Matching Items (54)

Impact of Vascular Brachytherapy on Patient Reported Outcomes in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Description

Background: Vascular brachytherapy (VBT) is an established treatment for the management of in-stent restenosis (ISR). However, whether VBT is associated with improved patient-reported outcomes is unknown and not been previously studied.

Methods: The authors evaluated 51 consecutive patients, age 18

Background: Vascular brachytherapy (VBT) is an established treatment for the management of in-stent restenosis (ISR). However, whether VBT is associated with improved patient-reported outcomes is unknown and not been previously studied.

Methods: The authors evaluated 51 consecutive patients, age 18 years and older undergoing VBT in one or more coronary arteries from January 2018 to September 2019. Data on baseline characteristics, procedural outcomes, and occurrence of adverse events were obtained. All patients completed the Seattle Angina Questionnaire – 7 (SAQ-7) form before and after the intervention at 1 month and 6 months.

Results: The mean age was 69 ± 9 years and 29 (57%) of patients were males. Most patients had hypertension (n = 44, 86%) and diabetes (n = 29, 57%). The use of aspirin was 90% while 96% of patients were on P2Y12 inhibitors. 48 (94%) patients were on antianginal therapy. The procedural success was 94.1%. The mean summary SAQ-7 score improved significantly (53.2 ± 21 vs. 83 ± 19, p<0.001) at 30-days. The median Quality of Life (QoL) component of the SAQ-7 score at baseline was 31.3 (Interquartile Range [IQR]: 18.8, 62.5) and improved to 82.5 (IQR: 62.5, 100), p<0.001 at 30 days and 87.5 [IQR: 75, 100), p<0.001 at last follow up. Likewise, the median angina frequency component of the SQL-7 score pre-VBT was 55 (IQR: 45, 80) and improved significantly to 90 (IQR: 60, 100) at 30-days, p<0.001 and 100 [IQR: 68.8, 100], p=0.02 at last follow up. Lastly, the median activity component of the SAQ-7 score improved from 83.3 (IQR: 60 – 100) to 100 (IQR: 83, 100), p = 0.01 at 30-days.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated improvement in patient-reported outcome measures following vascular brachytherapy that are evident as early as 1 month after the intervention and sustained at a median follow up of 17 months.

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2020-05

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Motivation, Performance, and Gender in General Chemistry

Description

Understanding the relationships between chemistry students' motivation, performance, and gender can help identify and inform ways in which chemistry education might be improved. Students from four CHM 101 classes with two different instructors were surveyed using an adapted Science Motivation

Understanding the relationships between chemistry students' motivation, performance, and gender can help identify and inform ways in which chemistry education might be improved. Students from four CHM 101 classes with two different instructors were surveyed using an adapted Science Motivation Questionnaire II, and motivation data was analyzed with respect to final course performance. Gender data was available for two of these classes, and motivation results analyzed by gender for these classes. Exam scores and gender data was obtained from one of the instructors for CHM 101 courses taught over the past five years and were also analyzed. The motivational study involved small sample sizes, especially in the motivation by gender study. Career motivation, grade motivation, self-efficacy, and total motivation declined over the course of the semester in the four classes combined. Self-efficacy and career motivation were found to predict final course performance only at the end of the semester. Self-efficacy strongly predicted performance, and career motivation was negatively correlated with performance. Female students had higher grade motivation at the end of the semester and lost more self-efficacy over the course of the semester than male students. Gender-performance analysis showed that male students scored slightly higher on exams on average, but that female students received a higher percentage of "A"s and a lower percentage of "D"s, "E"s, and "W"s in the majority of the semesters.

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2015-05

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Aptamer-functionalized Hydrogel for the Capture and Release of CCRF-CEM Leukemia Cancer Cells

Description

The main objective of this project is to create a hydrogel based material system to capture and release CCRF-CEM Leukemia cancer cells via chemo-mechanical modulation. This system is composed of an aptamer-functionalized hydrogel thin film at the bottom of a

The main objective of this project is to create a hydrogel based material system to capture and release CCRF-CEM Leukemia cancer cells via chemo-mechanical modulation. This system is composed of an aptamer-functionalized hydrogel thin film at the bottom of a microfluidic channel, which changes its film thickness as the temperature of the fluid in the system changes. The functionalized hydrogel film has been created as the primary steps to creating the microfluidic device that could capture and release leukemia cells by turning the temperature of the fluid and length of exposure. Circulating tumor cells have recently become a highly studied area since they have become associated with the likelihood of patient survival. Further, circulating tumor cells can be used to determine changes in the genome of the cancer leading to targeted treatment. First, the aptamers were attached onto the hydrogel through an EDC/NHS reaction. The aptamers were verified to be attached onto the hydrogel through FTIR spectroscopy. The cell capture experiments were completed by exposing the hydrogel to a solution of leukemia cells for 10 minutes at room temperature. The cell release experiments were completed by exposing the hydrogel to a 40°C solution. Several capture and release experiments were completed to measure how many cells could be captured, how quickly, and how many cells captured were released. The aptamers were chemically attached to the hydrogel. 300 cells per square millimeter could be captured at a time in a 10 minute time period and released in a 5 minute period. Of the cells captured, 96% of them were alive once caught. 99% of cells caught were released once exposed to elevated temperature. The project opens the possibility to quickly and efficiently capture and release tumor cells using only changes in temperature. Further, most of the cells that were captured were alive and nearly all of those were released leading to high survival and capture efficiency.

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2016-12

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The Effect of ZnS and Other Metal Sulfides on cis-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane at Hydrothermal Conditions

Description

Reactions between minerals and organic compounds in hydrothermal systems (high temperature and presence of H2O) are critical in the Earth’s deep carbon cycle and may have implications in the origins of life. Previous work demonstrated that in the absence

Reactions between minerals and organic compounds in hydrothermal systems (high temperature and presence of H2O) are critical in the Earth’s deep carbon cycle and may have implications in the origins of life. Previous work demonstrated that in the absence of a mineral, hydrothermal reaction of cis- and trans-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane is extremely slow and resulted in the formation of many products. However, in the presence of sphalerite (ZnS), the reaction rate is significantly increased and it results in the formation of one main product, the corresponding stereoisomer. Following similar methods, we demonstrated that the sphalerite used in the reaction of cis-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane to the trans- stereoisomer visually changes structure via SEM. Additionally, we ran the experiments in sealed glass tubes, which unlike previously used gold tubes, do not react with the organics and provides more volume for larger amounts of mineral to be used. Finally, we investigated the role of other metal sulfides (FeS and PbS) in organic transformation reactions and analyzed their resulting physical structure. We found the role of FeS catalysis to be ambiguous and that PbS seemed to have no effect in the transformation reactions. We also found the glass tube data using ZnS to track previously published data with the same reactions in gold tubes. Our reactions were run without pressurizing the reaction vessels and at 300°C indicating pressure is not main factor in product formation (compare 1000 bar and 300°C).

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2016-05

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Correlational Analysis of Intelligence Mindset, Motivation Backgrounds, and Significance of Gender Identity

Description

The goal of this investigation was to perform a correlational analysis of the intelligence mindsets, motivational background, and significance of gender identity as factors driving student success. 42 students enrolled in Computer Science and Engineering (CSE) 110: Principles of Programming

The goal of this investigation was to perform a correlational analysis of the intelligence mindsets, motivational background, and significance of gender identity as factors driving student success. 42 students enrolled in Computer Science and Engineering (CSE) 110: Principles of Programming with Java completed a modified Scientific Measurement Questionnaire (SMQ), a survey instrument designed to study the previously mentioned factors. This survey was modeled on a similar survey administered by Dr. Ian Gould to students enrolled in his Organic Chemistry course at Arizona State University. Following the development of a scoring system to generate quantifiable data, it was determined that students in this course displayed a greater inclination towards beliefs in malleable intelligence and in an intrinsic locus of control as opposed to a belief in static intelligence and an external locus of control. Students exhibited a multi-faceted approach in responding to the questions in the motivational background section, indicating that there were no distinctively dominating factors driving student motivation. Instead, it was observed that students generally derived motivation from these factors in a synergistic fashion. Responses to questions regarding gender indicated that while students believed that the way they were perceived by others was significantly influenced by their gender, the notion of gender identity played little to no role in their overall personal identity and self-schema. As the study was designed to offer insight into the role of gender identity and the population discrepancies within the course, it is important to note that the findings suggest gender identity is not a primary factor of concern with regard to student performance. While the data acquired suggested potential trends in student mindsets, a notable limitation of the scope of the project was the undersized sample population.

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2016-05

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Photophysical Studies of the DNA Microenvironment and Small Molecule-DNA Interactions

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Photophysical Studies of the DNA Microenvironment and Small Molecule-DNA Interactions
The photophysical properties of ethidium in a variety of organic solvents, as well as several dsDNAs, were measured. We report that the fluorescence quantum yield of intercalated ethidium is

Photophysical Studies of the DNA Microenvironment and Small Molecule-DNA Interactions
The photophysical properties of ethidium in a variety of organic solvents, as well as several dsDNAs, were measured. We report that the fluorescence quantum yield of intercalated ethidium is .30(.03), which falls between previous stated measurements of .14 and .60. We believe this to be the most accurately measured fluorescence quantum yield to date, as verified by Strickler-Berg analyses, which exhibit excellent agreement with experimental fluorescence lifetimes. A marked hypochromism upon binding to DNA is noted due to interactions of the dye’s and nucleobases’ respective π-stacks. This more than counteracts the expected increase in transition dipole due to increased conjugation caused by twisting of the phenyl moiety upon intercalation.
The reduced volume cylinder model was tested by the quenching of the fluorescence of an intercalator (ethidium bromide) by a groove binder (methyl viologen). We report that the model is not accurate over a relevant range of DNA concentrations.

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2005-05

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Intelligent Input Parser for Organic Chemistry Nomenclature Questions

Description

For many pre-health and graduate programs, organic chemistry is often the most difficult prerequisite course that students will take. To alleviate this difficulty, an intelligent tutoring system was developed to provide valuable feedback to practice problems within organic chemistry. This

For many pre-health and graduate programs, organic chemistry is often the most difficult prerequisite course that students will take. To alleviate this difficulty, an intelligent tutoring system was developed to provide valuable feedback to practice problems within organic chemistry. This paper focuses on the design and use of an intelligent input parser for nomenclature questions within this system. Students in Dr. Gould's Fall 2014 organic chemistry class used this system and their data was collected to analyze the effectiveness of the input parser. Overall the students' feedback was optimistic and there was a positive relationship between test scores and student use of the system.

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2015-05

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Synthesis and evaluation of a new class of cancer chemotherapeutics based on purine-like extended amidines

Description

A potential new class of cancer chemotherapeutic agents has been synthesized by varying the 2 position of a benzimidazole based extended amidine. Compounds 6-amino-2-chloromethyl-4-imino-1-(2-methansulfonoxyethyl)-5-methyl-1H-benzimidazole-7-one (1A) and 6-amino-2-hydroxypropyl-4-imino-1-(2-methansulfonoxyethyl)-5-methyl-1H-benzimidazole-7-one (1B) were assayed at the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Developmental Therapeutic Program (DTP)

A potential new class of cancer chemotherapeutic agents has been synthesized by varying the 2 position of a benzimidazole based extended amidine. Compounds 6-amino-2-chloromethyl-4-imino-1-(2-methansulfonoxyethyl)-5-methyl-1H-benzimidazole-7-one (1A) and 6-amino-2-hydroxypropyl-4-imino-1-(2-methansulfonoxyethyl)-5-methyl-1H-benzimidazole-7-one (1B) were assayed at the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Developmental Therapeutic Program (DTP) and found to be cytotoxic at sub-micromolar concentrations, and have shown between a 100 and a 1000-fold increase in specificity towards lung, colon, CNS, and melanoma cell lines. These ATP mimics have been found to correlate with sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1), a protein implicated in drug resistance and cell survival in various cancer cell lines. Using the DTP COMPARE algorithm, compounds 1A and 1B were shown to correlate to each other at 77%, but failed to correlate with other benzimidazole based extended amidines previously synthesized in this laboratory suggesting they operate through a different biological mechanism.

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2011

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Novel strategies for producing proteins with non-proteinogenic amino acids

Description

The biological and chemical diversity of protein structure and function can be greatly expanded by position-specific incorporation of non-natural amino acids bearing a variety of functional groups. Non-cognate amino acids can be incorporated into proteins at specific sites by using

The biological and chemical diversity of protein structure and function can be greatly expanded by position-specific incorporation of non-natural amino acids bearing a variety of functional groups. Non-cognate amino acids can be incorporated into proteins at specific sites by using orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pairs in conjunction with nonsense, rare, or 4-bp codons. There has been considerable progress in developing new types of amino acids, in identifying novel methods of tRNA aminoacylation, and in expanding the genetic code to direct their position. Chemical aminoacylation of tRNAs is accomplished by acylation and ligation of a dinucleotide (pdCpA) to the 3'-terminus of truncated tRNA. This strategy allows the incorporation of a wide range of natural and unnatural amino acids into pre-determined sites, thereby facilitating the study of structure-function relationships in proteins and allowing the investigation of their biological, biochemical and biophysical properties. Described in Chapter 1 is the current methodology for synthesizing aminoacylated suppressor tRNAs. Aminoacylated suppressor tRNACUAs are typically prepared by linking pre-aminoacylated dinucleotides (aminoacyl-pdCpAs) to 74 nucleotide (nt) truncated tRNAs (tRNA-COH) via a T4 RNA ligase mediated reaction. Alternatively, there is another route outlined in Chapter 1 that utilizes a different pre-aminoacylated dinucleotide, AppA. This dinucleotide has been shown to be a suitable substrate for T4 RNA ligase mediated coupling with abbreviated tRNA-COHs for production of 76 nt aminoacyl-tRNACUAs. The synthesized suppressor tRNAs have been shown to participate in protein synthesis in vitro, in an S30 (E. coli) coupled transcription-translation system in which there is a UAG codon in the mRNA at the position corresponding to Val10. Chapter 2 describes the synthesis of two non-proteinogenic amino acids, L-thiothreonine and L-allo-thiothreonine, and their incorporation into predetermined positions of a catalytically competent dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) analogue lacking cysteine. Here, the elaborated proteins were site-specifically derivitized with a fluorophore at the thiothreonine residue. The synthesis and incorporation of phosphorotyrosine derivatives into DHFR is illustrated in Chapter 3. Three different phosphorylated tyrosine derivatives were prepared: bis-nitrobenzylphosphoro-L-tyrosine, nitrobenzylphosphoro-L-tyrosine, and phosphoro-L-tyrosine. Their ability to participate in a protein synthesis system was also evaluated.

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2013

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Study of ribosomes having modifications in the peptidyltransferase center using non-alpha-L-amino acids and synthesis and biological evaluation of topopyrones

Description

The ribosome is a ribozyme and central to the biosynthesis of proteins in all organisms. It has a strong bias against non-alpha-L-amino acids, such as alpha-D-amino acids and beta-amino acids. Additionally, the ribosome is only able to incorporate one amino

The ribosome is a ribozyme and central to the biosynthesis of proteins in all organisms. It has a strong bias against non-alpha-L-amino acids, such as alpha-D-amino acids and beta-amino acids. Additionally, the ribosome is only able to incorporate one amino acid in response to one codon. It has been demonstrated that reengineering of the peptidyltransferase center (PTC) of the ribosome enabled the incorporation of both alpha-D-amino acids and beta-amino acids into full length protein. Described in Chapter 2 are five modified ribosomes having modifications in the peptidyltrasnferase center in the 23S rRNA. These modified ribosomes successfully incorporated five different beta-amino acids (2.1 - 2.5) into E. coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The second project (Chapter 3) focused on the study of the modified ribosomes facilitating the incorporation of the dipeptide glycylphenylalanine (3.25) and fluorescent dipeptidomimetic 3.26 into DHFR. These ribosomes also had modifications in the peptidyltransferase center in the 23S rRNA of the 50S ribosomal subunit. The modified DHFRs having beta-amino acids 2.3 and 2.5, dipeptide glycylphenylalanine (3.25) and dipeptidomimetic 3.26 were successfully characterized by the MALDI-MS analysis of the peptide fragments produced by "in-gel" trypsin digestion of the modified proteins. The fluorescent spectra of the dipeptidomimetic 3.26 and modified DHFR having fluorescent dipeptidomimetic 3.26 were also measured. The type I and II DNA topoisomerases have been firmly established as effective molecular targets for many antitumor drugs. A "classical" topoisomerase I or II poison acts by misaligning the free hydroxyl group of the sugar moiety of DNA and preventing the reverse transesterfication reaction to religate DNA. There have been only two classes of compounds, saintopin and topopyrones, reported as dual topoisomerase I and II poisons. Chapter 4 describes the synthesis and biological evaluation of topopyrones. Compound 4.10, employed at 20 µM, was as efficient as 0.5 uM camptothecin, a potent topoisomerase I poison, in stabilizing the covalent binary complex (~30%). When compared with a known topoisomerase II poison, etoposide (at 0.5 uM), topopyorone 4.10 produced similar levels of stabilized DNA-enzyme binary complex (~34%) at 5 uM concentration.

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2013