Matching Items (11)

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Staying Connected on the Road: A Comparison of Different Types of Smart Phone Use in a Driving Simulator

Description

Previous research on smart phone use while driving has primarily focused on phone calls and texting. Drivers are now increasingly using their phone for other activities during driving, in particular

Previous research on smart phone use while driving has primarily focused on phone calls and texting. Drivers are now increasingly using their phone for other activities during driving, in particular social media, which have different cognitive demands. The present study compared the effects of four different smart phone tasks on car-following performance in a driving simulator. Phone tasks were chosen that vary across two factors: interaction medium (text vs image) and task pacing (self-paced vs experimenter-paced) and were as follows: Text messaging with the experimenter (text/other-paced), reading Facebook posts (text/self-paced), exchanging photos with the experimenter via Snapchat (image, experimenter -paced), and viewing updates on Instagram (image, experimenter -paced). Drivers also performed a driving only baseline. Brake reaction times (BRTs) were significantly greater in the text-based conditions (Mean = 1.16 s) as compared to both the image-based conditions (Mean = 0.92 s) and the baseline (0.88 s). There was no significant difference between BRTs in the image-based and baseline conditions and there was no significant effect of task-pacing. Similar results were obtained for Time Headway variability. These results are consistent with the picture superiority effect found in memory research and suggest that image-based interfaces could provide safer ways to “stay connected” while driving than text-based interfaces.

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Date Created
  • 2016-02-17

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I Can’t Stand Thinking Anymore: An Analysis of Directed Attention on Posture

Description

Maintaining upright balance and postural control is a task that most individuals perform everyday with ease and without much thought. Although it may be a relatively easy task to

Maintaining upright balance and postural control is a task that most individuals perform everyday with ease and without much thought. Although it may be a relatively easy task to perform, research has shown that changes in cognitive (or “attentional”) processes are reflected in the movements of sway. The purpose of this dissertation is to understand the relationship between attention and posture when attention is directly or indirectly shifted away from posture. Using a dual-task paradigm, attention was shifted directly by instructing participants to prioritize the balance task (minimize sway in a unipedal stance) or prioritize the cognitive task (minimize errors in an auditory n-back task) and indirectly by changing the difficulty level of the cognitive task (0-back vs. 2-back task). Postural sway was assessed using sample entropy (SampEn), standard deviation, (SD) and sway path (SP) of trunk movements to measure the regularity, variability, and overall distance of sway travelled, respectively. Dual-task behavior was examined when participants were in a controlled (i.e., non-fatigued) state (Experiment 1), in a state of physical fatigue (Experiment 2), and in a state of mental fatigue (Experiment 3). Across all three experiments, indirectly shifting attention away from posture in the more difficult 2-back task induced less regularity (higher SampEn) and variability (smaller SD) in postural sway. Directly shifting attention away from posture, by prioritizing the cognitive task, induced less regularity (higher SampEn) and a longer path length (higher SP) in Experiment 1, however this effect was not significant for the fatigued participants in Experiments 2 and 3. Neither physical fatigue (Experiment 2) or mental fatigue (Experiment 3) negatively affected postural sway or cognitive performance. Overall, the findings from this dissertation contribute to the relationship between movement regularity and attention in posture, and that the postural behavior that emerges is sensitive to methods in which attention is manipulated (direct, indirect) and fatigue (physical, mental).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Synchrony: biometric indication of team cognition

Description

The goal of this experiment is to observe the relation between synchrony and performance in 3-person teams in a simulated Army medic training environment (i.e., Monitoring Extracting and Decoding Indicators

The goal of this experiment is to observe the relation between synchrony and performance in 3-person teams in a simulated Army medic training environment (i.e., Monitoring Extracting and Decoding Indicators of Cognitive workload: MEDIC). The cardiac measure Interbeat-Interval (IBI) was monitored during a physically oriented, and a cognitively oriented task. IBI was measured using NIRS (Near-Infrared Spectrology), and performance was measured using a team task score during a balance board and puzzle task. Synchrony has not previously been monitored across completely different tasks in the same experiment. I hypothesize that teams with high synchrony will show high performance on both tasks. Although no significant results were discovered by the correlational analysis, a trend was revealed that suggests there is a positive relationship between synchrony and performance. This study has contributed to the literature by monitoring physiological measures in a simulated team training environment, making suggestions for future research.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Color and brand personality traits: measuring associations using pathfinder associative networks

Description

Color as a communication medium plays an important role in conveying meaning. It has been identified as a major element in marketing and advertising, and has shown to influence

Color as a communication medium plays an important role in conveying meaning. It has been identified as a major element in marketing and advertising, and has shown to influence consumer's emotions (Labrecque & Milne, 2012). Despite the large volume of color-centered research, the literature on the subject remains largely abstract and unreliable. Academic research on the impact of color on brand personality it is still in its early stages of investigation, and therefore fragmented and inadequate. The goal of this study is to identify and visually represent patterns of association between colors and specific brand personality traits. We hypothesized that such patterns exist, although the exact associations are difficult to predict. If such patterns are found, they can assist in creating a valuable design tool with wide range of applications in product design, manufacturing, and marketing.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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The Influence of Gender, Race and Intersectionality on Stress in Division I Head Basketball Coaches

Description

Research in intercollegiate athletics has provided a relatively large body of findings about the kinds of stressors found in high profile intercollegiate athletic environments and their effects on student-athletes. Research

Research in intercollegiate athletics has provided a relatively large body of findings about the kinds of stressors found in high profile intercollegiate athletic environments and their effects on student-athletes. Research is less robust regarding stress and its effects on head coaches in high profile collegiate athletics. This study focuses on the types, frequencies, and intensities of stress experienced by NCAA, Division I head coaches. The purpose of the study is to identify the types, frequency, and intensity of stress common to 20 head basketball coaches participating in the study, as well as differences in their experiences based on gender, race and the intersectionality of race and gender. The participants in the study are 20 head coaches (five Black females, five Black males, five White females, and White males). The conceptual framework guiding the study is a definition of stress as an interaction between a person and her or his environment in which the person perceives the resources available to manage the situation to be inadequate (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). The study’s design is an adaptation of prior research conducted by Frey, M., 2007 and Olusoga, P., Butt, J., Hays, K., & Maynard, I., 2009, and Olusoga, P., Butt, J., Maynard, I., & Hays, K., 2011. This study used qualitative and quantitative methods that triangulated results scores on Maslach’s Burn-out Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale with the thick data collected from semi-structured interviews with the 20 head coaches from each of the three data sources to enhance the validity and reliability of the findings. The researcher analyzed the data collected by placing it in one of two categories, one representing attributes of the participants including race and gender; the second category was comprised of attributes of the Division I environment.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Validating the STOM Model Using MATB II and Eye-tracking

Description

The choices of an operator under heavy cognitive load are potentially critical to overall safety and performance. Such conditions are common when technological failures arise, and the operator is forced

The choices of an operator under heavy cognitive load are potentially critical to overall safety and performance. Such conditions are common when technological failures arise, and the operator is forced into multi-task situations. Task switching choice was examined in an effort to both validate previous work concerning a model of task overload management and address unresolved matters related to visual sampling. Using the Multi-Attribute Task Battery and eye tracking, the experiment studied any influence of task priority and difficulty. Continuous visual attention measurements captured attentional switches that do not manifest into behaviors but may provide insight into task switching choice. Difficulty was found to have an influence on task switching behavior; however, priority was not. Instead, priority may affect time spent on a task rather than strictly choice. Eye measures revealed some moderate connections between time spent dwelling on a task and subjective interest. The implication of this, as well as eye tracking used to validate a model of task overload management as a whole, is discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Task relatedness and spatial distance of information: considerations for medical head mounted displays

Description

The medical field is constantly looking for technological solutions to reduce user-error and improve procedures. As a potential solution for healthcare environments, Augmented Reality (AR) has received increasing attention in

The medical field is constantly looking for technological solutions to reduce user-error and improve procedures. As a potential solution for healthcare environments, Augmented Reality (AR) has received increasing attention in the past few decades due to advances in computing capabilities, lower cost, and better displays (Sauer, Khamene, Bascle, Vogt, & Rubino, 2002). Augmented Reality, as defined in Ronald Azuma’s initial survey of AR, combines virtual and real-world environments in three dimensions and in real-time (Azuma, 1997). Because visualization displays used in AR are related to human physiologic and cognitive constraints, any new system must improve on previous methods and be consistently aligned with human abilities in mind (Drascic & Milgram, 1996; Kruijff, Swan, & Feiner, 2010; Ziv, Wolpe, Small, & Glick, 2006). Based on promising findings from aviation and driving (Liu & Wen, 2004; Sojourner & Antin, 1990; Ververs & Wickens, 1998), this study identifies whether the spatial proximity affordance provided by a head-mounted display or alternative heads up display might benefit to attentional performance in a simulated routine medical task. Additionally, the present study explores how tasks of varying relatedness may relate to attentional performance differences when these tasks are presented at different spatial distances.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Communicating intent in autonomous vehicles

Description

The prospects of commercially available autonomous vehicles are surely tantalizing, however the implementation of these vehicles and their strain on the social dynamics between motorists and pedestrians remains unknown. Questions

The prospects of commercially available autonomous vehicles are surely tantalizing, however the implementation of these vehicles and their strain on the social dynamics between motorists and pedestrians remains unknown. Questions concerning how autonomous vehicles will communicate safety and intent to pedestrians remain largely unanswered. This study examines the efficacy of various proposed technologies for bridging the communication gap between self-driving cars and pedestrians. Displays utilizing words like “safe” and “danger” seem to be effective in communicating with pedestrians and other road users. Future research should attempt to study different external notification interfaces in real-life settings to more accurately gauge pedestrian responses.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Relative phase dynamics in motor-respiratory coordination

Description

Motor-respiratory coordination is the synchronization of movement and breathing during exercise. The relation between movement and breathing can be described using relative phase, a measure of the location in the

Motor-respiratory coordination is the synchronization of movement and breathing during exercise. The relation between movement and breathing can be described using relative phase, a measure of the location in the movement cycle relative to the location in the breathing cycle. Stability in that relative phase relation has been identified as important for aerobic efficiency. However, performance can be overly attracted to stable relative phases, preventing the performance or learning of more complex patterns. Little research exists on relative phase dynamics in motor-respiratory coordination, although those observations underscore the importance of learning more. In contrast, there is an extensive literature on relative phase dynamics in interlimb coordination. The accuracy and stability of different relative phases, transitions between patterns, and asymmetries between components are well understood. Theoretically, motor-respiratory and interlimb coordination may share dynamical properties that operate in their different physiological substrates. An existing model of relative phase dynamics in interlimb coordination, the Haken, Kelso, Bunz model, was used to gain an understanding of relative phase dynamics in the less-researched motor-respiratory coordination. Experiments 1 and 2 were designed to examine the interaction of frequency asymmetries between movement and breathing with relative phase and frequency, respectively. In Experiment 3, relative phase stability and transitions in motor-respiratory coordination were explored. Perceptual constraints on differences in stability were investigated in Experiment 4. Across experiments, contributions relevant to questions of coordinative variability were made using a dynamical method called cross recurrence quantification analysis. Results showed much consistency with predictions from an asymmetric extension of the Haken, Kelso, Bunz model and theoretical interpretation in the interlimb coordination literature, including phase wandering, intermittency, and an interdependence of perception and action. There were, however, notable exceptions that indicated stability can decrease with more natural frequency asymmetries and the connection of cross recurrence measures to categories of variability needs further clarification. The complex relative phase dynamics displayed in this study suggest that movement and breathing are softly-assembled by functional constraints and indicate that motor-respiratory coordination is a self-organized system.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010

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The perceptual motor-effects of the Ebbinghaus illusion on golf putting

Description

Previous research has shown that perceptual illusions can enhance golf putting performance, and the effect has been explained as being due to enhanced expectancies. The present study was designed to

Previous research has shown that perceptual illusions can enhance golf putting performance, and the effect has been explained as being due to enhanced expectancies. The present study was designed to further understand this effect by measuring putting in 3 additional variations to the Ebbinghaus illusion and by measuring putting kinematics. Nineteen ASU students with minimal golf experience putted to the following illusion conditions: a target, a target surrounded by small circles, a target surrounded by large circles, a target surrounded by both large and small circles, no target surrounded by small circles and no target surrounded by large circles. Neither perceived target size nor putting error was significantly affected by the illusion conditions. Time to peak speed was found to be significantly greater for the two conditions with no target, and lowest for the condition with the target by itself. Suggestions for future research include having split groups with and without perceived performance feedback as well as general performance feedback. The size conditions utilized within this study should continue to be explored as more consistent data could be collected within groups.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019