Matching Items (7)

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Association based prioritization of genes

Description

Genes have widely different pertinences to the etiology and pathology of diseases. Thus, they can be ranked according to their disease-significance on a genomic scale, which is the subject of

Genes have widely different pertinences to the etiology and pathology of diseases. Thus, they can be ranked according to their disease-significance on a genomic scale, which is the subject of gene prioritization. Given a set of genes known to be related to a disease, it is reasonable to use them as a basis to determine the significance of other candidate genes, which will then be ranked based on the association they exhibit with respect to the given set of known genes. Experimental and computational data of various kinds have different reliability and relevance to a disease under study. This work presents a gene prioritization method based on integrated biological networks that incorporates and models the various levels of relevance and reliability of diverse sources. The method is shown to achieve significantly higher performance as compared to two well-known gene prioritization algorithms. Essentially, no bias in the performance was seen as it was applied to diseases of diverse ethnology, e.g., monogenic, polygenic and cancer. The method was highly stable and robust against significant levels of noise in the data. Biological networks are often sparse, which can impede the operation of associationbased gene prioritization algorithms such as the one presented here from a computational perspective. As a potential approach to overcome this limitation, we explore the value that transcription factor binding sites can have in elucidating suitable targets. Transcription factors are needed for the expression of most genes, especially in higher organisms and hence genes can be associated via their genetic regulatory properties. While each transcription factor recognizes specific DNA sequence patterns, such patterns are mostly unknown for many transcription factors. Even those that are known are inconsistently reported in the literature, implying a potentially high level of inaccuracy. We developed computational methods for prediction and improvement of transcription factor binding patterns. Tests performed on the improvement method by employing synthetic patterns under various conditions showed that the method is very robust and the patterns produced invariably converge to nearly identical series of patterns. Preliminary tests were conducted to incorporate knowledge from transcription factor binding sites into our networkbased model for prioritization, with encouraging results. Genes have widely different pertinences to the etiology and pathology of diseases. Thus, they can be ranked according to their disease-significance on a genomic scale, which is the subject of gene prioritization. Given a set of genes known to be related to a disease, it is reasonable to use them as a basis to determine the significance of other candidate genes, which will then be ranked based on the association they exhibit with respect to the given set of known genes. Experimental and computational data of various kinds have different reliability and relevance to a disease under study. This work presents a gene prioritization method based on integrated biological networks that incorporates and models the various levels of relevance and reliability of diverse sources. The method is shown to achieve significantly higher performance as compared to two well-known gene prioritization algorithms. Essentially, no bias in the performance was seen as it was applied to diseases of diverse ethnology, e.g., monogenic, polygenic and cancer. The method was highly stable and robust against significant levels of noise in the data. Biological networks are often sparse, which can impede the operation of associationbased gene prioritization algorithms such as the one presented here from a computational perspective. As a potential approach to overcome this limitation, we explore the value that transcription factor binding sites can have in elucidating suitable targets. Transcription factors are needed for the expression of most genes, especially in higher organisms and hence genes can be associated via their genetic regulatory properties. While each transcription factor recognizes specific DNA sequence patterns, such patterns are mostly unknown for many transcription factors. Even those that are known are inconsistently reported in the literature, implying a potentially high level of inaccuracy. We developed computational methods for prediction and improvement of transcription factor binding patterns. Tests performed on the improvement method by employing synthetic patterns under various conditions showed that the method is very robust and the patterns produced invariably converge to nearly identical series of patterns. Preliminary tests were conducted to incorporate knowledge from transcription factor binding sites into our networkbased model for prioritization, with encouraging results. To validate these approaches in a disease-specific context, we built a schizophreniaspecific network based on the inferred associations and performed a comprehensive prioritization of human genes with respect to the disease. These results are expected to be validated empirically, but computational validation using known targets are very positive.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Context-aware adaptive hybrid semantic relatedness in biomedical science

Description

Text mining of biomedical literature and clinical notes is a very active field of research in biomedical science. Semantic analysis is one of the core modules for different Natural Language

Text mining of biomedical literature and clinical notes is a very active field of research in biomedical science. Semantic analysis is one of the core modules for different Natural Language Processing (NLP) solutions. Methods for calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts can be very useful in solutions solving different problems such as relationship extraction, ontology creation and question / answering [1–6]. Several techniques exist in calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts. These techniques utilize different knowledge sources and corpora. So far, researchers attempted to find the best hybrid method for each domain by combining semantic relatedness techniques and data sources manually. In this work, attempts were made to eliminate the needs for manually combining semantic relatedness methods targeting any new contexts or resources through proposing an automated method, which attempted to find the best combination of semantic relatedness techniques and resources to achieve the best semantic relatedness score in every context. This may help the research community find the best hybrid method for each context considering the available algorithms and resources.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Knowledge-driven methods for geographic information extraction in the biomedical domain

Description

Accounting for over a third of all emerging and re-emerging infections, viruses represent a major public health threat, which researchers and epidemiologists across the world have been attempting to contain

Accounting for over a third of all emerging and re-emerging infections, viruses represent a major public health threat, which researchers and epidemiologists across the world have been attempting to contain for decades. Recently, genomics-based surveillance of viruses through methods such as virus phylogeography has grown into a popular tool for infectious disease monitoring. When conducting such surveillance studies, researchers need to manually retrieve geographic metadata denoting the location of infected host (LOIH) of viruses from public sequence databases such as GenBank and any publication related to their study. The large volume of semi-structured and unstructured information that must be reviewed for this task, along with the ambiguity of geographic locations, make it especially challenging. Prior work has demonstrated that the majority of GenBank records lack sufficient geographic granularity concerning the LOIH of viruses. As a result, reviewing full-text publications is often necessary for conducting in-depth analysis of virus migration, which can be a very time-consuming process. Moreover, integrating geographic metadata pertaining to the LOIH of viruses from different sources, including different fields in GenBank records as well as full-text publications, and normalizing the integrated metadata to unique identifiers for subsequent analysis, are also challenging tasks, often requiring expert domain knowledge. Therefore, automated information extraction (IE) methods could help significantly accelerate this process, positively impacting public health research. However, very few research studies have attempted the use of IE methods in this domain.

This work explores the use of novel knowledge-driven geographic IE heuristics for extracting, integrating, and normalizing the LOIH of viruses based on information available in GenBank and related publications; when evaluated on manually annotated test sets, the methods were found to have a high accuracy and shown to be adequate for addressing this challenging problem. It also presents GeoBoost, a pioneering software system for georeferencing GenBank records, as well as a large-scale database containing over two million virus GenBank records georeferenced using the algorithms introduced here. The methods, database and software developed here could help support diverse public health domains focusing on sequence-informed virus surveillance, thereby enhancing existing platforms for controlling and containing disease outbreaks.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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A Biased Topic Modeling Approach for Case Control Study from Health Related Social Media Postings

Description

Online social networks are the hubs of social activity in cyberspace, and using them to exchange knowledge, experiences, and opinions is common. In this work, an advanced topic modeling framework

Online social networks are the hubs of social activity in cyberspace, and using them to exchange knowledge, experiences, and opinions is common. In this work, an advanced topic modeling framework is designed to analyse complex longitudinal health information from social media with minimal human annotation, and Adverse Drug Events and Reaction (ADR) information is extracted and automatically processed by using a biased topic modeling method. This framework improves and extends existing topic modelling algorithms that incorporate background knowledge. Using this approach, background knowledge such as ADR terms and other biomedical knowledge can be incorporated during the text mining process, with scores which indicate the presence of ADR being generated. A case control study has been performed on a data set of twitter timelines of women that announced their pregnancy, the goals of the study is to compare the ADR risk of medication usage from each medication category during the pregnancy.

In addition, to evaluate the prediction power of this approach, another important aspect of personalized medicine was addressed: the prediction of medication usage through the identification of risk groups. During the prediction process, the health information from Twitter timeline, such as diseases, symptoms, treatments, effects, and etc., is summarized by the topic modelling processes and the summarization results is used for prediction. Dimension reduction and topic similarity measurement are integrated into this framework for timeline classification and prediction. This work could be applied to provide guidelines for FDA drug risk categories. Currently, this process is done based on laboratory results and reported cases.

Finally, a multi-dimensional text data warehouse (MTD) to manage the output from the topic modelling is proposed. Some attempts have been also made to incorporate topic structure (ontology) and the MTD hierarchy. Results demonstrate that proposed methods show promise and this system represents a low-cost approach for drug safety early warning.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Health information extraction from social media

Description

Social media is becoming increasingly popular as a platform for sharing personal health-related information. This information can be utilized for public health monitoring tasks such as pharmacovigilance via the use

Social media is becoming increasingly popular as a platform for sharing personal health-related information. This information can be utilized for public health monitoring tasks such as pharmacovigilance via the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques. One of the critical steps in information extraction pipelines is Named Entity Recognition (NER), where the mentions of entities such as diseases are located in text and their entity type are identified. However, the language in social media is highly informal, and user-expressed health-related concepts are often non-technical, descriptive, and challenging to extract. There has been limited progress in addressing these challenges, and advanced machine learning-based NLP techniques have been underutilized. This work explores the effectiveness of different machine learning techniques, and particularly deep learning, to address the challenges associated with extraction of health-related concepts from social media. Deep learning has recently attracted a lot of attention in machine learning research and has shown remarkable success in several applications particularly imaging and speech recognition. However, thus far, deep learning techniques are relatively unexplored for biomedical text mining and, in particular, this is the first attempt in applying deep learning for health information extraction from social media.

This work presents ADRMine that uses a Conditional Random Field (CRF) sequence tagger for extraction of complex health-related concepts. It utilizes a large volume of unlabeled user posts for automatic learning of embedding cluster features, a novel application of deep learning in modeling the similarity between the tokens. ADRMine significantly improved the medical NER performance compared to the baseline systems.

This work also presents DeepHealthMiner, a deep learning pipeline for health-related concept extraction. Most of the machine learning methods require sophisticated task-specific manual feature design which is a challenging step in processing the informal and noisy content of social media. DeepHealthMiner automatically learns classification features using neural networks and utilizing a large volume of unlabeled user posts. Using a relatively small labeled training set, DeepHealthMiner could accurately identify most of the concepts, including the consumer expressions that were not observed in the training data or in the standard medical lexicons outperforming the state-of-the-art baseline techniques.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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A timeline extraction approach to derive drug usage patterns in pregnant women using social media

Description

Proliferation of social media websites and discussion forums in the last decade has resulted in social media mining emerging as an effective mechanism to extract consumer patterns. Most research on

Proliferation of social media websites and discussion forums in the last decade has resulted in social media mining emerging as an effective mechanism to extract consumer patterns. Most research on social media and pharmacovigilance have concentrated on

Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) identification. Such methods employ a step of drug search followed by classification of the associated text as consisting an ADR or not. Although this method works efficiently for ADR classifications, if ADR evidence is present in users posts over time, drug mentions fail to capture such ADRs. It also fails to record additional user information which may provide an opportunity to perform an in-depth analysis for lifestyle habits and possible reasons for any medical problems.

Pre-market clinical trials for drugs generally do not include pregnant women, and so their effects on pregnancy outcomes are not discovered early. This thesis presents a thorough, alternative strategy for assessing the safety profiles of drugs during pregnancy by utilizing user timelines from social media. I explore the use of a variety of state-of-the-art social media mining techniques, including rule-based and machine learning techniques, to identify pregnant women, monitor their drug usage patterns, categorize their birth outcomes, and attempt to discover associations between drugs and bad birth outcomes.

The technique used models user timelines as longitudinal patient networks, which provide us with a variety of key information about pregnancy, drug usage, and post-

birth reactions. I evaluate the distinct parts of the pipeline separately, validating the usefulness of each step. The approach to use user timelines in this fashion has produced very encouraging results, and can be employed for a range of other important tasks where users/patients are required to be followed over time to derive population-based measures.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Advancing biomedical named entity recognition with multivariate feature selection and semantically motivated features

Description

Automating aspects of biocuration through biomedical information extraction could significantly impact biomedical research by enabling greater biocuration throughput and improving the feasibility of a wider scope. An important step in

Automating aspects of biocuration through biomedical information extraction could significantly impact biomedical research by enabling greater biocuration throughput and improving the feasibility of a wider scope. An important step in biomedical information extraction systems is named entity recognition (NER), where mentions of entities such as proteins and diseases are located within natural-language text and their semantic type is determined. This step is critical for later tasks in an information extraction pipeline, including normalization and relationship extraction. BANNER is a benchmark biomedical NER system using linear-chain conditional random fields and the rich feature set approach. A case study with BANNER locating genes and proteins in biomedical literature is described. The first corpus for disease NER adequate for use as training data is introduced, and employed in a case study of disease NER. The first corpus locating adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in user posts to a health-related social website is also described, and a system to locate and identify ADRs in social media text is created and evaluated. The rich feature set approach to creating NER feature sets is argued to be subject to diminishing returns, implying that additional improvements may require more sophisticated methods for creating the feature set. This motivates the first application of multivariate feature selection with filters and false discovery rate analysis to biomedical NER, resulting in a feature set at least 3 orders of magnitude smaller than the set created by the rich feature set approach. Finally, two novel approaches to NER by modeling the semantics of token sequences are introduced. The first method focuses on the sequence content by using language models to determine whether a sequence resembles entries in a lexicon of entity names or text from an unlabeled corpus more closely. The second method models the distributional semantics of token sequences, determining the similarity between a potential mention and the token sequences from the training data by analyzing the contexts where each sequence appears in a large unlabeled corpus. The second method is shown to improve the performance of BANNER on multiple data sets.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013