with moderate stability coupled with flexibility. Thus, we need to build mechanisms in HATs to demonstrate moderately stable and flexible coordination behavior to achieve team-level goals under routine and novel task conditions.

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Date Created
2017

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Effects of Looming Auditory FCW on Brake Reaction Time under Conditions of Distraction

Description

In 2013, 1.8 million US drivers were responsible for rear-end collisions with other vehicles (NHTSA 2014), for which driver distraction has been identified as the main factor (Campbell, Smith & Najm, 2003; Knipling, Mironer, Hendricks, Tijerina, Everson, Allen & Wilson

In 2013, 1.8 million US drivers were responsible for rear-end collisions with other vehicles (NHTSA 2014), for which driver distraction has been identified as the main factor (Campbell, Smith & Najm, 2003; Knipling, Mironer, Hendricks, Tijerina, Everson, Allen & Wilson 1993; Wang, Knipling & Goodman, 1996). The ubiquity of cell phones and their use behind the wheel has played a major role in distracting these drivers. To mitigate this, some manufacturers are equipping vehicles with forward collision warning (FCW) systems.

Generally, warnings that are perceived as being urgent produce lower response times. One technique for increasing perceived urgency of a warning is called looming, where the signal increases in or more dimensions over time. Looming warning signals have been shown to produce low response times, likely because the recipient perceives the signal as a potential approaching threat, prompting defensive reactions (Graziano and Cooke, 2006).

The present study evaluates the effect of veridical (intensity increases at the rate of closure with the lead vehicle) and high urgency (intensity increases at a rate of Time to Collision minus 0.5 seconds) looming FCW, as well as a static FCW, on drivers’ brake reaction times in the presence of a secondary texting task. Participants’ brake reaction times were recorded as they followed a lead car in a driving simulator, encountering multiple sudden-braking events across the five conditions (a control condition as well as four counterbalanced conditions using a secondary texting task). In the four conditions with a secondary task, participants received no FCW, static FCW, veridical FCW, and high-urgency FCW, respectively. Performance data was analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA, and a series of pairwise comparisons were then made using Bonferroni corrected pairwise t-tests.

The presence of a visually and manually distracting secondary task (texting) seems to diminish the performance of the looming signals as compared to previous studies that did not use a distraction component. While looming FCW do seem to effectively lower BRTs when the driver is distracted, it is recommended that further research investigate the relationship between secondary task types and their respective levels of distraction, and the effectiveness of auditory looming FCW.

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Date Created
2016

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Information architecture in vehicle infotainment displays

Description

This study exmaines the effect of in-vehicle infotainment display depth on driving performance. More features are being built into infotainment displays, allowing drivers to complete a greater number of secondary tasks while driving. However, the complexity of completing these tasks

This study exmaines the effect of in-vehicle infotainment display depth on driving performance. More features are being built into infotainment displays, allowing drivers to complete a greater number of secondary tasks while driving. However, the complexity of completing these tasks can take attention away from the primary task of driving, which may present safety risks. Tasks become more time consuming as the items drivers wish to select are buried deeper in a menu’s structure. Therefore, this study aims to examine how deeper display structures impact driving performance compared to more shallow structures.

Procedure. Participants complete a lead car following task, where they follow a lead car and attempt to maintain a time headway (TH) of 2 seconds behind the lead car at all times, while avoiding any collisions. Participants experience five conditions where they are given tasks to complete with an in-vehicle infotainment system. There are five conditions, each involving one of five displays with different structures: one-layer vertical, one-layer horizontal, two-layer vertical, two-layer horizontal, and three-layer. Brake Reaction Time (BRT), Mean Time Headway (MTH), Time Headway Variability (THV), and Time to Task Completion (TTC) are measured for each of the five conditions.

Results. There is a significant difference in MTH, THV, and TTC for the three-layer condition. There is a significant difference in BRT for the two-layer horizontal condition. There is a significant difference between one- and two-layer displays for all variables, BRT, MTH, THV, and TTC. There is also a significant difference between one- and three-layer displays for TTC.

Conclusions. Deeper displays negatively impact driving performance and make tasks more time consuming to complete while driving. One-layer displays appear to be optimal, although they may not be practical for in-vehicle displays.

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Date Created
2018

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Human-centric detection and mitigation approach for various levels of cell phone-based driver distractions

Description

Driving a vehicle is a complex task that typically requires several physical interactions and mental tasks. Inattentive driving takes a driver’s attention away from the primary task of driving, which can endanger the safety of driver, passenger(s), as well as

Driving a vehicle is a complex task that typically requires several physical interactions and mental tasks. Inattentive driving takes a driver’s attention away from the primary task of driving, which can endanger the safety of driver, passenger(s), as well as pedestrians. According to several traffic safety administration organizations, distracted and inattentive driving are the primary causes of vehicle crashes or near crashes. In this research, a novel approach to detect and mitigate various levels of driving distractions is proposed. This novel approach consists of two main phases: i.) Proposing a system to detect various levels of driver distractions (low, medium, and high) using a machine learning techniques. ii.) Mitigating the effects of driver distractions through the integration of the distracted driving detection algorithm and the existing vehicle safety systems. In phase- 1, vehicle data were collected from an advanced driving simulator and a visual based sensor (webcam) for face monitoring. In addition, data were processed using a machine learning algorithm and a head pose analysis package in MATLAB. Then the model was trained and validated to detect different human operator distraction levels. In phase 2, the detected level of distraction, time to collision (TTC), lane position (LP), and steering entropy (SE) were used as an input to feed the vehicle safety controller that provides an appropriate action to maintain and/or mitigate vehicle safety status. The integrated detection algorithm and vehicle safety controller were then prototyped using MATLAB/SIMULINK for validation. A complete vehicle power train model including the driver’s interaction was replicated, and the outcome from the detection algorithm was fed into the vehicle safety controller. The results show that the vehicle safety system controller reacted and mitigated the vehicle safety status-in closed loop real-time fashion. The simulation results show that the proposed approach is efficient, accurate, and adaptable to dynamic changes resulting from the driver, as well as the vehicle system. This novel approach was applied in order to mitigate the impact of visual and cognitive distractions on the driver performance.

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Date Created
2017

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Factors Contributing to Self-Reported Student Pilot Fatigue

Description

Student pilots are the future of aviation and one of the biggest problems that they face as new pilots is fatigue. The survey was sent out asking if student pilots were fatigued, if they attribute flight training, school work, work

Student pilots are the future of aviation and one of the biggest problems that they face as new pilots is fatigue. The survey was sent out asking if student pilots were fatigued, if they attribute flight training, school work, work outside of school, and social obligations to their sleep loss, and how they spend their time on those activities. The survey was given to aviation students at Arizona State University (ASU) Polytechnic Campus. ASU student pilots were found to be fatigued through a single sample t-test. Other t-tests were done on each of the questions that asked student pilots how flight training, school work, work outside of school and social obligations affect their sleep loss. Flight training and school were found to be contributing to student pilots sleep loss. Work outside of school and social obligations were found to not be contributing to student pilots sleep loss. It was found that student pilots’ tendency to use a planner or calendar was found to not be significant. Along with this planning through the week when they will do assignments or study for exams was also not found to be significant. Students making lists of assignments and when they are due was also found to not be significant. The t-test also found that student pilots are neutral on the topic of whether good time management skills would help increase the amount of sleep that they get.

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Date Created
2019