Matching Items (32)

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Investigating Team Coordination in Baseball Using a Novel Joint Decision Making Paradigm

Description

A novel joint decision making paradigm for assessing team coordination was developed and tested using baseball infielders. Balls launched onto an infield at different trajectories were filmed using four video

A novel joint decision making paradigm for assessing team coordination was developed and tested using baseball infielders. Balls launched onto an infield at different trajectories were filmed using four video cameras that were each placed at one of the typical positions of the four infielders. Each participant viewed temporally occluded videos for one of the four positions and were asked to say either “ball” if they would attempt to field it or the name of the bag that they would cover. The evaluation of two experienced coaches was used to assign a group coordination score for each trajectory and group decision times were calculated. Thirty groups of 4 current college baseball players were: (i) teammates (players from same team/view from own position), (ii) non-teammates (players from different teams/view from own position), or (iii) scrambled teammates (players from same team/view not from own position). Teammates performed significantly better (i.e., faster and more coordinated decisions) than the other two groups, whereas scrambled teammates performed significantly better than non-teammates. These findings suggest that team coordination is achieved through both experience with one’s teammates’ responses to particular events (e.g., a ball hit up the middle) and one’s own general action capabilities (e.g., running speed). The sensitivity of our joint decision making paradigm to group makeup provides support for its use as a method for studying team coordination.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-06-07

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I’ll Show You the Way: Risky Driver Behavior When “Following a Friend”

Description

Previous research examining social influences on driving behavior has primarily focused on the effects of passengers and surrounding vehicles (e.g., speed contagion). Of current interest was the interaction between drivers

Previous research examining social influences on driving behavior has primarily focused on the effects of passengers and surrounding vehicles (e.g., speed contagion). Of current interest was the interaction between drivers that occurs in a “following a friend” scenario, i.e., the driver of one vehicle (the leader) knows how to get to the desired destination while the driver of a second vehicle (the follower) does not. Sixteen participants drove through a simulated city in a driving simulator under three conditions: (i) a baseline condition in which they could choose their own route, (ii) a navigation system condition in which they were given audible route instructions, and (iii) a “follow a friend” condition in which they required to follow a simulated vehicle. In the follow a friend condition, drivers engaged in significantly more risky behaviors (in comparison to the other conditions) such as making more erratic and higher speed turns and lane changes, maintaining overall higher speed, as well as maintaining a shorter time headway when following a lead vehicle. These effects suggest a relationship to time pressure caused by a fear of getting lost.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05-09

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The Perception of The Mental Game within Archery

Description

This study used an online survey methodology looking at all levels of archers and coaches to understand their perceptions of the shooting process and Mental Game importance. The survey asked

This study used an online survey methodology looking at all levels of archers and coaches to understand their perceptions of the shooting process and Mental Game importance. The survey asked about the archer's skill level and their training style, as well as their perception of the importance of each step in the shooting process and the different parts of the Mental Game. The study also processed the impact of performance of an archer based on their perception of importance of the different steps of the shooting process and the Mental Game. Depending on if the archer has ever had a coach, certain steps of the shooting process and certain parts of the Mental Game was impacted by having a coach at one time. While, the level of coach also impacts how the Mental Game is perceived. Throughout this study, imagery was the most impacted by the level of coach the participant is, if the participants have ever had a coach, and how the participants perform.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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ASU Oculus Fitness Correlation

Description

The purpose of the Oculus Exercise research project we conducted was to find a way to entice individuals to attend a gym more often and for longer periods of time.

The purpose of the Oculus Exercise research project we conducted was to find a way to entice individuals to attend a gym more often and for longer periods of time. We have found that many activities are being augmented by the increasingly popular virtual reality technology, and within that space "gamifying" the activity seems to attract more users. Given the idea of making activities more entertaining to users through "gamification", we decided to incorporate virtual reality, using the Oculus Rift, to immerse users within a simulated environment to potentially drive the factors previously identified in respect to gym utilization. To start, we surveyed potential users to gauge potential interest in virtual reality and its usage in physical exercise. Based on the initial responses, we saw that there was a definite interest in "gamifying" physical exercises using virtual reality, and proceeded to design a prototype using Unreal Engine 4 -- which is an engine for creating high quality video games with support for virtual reality -- to experiment how it would affect a standard workout routine. After considering several options, we decided to move forward with designing our prototype to augment a spin machine with virtual reality due to its common usage within a gym, and the consistent cardiovascular exercise it entails, as well as the safety intrinsic to it being a mostly stationary device. By analyzing the results of a survey after experimenting upon a user test group, we can begin to correlate the benefits and the drawbacks of using virtual reality in physical exercise, and the feasibility of doing so.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

Analytics in Baseball: Retention of Sport Specific Analytic Information Based on Various Presentation Methods

Description

Analytics are being collected on a day to day basis on just about anything that you can think of. Sports is one of the recent fields that has started

Analytics are being collected on a day to day basis on just about anything that you can think of. Sports is one of the recent fields that has started implementing the tool into their game. Analytics can be described as an abundance of statistical information that show situational tendencies of other teams and players. It is hypothesized that analytics provide anticipatory information that allows athletes to know what is coming; therefore, allowing them to perform better in real game scenarios. However, it is unclear how this information should be presented to athletes and whether athletes can actually retain the abundance of information given to them. Two different types of presentation methods (Numeric and Numeric plus Graph) and two different amounts of analytic information (High and Low) were compared for baseball players in an online based baseball specific retention survey: High Numeric (excess information shown in spreadsheet format), Low Numeric (key information shown in spreadsheet format), High Numeric plus Graph (excess information shown as a spreadsheet with hitting zone maps), and Low Numeric plus Graph (key information shown as a spreadsheet with hitting zone maps). Athletes produced different retention scores for the type of presentation method given across the whole study. Athletes presented analytic as Numeric plus Graph performed better than athletes in just Numeric condition. Additionally, playing experience had a significant effect on an athlete’s ability to retain analytic information. Athletes with 10 plus years of baseball experience performed better in every condition other than High Numeric plus Graph compared to athletes with less than 10 years of experience. Amount and experience also had an interaction effect that produced statistical significance; those with less experience performed better in conditions with less baseball information given whereas those with more experience were able to handle more baseball information at once. Providing analytic information gives athletes, especially baseball batters, a significant advantage over their opponent; however, ability to retain analytic information depends on how the information is presented and to whom the information is being presented.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Information architecture in vehicle infotainment displays

Description

This study exmaines the effect of in-vehicle infotainment display depth on driving performance. More features are being built into infotainment displays, allowing drivers to complete a greater number of secondary

This study exmaines the effect of in-vehicle infotainment display depth on driving performance. More features are being built into infotainment displays, allowing drivers to complete a greater number of secondary tasks while driving. However, the complexity of completing these tasks can take attention away from the primary task of driving, which may present safety risks. Tasks become more time consuming as the items drivers wish to select are buried deeper in a menu’s structure. Therefore, this study aims to examine how deeper display structures impact driving performance compared to more shallow structures.

Procedure. Participants complete a lead car following task, where they follow a lead car and attempt to maintain a time headway (TH) of 2 seconds behind the lead car at all times, while avoiding any collisions. Participants experience five conditions where they are given tasks to complete with an in-vehicle infotainment system. There are five conditions, each involving one of five displays with different structures: one-layer vertical, one-layer horizontal, two-layer vertical, two-layer horizontal, and three-layer. Brake Reaction Time (BRT), Mean Time Headway (MTH), Time Headway Variability (THV), and Time to Task Completion (TTC) are measured for each of the five conditions.

Results. There is a significant difference in MTH, THV, and TTC for the three-layer condition. There is a significant difference in BRT for the two-layer horizontal condition. There is a significant difference between one- and two-layer displays for all variables, BRT, MTH, THV, and TTC. There is also a significant difference between one- and three-layer displays for TTC.

Conclusions. Deeper displays negatively impact driving performance and make tasks more time consuming to complete while driving. One-layer displays appear to be optimal, although they may not be practical for in-vehicle displays.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Advance cues in soccer penalty kicks

Description

The study at hand investigated the effects of guidance and type of occlusion on the prediction of shot direction during a soccer penalty kick. Seventy participants took an online survey

The study at hand investigated the effects of guidance and type of occlusion on the prediction of shot direction during a soccer penalty kick. Seventy participants took an online survey where they had to guess the direction of a penalty kick from the perspective of a goalkeeper. Half the participants were placed in a group where they had access to tips on what to look for, while the other group had no tips provided. Participants were shown videos in which the penalty shooter had their upper body covered or their lower body covered. Participants had 30 seconds to decide what side the ball was going to, right or left. Results showed that there is no significant between the two groups in terms of judgment accuracy. The group that received no guidance and had the kicker's lower body covered was the group with the highest average score, 50.44%. The findings may help future studies that focus on what material is taught to goalkeepers in a classroom setting and the role of occlusion during free kicks outside the 18-yard box.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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The Effect of an Educational Intervention on Affect and Trust of Autonomous Vehicles

Description

With the growth of autonomous vehicles’ prevalence, it is important to understand the relationship between autonomous vehicles and the other drivers around them. More specifically, how does one’s knowledge about

With the growth of autonomous vehicles’ prevalence, it is important to understand the relationship between autonomous vehicles and the other drivers around them. More specifically, how does one’s knowledge about autonomous vehicles (AV) affect positive and negative affect towards driving in their presence? Furthermore, how does trust of autonomous vehicles correlate with those emotions? These questions were addressed by conducting a survey to measure participant’s positive affect, negative affect, and trust when driving in the presence of autonomous vehicles. Participants’ were issued a pretest measuring existing knowledge of autonomous vehicles, followed by measures of affect and trust. After completing this pre-test portion of the study, participants were given information about how autonomous vehicles work, and were then presented with a posttest identical to the pretest. The educational intervention had no effect on positive or negative affect, though there was a positive relationship between positive affect and trust and a negative relationship between negative affect and trust. These findings will be used to inform future research endeavors researching trust and autonomous vehicles using a test bed developed at Arizona State University. This test bed allows for researchers to examine the behavior of multiple participants at the same time and include autonomous vehicles in studies.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Human-centric detection and mitigation approach for various levels of cell phone-based driver distractions

Description

Driving a vehicle is a complex task that typically requires several physical interactions and mental tasks. Inattentive driving takes a driver’s attention away from the primary task of driving, which

Driving a vehicle is a complex task that typically requires several physical interactions and mental tasks. Inattentive driving takes a driver’s attention away from the primary task of driving, which can endanger the safety of driver, passenger(s), as well as pedestrians. According to several traffic safety administration organizations, distracted and inattentive driving are the primary causes of vehicle crashes or near crashes. In this research, a novel approach to detect and mitigate various levels of driving distractions is proposed. This novel approach consists of two main phases: i.) Proposing a system to detect various levels of driver distractions (low, medium, and high) using a machine learning techniques. ii.) Mitigating the effects of driver distractions through the integration of the distracted driving detection algorithm and the existing vehicle safety systems. In phase- 1, vehicle data were collected from an advanced driving simulator and a visual based sensor (webcam) for face monitoring. In addition, data were processed using a machine learning algorithm and a head pose analysis package in MATLAB. Then the model was trained and validated to detect different human operator distraction levels. In phase 2, the detected level of distraction, time to collision (TTC), lane position (LP), and steering entropy (SE) were used as an input to feed the vehicle safety controller that provides an appropriate action to maintain and/or mitigate vehicle safety status. The integrated detection algorithm and vehicle safety controller were then prototyped using MATLAB/SIMULINK for validation. A complete vehicle power train model including the driver’s interaction was replicated, and the outcome from the detection algorithm was fed into the vehicle safety controller. The results show that the vehicle safety system controller reacted and mitigated the vehicle safety status-in closed loop real-time fashion. The simulation results show that the proposed approach is efficient, accurate, and adaptable to dynamic changes resulting from the driver, as well as the vehicle system. This novel approach was applied in order to mitigate the impact of visual and cognitive distractions on the driver performance.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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The impact of coordination quality on coordination dynamics and team performance: when humans team with autonomy

Description

This increasing role of highly automated and intelligent systems as team members has started a paradigm shift from human-human teaming to Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT). However, moving from human-human teaming to

This increasing role of highly automated and intelligent systems as team members has started a paradigm shift from human-human teaming to Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT). However, moving from human-human teaming to HAT is challenging. Teamwork requires skills that are often missing in robots and synthetic agents. It is possible that adding a synthetic agent as a team member may lead teams to demonstrate different coordination patterns resulting in differences in team cognition and ultimately team effectiveness. The theory of Interactive Team Cognition (ITC) emphasizes the importance of team interaction behaviors over the collection of individual knowledge. In this dissertation, Nonlinear Dynamical Methods (NDMs) were applied to capture characteristics of overall team coordination and communication behaviors. The findings supported the hypothesis that coordination stability is related to team performance in a nonlinear manner with optimal performance associated with moderate stability coupled with flexibility. Thus, we need to build mechanisms in HATs to demonstrate moderately stable and flexible coordination behavior to achieve team-level goals under routine and novel task conditions.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017