Matching Items (44)

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Modeling of multi-band drift in nanowires using a full band Monte Carlo simulation

Description

We report on a new numerical approach for multi-band drift within the context of full band Monte Carlo (FBMC) simulation and apply this to Si and InAs nanowires. The approach

We report on a new numerical approach for multi-band drift within the context of full band Monte Carlo (FBMC) simulation and apply this to Si and InAs nanowires. The approach is based on the solution of the Krieger and Iafrate (KI) equations [J. B. Krieger and G. J. Iafrate, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5494 (1986)], which gives the probability of carriers undergoing interband transitions subject to an applied electric field. The KI equations are based on the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, and previous solutions of these equations have used Runge-Kutta (RK) methods to numerically solve the KI equations. This approach made the solution of the KI equations numerically expensive and was therefore only applied to a small part of the Brillouin zone (BZ). Here we discuss an alternate approach to the solution of the KI equations using the Magnus expansion (also known as “exponential perturbation theory”). This method is more accurate than the RK method as the solution lies on the exponential map and shares important qualitative properties with the exact solution such as the preservation of the unitary character of the time evolution operator. The solution of the KI equations is then incorporated through a modified FBMC free-flight drift routine and applied throughout the nanowire BZ. The importance of the multi-band drift model is then demonstrated for the case of Si and InAs nanowires by simulating a uniform field FBMC and analyzing the average carrier energies and carrier populations under high electric fields. Numerical simulations show that the average energy of the carriers under high electric field is significantly higher when multi-band drift is taken into consideration, due to the interband transitions allowing carriers to achieve higher energies.

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Date Created
  • 2016-07-29

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Computational Electrodynamics: Adapting the Convolutional Perfectly-Matched Layer to Dispersive Media

Description

Within the context of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method of simulating interactions between electromagnetic waves and matter, we adapt a known absorbing boundary condition, the Convolutional Perfectly-Matched Layer (CPML) to

Within the context of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method of simulating interactions between electromagnetic waves and matter, we adapt a known absorbing boundary condition, the Convolutional Perfectly-Matched Layer (CPML) to a background of Drude-dispersive medium. The purpose of this CPML is to terminate the virtual grid of scattering simulations by absorbing all outgoing radiation. In this thesis, we exposit the method of simulation, establish the Perfectly-Matched Layer as a domain which houses a spatial-coordinate transform to the complex plane, construct the CPML in vacuum, adapt the CPML to the Drude medium, and conclude with tests of the adapted CPML for two different scattering geometries.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Solar Powered Intrusion Detector

Description

The project described here is a solar powered intrusion detection system consisting of three modules: a battery recharging circuit, a laser emitter and photodetector pair, and a Wi- Fi connectivity

The project described here is a solar powered intrusion detection system consisting of three modules: a battery recharging circuit, a laser emitter and photodetector pair, and a Wi- Fi connectivity board. Over the preceding seven months, great care has been taken for the design and construction of this system. The first three months were spent researching and selecting suitable IC's and external components (e.g. solar panel, batteries, etc.). Then, the next couple of months were spent ordering specific materials and equipment for the construction of our prototype. Finally, the last two months were used to build a working prototype, with a substantial amount of time used for perfecting our system's packaging and operation. This report will consist of a detailed discussion of our team's research, design activities, prototype implementation, final budget, and final schedule. Technical discussion of the concepts behind our design will assist with understanding the design activities and prototype implementation sections that will follow. Due to the generous funding of the group from the Barrett Honors College, our overall budget available for the project was $1600. Of that amount, only $334.51 was spent on the actual system components, with $829.42 being spent on the equipment and materials needed for the testing and construction of the prototype. As far as the schedule goes, we are essentially done with the project. The only tasks left to finish are a successful defense of the project at the oral presentation on Friday, 29 March 2013, followed by a successful demo on 26 April 2013.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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LCOE Analyis of Solar Panel Recycling Methods

Description

Solar panels need to be both cost effective and environmentally friendly to compete with traditional energy forms. Photovoltaic recycling has the potential to mitigate the harm of waste, which is

Solar panels need to be both cost effective and environmentally friendly to compete with traditional energy forms. Photovoltaic recycling has the potential to mitigate the harm of waste, which is often landfilled, while putting material back into the manufacturing process. Out of many, three methods show much promise: Full Recovery End-of-Life Photovoltaic (FRELP), mechanical, and sintering-based recycling. FRELP recycling has quickly gained prominence in Europe and promises to fully recover the components in a solar cell. The mechanical method has produced high yields of valuable materials using basic and inexpensive processes. The sintering method has the potential to tap into a large market for feldspar. Using a levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) analysis, the three methods could be compared on an economic basis. This showed that the mechanical method is least expensive, and the sintering method is the most expensive. Using this model, all recycling methods are less cost effective than the control analysis without recycling. Sensitivity analyses were then done on the effect of the discount rate, capacity factor, and lifespan on the LCOE. These results showed that the change in capacity factor had the most significant effect on the levelized cost of electricity. A final sensitivity analysis was done based on the decreased installation and balance of systems costs in 2025. With a 55% decrease in these costs, the LCOE decreased by close to $0.03/kWh for each method. Based on these results, the cost of each recycling method would be a more considerable proportion of the overall LCOE of the solar farm.

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  • 2018-05

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Theoretical Model of Solar Photovoltaic Air Conditioning with Ice Thermal Storage

Description

An investigation is undertaken of a prototype building-integrated solar photovoltaic-powered thermal storage system and air conditioning unit. The study verifies previous thermodynamic and economic conclusions and provides a more thorough

An investigation is undertaken of a prototype building-integrated solar photovoltaic-powered thermal storage system and air conditioning unit. The study verifies previous thermodynamic and economic conclusions and provides a more thorough analysis. A parameterized model was created for optimization of the system under various conditions. The model was used to evaluate energy and cost savings to determine viability of the system in several circumstances, such as a residence in Phoenix with typical cooling demand. The proposed design involves a modified chest freezer as a thermal storage tank with coils acting as the evaporator for the refrigeration cycle. Surrounding the coils, the tank contains small containers of water for high-density energy storage submerged in a low freezing-point solution of propylene glycol. The cooling power of excess photovoltaic and off-peak grid power that is generated by the air conditioning compressor is stored in the thermal storage tank by freezing the pure water. It is extracted by pumping the glycol across the ice containers and into an air handler to cool the building. Featured results of the modeling include the determination of an optimized system for a super-peak rate plan, grid-connected Phoenix house that has a 4-ton cooling load and requires a corresponding new air conditioner at 4.5 kW of power draw. Optimized for the highest payback over a ten year period, the system should consist of a thermal storage tank containing 454 liters (120 gallons) of water, a 3-ton rated air conditioning unit, requiring 2.7 kW, which is smaller than conventionally needed, and no solar photovoltaic array. The monthly summer savings would be $45.The upfront cost would be $5489, compared to a conventional system upfront cost of $5400, for a payback period of 0.33 years. Over ten years, this system will provide $2600 of savings. To optimize the system for the highest savings over a twenty year period, a thermal storage tank containing 272 liters (72 gallons) of water, a 40-m2 photovoltaic array with 15% efficiency, and a 3.5-ton, 3.1-kW rated air conditioning unit should be installed for an upfront cost of $19,900. This would provide monthly summer savings of $225 and 1062 kWh grid electricity, with a payback period of only 11 years and a total cost savings of $12,300 over twenty years. In comparison, a system with the same size photovoltaic array but without storage would result in a payback period of 16 years. Results are also determined for other cooling requirements and installation sizes, such that the viability of this type of system in different conditions can be discussed. The use of this model for determining the optimized system configuration given different constraints is also described.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

Description

Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The

Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco[superscript ®] Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures.

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Date Created
  • 2016-06-08

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Inducing a junction in n-type InxGa(1-x)N

Description

The pseudo-binary alloy of indium((x))gallium((1-x))nitride has a compositionally dependent bandgap ranging from 0.65 to 3.42 eV, making it desirable for light emitting diodes and solar cell devices. Through modeling and

The pseudo-binary alloy of indium((x))gallium((1-x))nitride has a compositionally dependent bandgap ranging from 0.65 to 3.42 eV, making it desirable for light emitting diodes and solar cell devices. Through modeling and film growth, the authors investigate the use of InxGa1-xN as an active layer in an induced junction. In an induced junction, electrostatics are used to create strong band bending at the surface of a doped material and invert the bands. The authors report modeling results, as well as preliminary film quality experiments for an induced junction in InGaN by space charge effects of neighboring materials, piezoelectric effects, and spontaneous polarization. (C) 2013 American Vacuum Society.

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Date Created
  • 2013-09-18

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Monte Carlo studies of electron transport in semiconductor nanostructures

Description

ABSTRACT An Ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) computer code has been developed to simulate, semi-classically, spin-dependent electron transport in quasi two-dimensional (2D) III-V semiconductors. The code accounts for both three-dimensional (3D)

ABSTRACT An Ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) computer code has been developed to simulate, semi-classically, spin-dependent electron transport in quasi two-dimensional (2D) III-V semiconductors. The code accounts for both three-dimensional (3D) and quasi-2D transport, utilizing either 3D or 2D scattering mechanisms, as appropriate. Phonon, alloy, interface roughness, and impurity scattering mechanisms are included, accounting for the Pauli Exclusion Principle via a rejection algorithm. The 2D carrier states are calculated via a self-consistent 1D Schrödinger-3D-Poisson solution in which the charge distribution of the 2D carriers in the quantization direction is taken as the spatial distribution of the squared envelope functions within the Hartree approximation. The wavefunctions, subband energies, and 2D scattering rates are updated periodically by solving a series of 1D Schrödinger wave equations (SWE) over the real-space domain of the device at fixed time intervals. The electrostatic potential is updated by periodically solving the 3D Poisson equation. Spin-polarized transport is modeled via a spin density-matrix formalism that accounts for D'yakanov-Perel (DP) scattering. Also, the code allows for the easy inclusion of additional scattering mechanisms and structural modifications to devices. As an application of the simulator, the current voltage characteristics of an InGaAs/InAlAs HEMT are simulated, corresponding to nanoscale III-V HEMTs currently being fabricated by Intel Corporation. The comparative effects of various scattering parameters, material properties and structural attributes are investigated and compared with experiments where reasonable agreement is obtained. The spatial evolution of spin-polarized carriers in prototypical Spin Field Effect Transistor (SpinFET) devices is then simulated. Studies of the spin coherence times in quasi-2D structures is first investigated and compared to experimental results. It is found that the simulated spin coherence times for GaAs structures are in reasonable agreement with experiment. The SpinFET structure studied is a scaled-down version of the InGaAs/InAlAs HEMT discussed in this work, in which spin-polarized carriers are injected at the source, and the coherence length is studied as a function of gate voltage via the Rashba effect.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Comparative analysis of simulation of trap induced threshold voltage fluctuations for 45 nm gate length n-MOSFET and analytical model predictions

Description

In very small electronic devices the alternate capture and emission of carriers at an individual defect site located at the interface of Si:SiO2 of a MOSFET generates discrete switching in

In very small electronic devices the alternate capture and emission of carriers at an individual defect site located at the interface of Si:SiO2 of a MOSFET generates discrete switching in the device conductance referred to as a random telegraph signal (RTS) or random telegraph noise (RTN). In this research work, the integration of random defects positioned across the channel at the Si:SiO2 interface from source end to the drain end in the presence of different random dopant distributions are used to conduct Ensemble Monte-Carlo ( EMC ) based numerical simulation of key device performance metrics for 45 nm gate length MOSFET device. The two main performance parameters that affect RTS based reliability measurements are percentage change in threshold voltage and percentage change in drain current fluctuation in the saturation region. It has been observed as a result of the simulation that changes in both and values moderately decrease as the defect position is gradually moved from source end to the drain end of the channel. Precise analytical device physics based model needs to be developed to explain and assess the EMC simulation based higher VT fluctuations as experienced for trap positions at the source side. A new analytical model has been developed that simultaneously takes account of dopant number variations in the channel and depletion region underneath and carrier mobility fluctuations resulting from fluctuations in surface potential barriers. Comparisons of this new analytical model along with existing analytical models are shown to correlate with 3D EMC simulation based model for assessment of VT fluctuations percentage induced by a single interface trap. With scaling of devices beyond 32 nm node, halo doping at the source and drain are routinely incorporated to combat the threshold voltage roll-off that takes place with effective channel length reduction. As a final study on this regard, 3D EMC simulation method based computations of threshold voltage fluctuations have been performed for varying source and drain halo pocket length to illustrate the threshold voltage fluctuations related reliability problems that have been aggravated by trap positions near the source at the interface compared to conventional 45 nm MOSFET.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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TEM characterization of electrically stressed high electron mobility transistors

Description

High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on Group III-nitride heterostructures have been characterized by advanced electron microscopy methods including off-axis electron holography, nanoscale chemical analysis, and electrical measurements, as well

High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on Group III-nitride heterostructures have been characterized by advanced electron microscopy methods including off-axis electron holography, nanoscale chemical analysis, and electrical measurements, as well as other techniques. The dissertation was organized primarily into three topical areas: (1) characterization of near-gate defects in electrically stressed AlGaN/GaN HEMTs, (2) microstructural and chemical analysis of the gate/buffer interface of AlN/GaN HEMTs, and (3) studies of the impact of laser-liftoff processing on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. The electrical performance of stressed AlGaN/GaN HEMTs was measured and the devices binned accordingly. Source- and drain-side degraded, undegraded, and unstressed devices were then prepared via focused-ion-beam milling for examination. Defects in the near-gate region were identified and their correlation to electrical measurements analyzed. Increased gate leakage after electrical stressing is typically attributed to "V"-shaped defects at the gate edge. However, strong evidence was found for gate metal diffusion into the barrier layer as another contributing factor. AlN/GaN HEMTs grown on sapphire substrates were found to have high electrical performance which is attributed to the AlN barrier layer, and robust ohmic and gate contact processes. TEM analysis identified oxidation at the gate metal/AlN buffer layer interface. This thin a-oxide gate insulator was further characterized by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and energy-filtered TEM. Attributed to this previously unidentified layer, high reverse gate bias up to −30 V was demonstrated and drain-induced gate leakage was suppressed to values of less than 10−6 A/mm. In addition, extrinsic gm and ft * LG were improved to the highest reported values for AlN/GaN HEMTs fabricated on sapphire substrates. Laser-liftoff (LLO) processing was used to separate the active layers from sapphire substrates for several GaN-based HEMT devices, including AlGaN/GaN and InAlN/GaN heterostructures. Warpage of the LLO samples resulted from relaxation of the as-grown strain and strain arising from dielectric and metal depositions, and this strain was quantified by both Newton's rings and Raman spectroscopy methods. TEM analysis demonstrated that the LLO processing produced no detrimental effects on the quality of the epitaxial layers. TEM micrographs showed no evidence of either damage to the ~2 μm GaN epilayer generated threading defects.

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Date Created
  • 2012