Matching Items (27)

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Obesity and the Use of Brown Adipose Tissue as a Tool for Fat Loss in Obese Humans

Description

Obesity is now an epidemic in the United States and scientists must work to approach it from a unique angle. The focus of my thesis is the application of brown

Obesity is now an epidemic in the United States and scientists must work to approach it from a unique angle. The focus of my thesis is the application of brown adipose tissue as a combatant for fat loss in the body. Unused as adults, brown adipose tissue increases metabolism and mitochondrial function to burn more fat in individuals that cannot lose weight conventionally. Current research works to introduce safe hormonal pathways in the sympathetic nervous system to generate more of this tissue.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Validation Study of a Laser as a New Tool for Height Measurement

Description

Height is an essential measure for the evaluation of an adult's health, and especially important for the measure of children's health.4 Lasers have been popularly used in many areas such

Height is an essential measure for the evaluation of an adult's health, and especially important for the measure of children's health.4 Lasers have been popularly used in many areas such as construction, engineering, government for defense purposes, and for equestrians. Lasers are depended on for their accuracy, reliability, and ease of use.8, 9 It can be reasoned then that lasers should be a reliable way of measuring height, proving to be accurate and easy to use. Currently, stadiometers are the standard way of measuring height. For the study a laser tool was created to measure the volunteers' heights. Volunteers were recruited from a total of four various public sites in different cities. Participants were categorized into three groups, children (ages 2-12), adolescents (13-18), and adults (19+). A total of 128 participants were measured. Results showed a strong positive correlation between measurements of the stadiometer and the laser (figure 3). While there were limitations to this study, results show that a laser may be a validated tool to measure height accurately

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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All About The Beets - Cookbook

Description

Beets have a history of bad reputation for not having the most appetizing qualities compared to other vegetables. Despite the nutritional and health benefits of Beta vulgaris rubra (commonly red

Beets have a history of bad reputation for not having the most appetizing qualities compared to other vegetables. Despite the nutritional and health benefits of Beta vulgaris rubra (commonly red beetroot or red beets) the potential of this vegetable has yet to be glorified as compared to i.e. Brassica oleracea var. sabellica (kale), or Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa). When considering this root vegetable as a vehicle for providing your body with a source of dietary nitrate, Beta vulgaris rubra can be classified as a functional food. This work dives deeper into the function of Nitric Oxide (NO) within the human body, and explains the potential benefits of consuming red beets. Followed is a proposal for a cookbook focused on dishes containing this vegetable, as well as a sample of recipes varying from breakfast to dinner to dessert. The amount of nitrate provided by each serving of any of the dishes has not been established, and it is rather a creative attempt to shine positive light on this functional food.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Perceived Ratio of Vegetable to Fruit in Juice Diets: A Case Study of the Online Juicing Population

Description

The purpose of this study was to determine the ratio of vegetable to fruit incorporated during a fresh vegetable and/or fruit juice diet. Juicing is the process of extracting the

The purpose of this study was to determine the ratio of vegetable to fruit incorporated during a fresh vegetable and/or fruit juice diet. Juicing is the process of extracting the liquid part of a plant, fruit, or vegetable. Food can be ground, pressed, and spun to separate the liquid from the pulp. A juice diet involves juicing and consuming a variety of vegetables and fruits. The primary objective of this study was to gather information about the ratio of vegetable to fruit incorporated in freshly made juices during a juice diet. Therefore, the study survey inquired about various topics related to ingredient ratio during a juice diet. The survey data allowed for examination of the relationships between ingredient ratio and certain variables (e.g. gender, age, length of time juicing, juice fast participation, health effects, etc.). The study participants were recruited using online social media. Facebook was the primary method for reaching the online juicing community. A written invitation was distributed in several health related Facebook groups encouraging any person with experience juicing to complete an anonymous survey. This post was also shared via Twitter and various health related websites. The study survey data was used to examine the relationships between ingredient ratio and specific variables. The survey data showed participants had varying levels of experience with juicing. The responses indicated many participants were familiar with juice fasting and many participants completed more than one juice fast. Based on the survey response data, the most common ratio of vegetable to fruit incorporated by the participants during a juice diet was 80% vegetable to 20% fruit. The majority of participants indicated daily consumption of freshly made juice containing 70% -100% vegetables. Based on the survey response data, beginner juicers may be less inclined to incorporate organic produce into their juice diet compared to advanced juicers. The majority of participants reported positive health benefits during a juice diet. Some of the positive health benefits indicated by participants include weight loss, increased energy, and a positive impact on disease symptoms. Some of the negative side effects experienced by participants during a juice diet include frequent urination, headache, and cravings. Cross tabulation calculations between the ratio of ingredients and several variables covered by the study survey demonstrated statistical significance (i.e. length of time juicing, frequency of drinking juice, juice fast participation, number of juice fasts completed, servings of vegetables/fruit in a juice, percent of organic vegetables/fruit used in a juice, perceived positive side effects, and perceived negative side effects). This study provided insight about the average ratio of vegetable to fruit incorporated by participants during a juice diet. When analyzing the data it is important to consider the survey data was self-reported. Therefore, every result and conclusion is based on the individual perceptions of the study participants. In future experimentation, the use of medical tests and blood work would be useful to determine the biological and biochemical effects of drinking raw vegetable and/or fruit juice on the human body.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Examining the Utility of a Laser Device for Measuring Height in Free-Living Adults and Children

Description

Background: Height is an important health assessment measure with many applications. In the medical practice and in research settings, height is typically measured with a stadiometer. Although lasers are commonly

Background: Height is an important health assessment measure with many applications. In the medical practice and in research settings, height is typically measured with a stadiometer. Although lasers are commonly used by health professionals for measurement including facial imaging, corneal thickness, and limb length, it has not been utilized for measuring height. The purpose of this feasibility study was to examine the ease and accuracy of a laser device for measuring height in children and adults.

Findings: In immediate succession, participant height was measured in triplicate using a stadiometer followed by the laser device. Measurement error for the laser device was significantly higher than that for the stadiometer (0.35 and 0.20 cm respectively). However, the measurement techniques were highly correlated (r2 = 0.998 and 0.990 for the younger [<12 y, n = 25] and older [≥12 y, n = 100] participants respectively), and the estimated reliability between measurement techniques was 0.999 (ICC; 95 % CI: 0.998,1.000) and 0.995 (ICC; 95 % CI: 0.993,0.997) for the younger and older groups respectively. The average differences between the two styles of measurement (e.g., stadiometer minus laser) were significantly different from zero: +0.93 and +0.45 cm for the younger and older groups respectively.

Conclusions: These data demonstrate that laser technology can be adapted to measure height in children and adults. Although refinement is needed, the laser device for measuring height merits further development.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-08-31

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Transforming Downtown Phoenix into a Blue Zone

Description

Almost from the beginning of time, humankind has searched for the secret to longevity. Early on in ancient Greece, many mythologies centered around that of Ambrosia, a holy ‘nectar’ through

Almost from the beginning of time, humankind has searched for the secret to longevity. Early on in ancient Greece, many mythologies centered around that of Ambrosia, a holy ‘nectar’ through which gods gained their immortality (Maaz, 2006). As mentioned in the Iliad and the Odyssey, it was believed this honey-like nectar could heal wounds, resurrect the dead and provide immortality. One of China’s earliest emperor’s, Qin Shi Haug of the Qin Dynasty, ordered a nationwide search for a potion of eternal life (“How China's first emperor,” 2017). Qin commissioned a number of alchemists to create a sort of mixture from substances such as cinnabar, jade, and hematite, as these were believed to increase longevity in the person who consumed them (“How China's first emperor,” 2017). In India, the elixir of life has many names, and Indian alchemists spent a great deal of time experimenting with mercury and other minerals in hopes to find the key to immortality (Rastogi et al., 2015). While there have been great advances throughout history to increasing longevity – worldwide life expectancy is at an all-time high – we have yet to find the elixir of life (World Health Organization, 2016). Attempts on finding the secret to a longer life can be seen throughout the rest of history in modern medicine, antibiotics, vaccines, new fad diets, and studies on happiness and purpose. One of the most recent and promising studies on increasing lifespan is the study of Blue Zones.
Blue Zones are geographic clusters that are known as longevity regions (Huang & Jacquez, 2017). These regions are seen to have a larger number and distribution of centenarians among their populations compared to the rest of the world. There are currently five Blue Zones across the globe: Ikaria, Greece, Loma Linda, California, Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica, Okinawa, Japan, and Sardinia, Italy. Blue Zones have become a catalyst for researchers to unlock the secret to longevity. The most well-known and extensive Blue Zone research, led by Dan Buettner and his National Geographic team, discovered that all of the Blue Zones have nine common factors (Buettner, 2012). These factors have been developed into pillars that Buettner believes are the key to a longer, healthier and happier life. The nine pillars are: 80% rule, plant slant, wine at 5, move naturally, down shift, purpose, belong, right tribe, and loved ones first. It is proposed that by incorporating these pillars into one’s life, the likelihood of living to be a centenarian increases exponentially.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Almond consumption and weight loss in obese and overweight adults

Description

Nut consumption, specifically almonds, have been shown to help maintain weight and influence disease risk factors in adult populations. Limited studies have been conducted examining the effect of a small

Nut consumption, specifically almonds, have been shown to help maintain weight and influence disease risk factors in adult populations. Limited studies have been conducted examining the effect of a small dose of almonds on energy intake and body weight. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of pre-meal almond consumption on energy intake and weight in overweight and obese adults. In this study included 21, overweight or obese, participants who were considered healthy or had a controlled disease state. This 8-week parallel arm study, participants were randomized to consume an isocaloric amount of almonds, (1 oz) serving, or two (2 oz) cheese stick serving, 30 minutes before the dinner meal, 5 times per week. Anthropometric measurements including weight, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were recorded at baseline, week 1, 4, and 8. Measurement of energy intake was self-reported for two consecutive days at week 1, 4 and 8 using the ASA24 automated dietary program. The energy intake after 8 weeks of almond consumption was not significantly different when compared to the control group (p=0.965). In addition, body weight was not significantly reduced after 8 weeks of the almond intervention (p=0.562). Other parameters measured in this 8-week trial did not differ between the intervention and the control group. These data presented are underpowered and therefore inconclusive on the effects that 1 oz of almonds, in the diet, 5 per week has on energy intake and bodyweight.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Selenium supplementation and cardiovascular outcome markers in hemodialysis patients: a randomized, controlled trial

Description

Background Hemodialysis (HD) patients elicit an oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in addition to a selenium deficiency, possibly contributing to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Objective To evaluate the effect of selenium supplementation on

Background Hemodialysis (HD) patients elicit an oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in addition to a selenium deficiency, possibly contributing to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Objective To evaluate the effect of selenium supplementation on CVD outcomes and antioxidant status in HD patients. Design A randomized controlled intervention trial conducted from October 2012 to January 2013. Participants/setting The study included 27 maintenance HD patients (61.1+17.5y, 14M, 13F) receiving HD in the greater Phoenix, AZ area. Intervention Patients received one of three treatments daily: 2 Brazil nuts, (5g, 181µg/day of selenium as selenomethionine [predicted]), 1 tablet of selenium (200µg/day of selenium as selenomethionine), or control (3 gummy bears). Main outcome measures Antioxidant status outcome measures included total antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, and RBC and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). CVD outcomes measures included brain natriuretic peptide; plasma cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides; blood pressure, and thoracic cavity fluid accumulation. Statistical analyses performed Repeated measures ANOVA analyzed changes over time and between groups at months 0 and 2 and months 0 and 3. Results Independent analysis showed the Brazil nuts provided 11µg of selenium/day and the pill provided 266µg of selenium/day. Consequently, the Brazil nut group was combined with the placebo group. 21 patients completed 2 months of the study and 17 patients completed the study in its entirety. Data was analyzed for months 0, 1 and 2. No significant differences were noted for antioxidant status outcome measures with the exception of plasma GSH-Px. Patients receiving the selenium pill had a significant increase in plasma GSH-Px compared to the placebo group (6.0+11 and -4.0+7.6, respectively, p=0.023 for change between month 0 and month 2). No significant differences were seen in total antioxidant capacity or for CVD outcome measures over time or between groups. Conclusions These data indicate that selenium supplementation increased plasma GSH-Px concentration in HD patients; however, oxidative stress was not altered by selenium supplementation. The low vitamin C status of HD patients warrants further research, specifically in conjunction with selenium supplementation.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Evaluation of nutritional quality through a counselor administered weight loss program utilizing a smart phone app

Description

ABSTRACT This study evaluated the LoseIt Smart Phone app by Fit Now Inc. for nutritional quality among users during an 8 week behavioral modification weight loss protocol. All participants owned

ABSTRACT This study evaluated the LoseIt Smart Phone app by Fit Now Inc. for nutritional quality among users during an 8 week behavioral modification weight loss protocol. All participants owned smart phones and were cluster randomized to either a control group using paper and pencil record keeping, a memo group using a memo function on their smart phones, or the LoseIt app group which was composed of the participants who owned iPhones. Thirty one participants completed the study protocol: 10 participants from the LoseIt app group, 10 participants from the memo group, and 11 participants from the paper and pencil group. Food records were analyzed using Food Processor by ESHA and the nutritional quality was scored using the Healthy Eating Index - 2005 (HEI-2005). Scores were compared using One-Way ANOVA with no significant changes in any category across all groups. Non-parametric statistics were then used to determine changes between combined memo and paper and pencil groups and the LoseIt app group as the memo and paper and pencil group received live counseling at biweekly intervals and the LoseIt group did not. No significant difference was found in HEI scores across all categories, however a trend was noted for total HEI score with higher scores among the memo and paper and pencil group participants p=0.091. Conclusion, no significant difference was detected between users of the smart phone app LoseIt and memo and paper and pencil groups. More research is needed to determine the impact of in-person counseling versus user feedback provided with the LoseIt smart phone app.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Developing the optimal vinaigrette dressing for managing blood glucose concentrations

Description

Background: Acetic acid in vinegar has demonstrated antiglycemic effects in previous studies; however, the mechanism is unknown.

Objective: To determine whether acetic acid dissociates in the addition of sodium chloride

Background: Acetic acid in vinegar has demonstrated antiglycemic effects in previous studies; however, the mechanism is unknown.

Objective: To determine whether acetic acid dissociates in the addition of sodium chloride and describe a flavorful vinaigrette that maintains the functional properties of acetic acid.

Design: Phase I - Ten healthy subjects (23-40 years) taste tested five homemade vinaigrette and five commercial dressings. Perceived saltiness, sweetness, tartness, and overall tasted were scored using a modified labeled affective magnitude scale. Each dressing was tested three times for pH with a calibrated meter. Phase II – Randomized crossover trial testing six dressings against a control dressing two groups of nine healthy adult subjects (18-52 years). Height, weight and calculated body mass index (BMI) were performed at baseline. Subjects participated in four test sessions each, at least seven days apart. After a 10-hour fast, participants consumed 38g of the test drink, followed by a bagel meal. Capillary blood glucose was obtained at fasting, and every 30 minutes over a 2-hour period the test meal.

Results: Dressing pH reduced as sodium content increased. In the intervention trials, no significant differences were observed between groups (p >0.05). The greatest reduction in postprandial glycemia (~21%) was observed in the dressing containing 200 mg of sodium. Effect size was large in both group 1 (η2=0.161) and group 2 (η2=0.577).

Conclusion: The inclusion of sodium into acetic acid may impair its ability to attenuate blood glucose after a meal.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017