Matching Items (3)

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A Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Urban Economic Analysis and Spatial Decision-Making

Description

Urban economic modeling and effective spatial planning are critical tools towards achieving urban sustainability. However, in practice, many technical obstacles, such as information islands, poor documentation of data and lack

Urban economic modeling and effective spatial planning are critical tools towards achieving urban sustainability. However, in practice, many technical obstacles, such as information islands, poor documentation of data and lack of software platforms to facilitate virtual collaboration, are challenging the effectiveness of decision-making processes. In this paper, we report on our efforts to design and develop a geospatial cyberinfrastructure (GCI) for urban economic analysis and simulation. This GCI provides an operational graphic user interface, built upon a service-oriented architecture to allow (1) widespread sharing and seamless integration of distributed geospatial data; (2) an effective way to address the uncertainty and positional errors encountered in fusing data from diverse sources; (3) the decomposition of complex planning questions into atomic spatial analysis tasks and the generation of a web service chain to tackle such complex problems; and (4) capturing and representing provenance of geospatial data to trace its flow in the modeling task. The Greater Los Angeles Region serves as the test bed. We expect this work to contribute to effective spatial policy analysis and decision-making through the adoption of advanced GCI and to broaden the application coverage of GCI to include urban economic simulations.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05-21

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An efficient measure of compactness for two-dimensional shapes and its application in regionalization problems

Description

A measure of shape compactness is a numerical quantity representing the degree to which a shape is compact. Ways to provide an accurate measure have been given great attention due

A measure of shape compactness is a numerical quantity representing the degree to which a shape is compact. Ways to provide an accurate measure have been given great attention due to its application in a broad range of GIS problems, such as detecting clustering patterns from remote-sensing images, understanding urban sprawl, and redrawing electoral districts to avoid gerrymandering. In this article, we propose an effective and efficient approach to computing shape compactness based on the moment of inertia (MI), a well-known concept in physics. The mathematical framework and the computer implementation for both raster and vector models are discussed in detail. In addition to computing compactness for a single shape, we propose a computational method that is capable of calculating the variations in compactness as a shape grows or shrinks, which is a typical application found in regionalization problems. We conducted a number of experiments that demonstrate the superiority of the MI over the popular isoperimetric quotient approach in terms of (1) computational efficiency; (2) tolerance of positional uncertainty and irregular boundaries; (3) ability to handle shapes with holes and multiple parts; and (4) applicability and efficacy in districting/zonation/regionalization problems.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-08-15

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Multiscale Geographically Weighted Regression: Computation, Inference, and Application

Description

Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) has been broadly used in various fields to

model spatially non-stationary relationships. Classic GWR is considered as a single-scale model that is based on one bandwidth parameter

Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) has been broadly used in various fields to

model spatially non-stationary relationships. Classic GWR is considered as a single-scale model that is based on one bandwidth parameter which controls the amount of distance-decay in weighting neighboring data around each location. The single bandwidth in GWR assumes that processes (relationships between the response variable and the predictor variables) all operate at the same scale. However, this posits a limitation in modeling potentially multi-scale processes which are more often seen in the real world. For example, the measured ambient temperature of a location is affected by the built environment, regional weather and global warming, all of which operate at different scales. A recent advancement to GWR termed Multiscale GWR (MGWR) removes the single bandwidth assumption and allows the bandwidths for each covariate to vary. This results in each parameter surface being allowed to have a different degree of spatial variation, reflecting variation across covariate-specific processes. In this way, MGWR has the capability to differentiate local, regional and global processes by using varying bandwidths for covariates. Additionally, bandwidths in MGWR become explicit indicators of the scale at various processes operate. The proposed dissertation covers three perspectives centering on MGWR: Computation; Inference; and Application. The first component focuses on addressing computational issues in MGWR to allow MGWR models to be calibrated more efficiently and to be applied on large datasets. The second component aims to statistically differentiate the spatial scales at which different processes operate by quantifying the uncertainty associated with each bandwidth obtained from MGWR. In the third component, an empirical study will be conducted to model the changing relationships between county-level socio-economic factors and voter preferences in the 2008-2016 United States presidential elections using MGWR.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020