Matching Items (7)

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Performance analysis of composite insulators up to 1200 kV ac using electric field calculations

Description

This research work illustrates the use of software packages based on the concept of nu-merical analysis technique to evaluate the electric field and voltage distribution along composite insulators for system

This research work illustrates the use of software packages based on the concept of nu-merical analysis technique to evaluate the electric field and voltage distribution along composite insulators for system voltages ranging from 138 kV up to 1200 kV ac. A part of the calculations was made using the 3D software package, COULOMB 8.0, based on the concept of Boundary Element Method (BEM). The electric field was calculated under dry and wet conditions. Compo-site insulators experience more electrical stress when compared to porcelain and are also more prone to damage caused by corona activity. The work presented here investigates the effect of corona rings of specific dimensions and bundled conductors on the electric field along composite insulators. Inappropriate placement or dimensions of corona rings could enhance the electric field instead of mitigating it. Corona ring optimization for a 1000 kV composite insulator was per-formed by changing parameters of the ring, such as the diameter of the ring, thickness of the ring tube and the projection of the ring from the high voltage energized end fitting. Grading rings were designed for Ultra High Voltage (UHV) systems that use two units of composite insulators in pa-rallel. The insulation distance, which bears 50% of the total applied voltage, is raised by 61% with the grading ring installed, when compared to the distance without the grading ring. In other words, the electric field and voltage distribution was found to be more linear with the application of grad-ing rings. The second part of this project was carried out using the EPRI designed software EPIC. This is based on the concept of Charge Simulation method (CSM). Comparisons were made be-tween electric field magnitude along composite insulators used for suspension and dead end configuration for system voltages ranging from 138 kV to 500 kV. It was found that the dead end composite insulators experience significantly higher electrical stress when compared to their suspension counterpart. It was also concluded that this difference gets more prominent as the system voltage increases. A comparison made between electric field distribution along composite insulators used in single and double dead end structures suggested that the electric stress experienced by the single dead end composite insulators is relatively higher when compared to double dead end composite insulators.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010

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Electric potential and field calculation of HVDC composite insulators by charge simulation method

Description

High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology is being considered for several long distance point-to-point overhead transmission lines, because of their lower losses and higher transmission capability, when compared to AC

High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology is being considered for several long distance point-to-point overhead transmission lines, because of their lower losses and higher transmission capability, when compared to AC systems. Insulators are used to support and isolate the conductors mechanically and electrically. Composite insulators are gaining popularity for both AC and DC lines, for the reasons of light weight and good performance under contaminated conditions. This research illustrates the electric potential and field computation on HVDC composite insulators by using the charge simulation method. The electric field is calculated under both dry and wet conditions. Under dry conditions, the field distributions along the insulators whose voltage levels range from 500 kV to 1200 kV are calculated and compared. The results indicate that the HVDC insulator produces higher electric field, when compared to AC insulator. Under wet conditions, a 500 kV insulator is modeled with discrete water droplets on the surface. In this case, the field distribution is affected by surface resistivity and separations between droplets. The corona effects on insulators are analyzed for both dry and wet conditions. Corona discharge is created, when electric field strength exceeds the threshold value. Corona and grading rings are placed near the end-fittings of the insulators to reduce occurrence of corona. The dimensions of these rings, specifically their radius, tube thickness and projection from end fittings are optimized. This will help the utilities design proper corona and grading rings to reduce the corona phenomena.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Evaluation of epoxy nanocomposites for high voltage insulation

Description

Polymeric materials containing nanometer (nm) size particles are being introduced to provide compact shapes for low and medium voltage insulation equipment. The nanocomposites may provide superior electrical performance when compared

Polymeric materials containing nanometer (nm) size particles are being introduced to provide compact shapes for low and medium voltage insulation equipment. The nanocomposites may provide superior electrical performance when compared with those available currently, such as lower dielectric losses and increased dielectric strength, tracking and erosion resistance, and surface hydrophobicity. All of the above mentioned benefits can be achieved at a lower filler concentration (< 10%) than conventional microfillers (40-60%). Also, the uniform shapes of nanofillers provide a better electrical stress distribution as compared to irregular shaped microcomposites which can have high internal electric stress, which could be a problem for devices with active electrical parts. Improvement in electrical performance due to addition of nanofillers in an epoxy matrix has been evaluated in this work. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was done on the epoxy samples to confirm uniform dispersion of nano-sized fillers as good filler dispersion is essential to realize the above stated benefits. Dielectric spectroscopy experiments were conducted over a wide range of frequencies as a function of temperature to understand the role of space charge and interfaces in these materials. The experiment results demonstrate significant reduction in dielectric losses in samples containing nanofillers. High voltage experiments such as corona resistance tests were conducted over 500 hours to monitor degradation in the samples due to corona. These tests revealed improvements in partial discharge endurance of nanocomposite samples. These improvements could not be adequately explained using a macroscopic quantity such as thermal conductivity. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) showed higher weight loss initiation temperatures for nanofilled samples which is in agreement with the corona resistance experimental results. Theoretical models have also been developed in this work to complement the results of the corona resistance experiment and the TGA analysis. Degradation model was developed to map the erosion path using Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm. A thermal model was developed to calculate the localized temperature distribution in the micro and nano-filled samples using the PDE toolbox in MATLAB. Both the models highlight the fact that improvement in nanocomposites is not limited to the filler concentrations that were tested experimentally.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Evaluation of room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber coated porcelain post insulators under contaminated conditions

Description

This thesis concerns the flashover issue of the substation insulators operating in a polluted environment. The outdoor insulation equipment used in the power delivery infrastructure encounter different types of pollutants

This thesis concerns the flashover issue of the substation insulators operating in a polluted environment. The outdoor insulation equipment used in the power delivery infrastructure encounter different types of pollutants due to varied environmental conditions. Various methods have been developed by manufacturers and researchers to mitigate the flashover problem. The application of Room Temperature Vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber is one such favorable method as it can be applied over the already installed units. Field experience has already showed that the RTV silicone rubber coated insulators have a lower flashover probability than the uncoated insulators. The scope of this research is to quantify the improvement in the flashover performance. Artificial contamination tests were carried on station post insulators for assessing their performance. A factorial experiment design was used to model the flashover performance. The formulation included the severity of contamination and leakage distance of the insulator samples. Regression analysis was used to develop a mathematical model from the data obtained from the experiments. The main conclusion drawn from the study is that the RTV coated insulators withstood much higher levels of contamination even when the coating had lost its hydrophobicity. This improvement in flashover performance was found to be in the range of 20-40%. A much better flashover performance was observed when the coating recovered its hydrophobicity. It was also seen that the adhesion of coating was excellent even after many tests which involved substantial discharge activity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Breakdown voltage of compressed sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) at very low frequency / low frequency (30 kHz)

Description

The U.S. Navy is interested in evaluating the dielectric performance of SF6 at 30 kHz in order to develop optimal bushing designs and to ensure reliable operation for the Very

The U.S. Navy is interested in evaluating the dielectric performance of SF6 at 30 kHz in order to develop optimal bushing designs and to ensure reliable operation for the Very Low Frequency/ Low Frequency (VLF/LF) transmitting stations. The breakdown experiments of compressed SF6 at 30 kHz in the pressure range of 1-5 atm were conducted in both the uniform field (plane-plane gap) and the non-uniform field (rod-plane gap). To understand the impact of pressure on the breakdown voltage of SF6 at VLF/LF, empirical models of the dielectric strength of SF6 were derived based on the experimental data and regression analysis. The pressure correction factors that present the correlation between the breakdown voltage of SF6 at VLF/LF and that of air at 50/60 Hz were calculated. These empirical models provide an effective way to use the extensively documented breakdown voltage data of air at 60 Hz to evaluate the dielectric performance of SF6 for the design of VLF/LF high voltage equipment. In addition, several breakdown experiments and similar regression analysis of air at 30 kHz were conducted as well. A ratio of the breakdown voltage of SF6 to that of air at VLF/LF was calculated, from which a significant difference between the uniform gap and the non-uniform gap was observed. All the models and values provide useful information to evaluate and predict the performance of the bushings in practice.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010

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Thermal degradation in composite insulation due to corona discharges

Description

Composite insulators on overhead lines are frequently subjected to corona discharges due to increased electric field intensities under various conditions. These discharges can cause localized heating on the surface and

Composite insulators on overhead lines are frequently subjected to corona discharges due to increased electric field intensities under various conditions. These discharges can cause localized heating on the surface and affect the hydrophobicity of the insulator. A study has been undertaken to quantify and evaluate the thermal degradation that composite insulation is subjected to from corona discharges. This has been conducted primarily at the power frequency (60 Hz) and at the low frequency range (37 kHz). Point to plane corona discharge experiments have been performed in the laboratory at both the frequencies and varying levels of thermal degradation has been observed. The amplitude and the frequency of current spikes have been recorded at different voltage levels. A temperature model based on the amplitude and the frequency of current data has been formulated to calculate the maximum temperature attained due to these discharges. Visual thermal degradation has been found to set in at a low frequency range while there is no visual degradation observed at power frequency even when exposed to discharges for relatively much longer periods of time. However, microscopic experiments have been conducted which revealed degradation on the surface at 60 Hz. It has also been found that temperatures in excess of 300 Celsius have been obtained at 37 kHz. This corroborates the thermo gravimetric analysis data that proves thermal degradation in silicone rubber samples at temperatures greater than 300 Celsius. Using the above model, the maximum temperature rise can be evaluated due to discharges occurring on high voltage insulation. This model has also been used to calculate the temperature rise on medium voltage distribution equipment such as composite bushings and stand-off plugs. The samples were subjected to standard partial discharge tests and the corresponding discharge magnitudes have been recorded. The samples passed the tests and the corresponding temperatures plotted have been found to be within thermal limits of the respective insulation used on the samples. The experimental results concur with the theoretical model. A knowledge of the maximum temperatures attained due to these discharges can help in design of insulation with better thermal properties.

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Date Created
  • 2010

Source strength impact analysis on insulator flashover under contaminated conditions

Description

Transmission voltages worldwide are increasing to accommodate higher power transfer from power generators to load centers. Insulator dimensions cannot increase linearly with the voltage, as supporting structures become too tall

Transmission voltages worldwide are increasing to accommodate higher power transfer from power generators to load centers. Insulator dimensions cannot increase linearly with the voltage, as supporting structures become too tall and heavy. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the insulator design considering all operating conditions including dry, wet and contaminated. In order to design insulators suitably, a better understanding of the insulator flashover is required, as it is a serious issue regarding the safe operation of power systems. However, it is not always feasible to conduct field and laboratory studies due to limited time and money.

The desire to accurately predict the performance of insulator flashovers requires mathematical models. Dynamic models are more appropriate than static models in terms of the instantaneous variation of arc parameters. In this dissertation, a dynamic model including conditions for arc dynamics, arc re-ignition and arc motion with AC supply is first developed.

For an AC power source, it is important to consider the equivalent shunt capacitance in addition to the short circuit current when evaluating pollution test results. By including the power source in dynamic models, the effects of source parameters on the leakage current waveform, the voltage drop and the flashover voltage were systematically investigated. It has been observed that for the same insulator under the same pollution level, there is a large difference among these flashover performances in high voltage laboratories and real power systems. Source strength is believed to be responsible for this discrepancy. Investigations of test source strength were conducted in this work in order to study its impact on different types of insulators with a variety of geometries.

Traditional deterministic models which have been developed so far can only predict whether an insulator would flashover or withstand. In practice, insulator flashover is a statistical process, given that both pollution severity and flashover voltage are probabilistic variables. A probability approach to predict the insulator flashover likelihood is presented based on the newly developed dynamic model.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016