Matching Items (91)

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The Effects of Embodied Cognition and Dialogic Reading on Children's Literacy Skills

Description

Both dialogic reading and embodied cognition have showed to be effective strategies in the development of early literacy skills. Additionally, the use of electronic books has been found to also have a positive effect, including in combination with dialogic reading.

Both dialogic reading and embodied cognition have showed to be effective strategies in the development of early literacy skills. Additionally, the use of electronic books has been found to also have a positive effect, including in combination with dialogic reading. The effectiveness of dialogic reading and embodied strategy while reading an e-book has not been compared. The purpose of the study is to determine if embodied cognition can improve dialogic reading practices and possibly offer a theoretical framework for why dialogical reading practices work. Additionally, this study aims to determine the impact of embodied cognition and dialogic reading on the development of both vocabulary and story recall skills in preschool-aged children. Twenty-nine preschool children between the ages of 3 and 5 years old took part in a matched pairs experiment that included reading an e-book. Children in the experimental groups received four readings of either an embodied cognition condition or a dialogic reading condition. Following the four readings, the groups switched treatment. The children who received the embodied cognition conditions scored significantly higher on both story recall and vocabulary acquisition compared to those in the dialogic reading and control groups. Results of the study suggest embodied cognition in conjugation with dialogic reading practices could provide a more effective and improved model for promoting early literacy skills.

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2018-05

Affordance Mismatch Between Male and Female Psychologies in the Early Stages of Dating.

Description

Accurately assessing the sexual interest of others is useful for initiating courtship behaviors that have a chance of being reciprocated, and also potentially critical for survival, particularly for women, where unwanted sexual interest from men can become unwanted sexual advances,

Accurately assessing the sexual interest of others is useful for initiating courtship behaviors that have a chance of being reciprocated, and also potentially critical for survival, particularly for women, where unwanted sexual interest from men can become unwanted sexual advances, sexual assault, and worse. Previous research suggests that men overestimate women’s sexual interest to initiate courtship behaviors even if the probability of their advances being reciprocated is low. This may be because missing a potential mating opportunity is costlier than squandered courtship efforts. However, research on this male sexual overestimation effect has failed to fully appreciate the importance of the motivations and contexts of actors. Here, we primed participants with short-term mating motivations and threat contexts to compare against a control prime condition. We replicated the male sexual overestimation effect in the control and threat prime conditions and found a marginal effect in the short-term mating prime condition. The magnitude of the difference between men’s estimations and women’s self-reports of women’s sexual interest was only significantly different from the control prime in the threat condition. Additionally, we explored some interesting combinations of circumstances. We found that, in a potentially common scenario, where men are primed with short-term mating motives and women are primed with threat, the male sexual overestimation effect replicates and, further, find that this effect disappears when the mindsets of men and women are reversed. We discuss the implications of these findings in the context of understanding what the default psychologies of people during the early stages of courtship are, and the effects these psychologies have on estimations of sexual interest.

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2019-05

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The Wham-Womb Effect: Words with the Phoneme /æ/ are Rated as More Rousing than those with /u/

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Recent findings support that facial musculature accounts for a form of phonetic sound symbolism. Yu, McBeath, and Glenberg (2019) found that, in both English words and Mandarin pinyin, words with the middle phoneme /i:/ (as in “gleam”) were rated as

Recent findings support that facial musculature accounts for a form of phonetic sound symbolism. Yu, McBeath, and Glenberg (2019) found that, in both English words and Mandarin pinyin, words with the middle phoneme /i:/ (as in “gleam”) were rated as more positive than their paired words containing the phoneme /ʌ/ (as in “glum”). The present study tested whether a second largely orthogonal dimension of vowel phoneme production (represented by the phonemes /æ/ vs /u/), is related to a second dimension perpendicular to emotional valence, arousal. Arousal was chosen because it is the second dimension of the Russell Circumplex Model of Affect. In phonetic similarity mappings, this second dimension is typically characterized by oral aperture size and larynx position, but it also appears to follow the continuum of consonance/dissonance. Our findings supported the hypothesis that one-syllable words with the center vowel phoneme /æ/ were reliably rated as more rousing, and less calming, than matched words with the center vowel phoneme /u/. These results extend the Yu, et al. findings regarding the potential contribution of facial musculature to sounds associated with the emotional dimension of arousal, and further confirm a model of sound symbolism related to emotional expression. These findings support that phonemes are not neutral basic units but rather illustrate an innate relationship between embodied emotional expression and speech production.

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2019-05

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The Association of Parent Feeding Styles with Childhood Obesity Across Ethnicity

Description

Childhood obesity is a societal cost that affects children across the world. Although childhood obesity affects children of various ethnic backgrounds, childhood obesity is disproportionately prevalent in lower income, minority households. Current interventions for childhood obesity center around a

Childhood obesity is a societal cost that affects children across the world. Although childhood obesity affects children of various ethnic backgrounds, childhood obesity is disproportionately prevalent in lower income, minority households. Current interventions for childhood obesity center around a “one size fits all” model that is poor in efficacy amongst minority populations. However, through the examination of parent feeding strategies, the efficacy of interventions may increase. This literature review wishes to examine the role of parent feeding strategies as an indicator of childhood obesity and to examine whether there is an association between parent feeding strategies, child unhealthy eating, weight status, and ethnicity. An examination of the literature on childhood obesity, suggests that childhood obesity can be attributed to genetic, social, and environmental influences. Research has indicated that having parents who exhibit the indulgent feeding style are more strongly associated with child unhealthy eating when compared to other feeding styles. Given this literature review, I predict that the association between indulgent feeding style and child unhealthy eating is stronger among overweight/obese children than normal weight children. Lastly, I conclude that the association of indulgent feeding styles, child unhealthy eating, and child weight status will be more strongly associated amongst Latinx households when compared to African American and White households.

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2019-05

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Reading Motivation and Comprehension: Using iSTART-3 to Improve Comprehension in South Africa

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The purposes of the study are to: 1) investigate how students' motivation towards reading is related to their reading comprehension skills, and 2) assess the impact of using an Intelligent Tutoring System to improve comprehension. Interactive Strategy Training for Active

The purposes of the study are to: 1) investigate how students' motivation towards reading is related to their reading comprehension skills, and 2) assess the impact of using an Intelligent Tutoring System to improve comprehension. Interactive Strategy Training for Active Reading and Thinking-3 (iSTART-3) is a game-based tutoring system designed to improve students' reading comprehension skills. The current study was conducted in South Africa with 8th and 9th graders between the ages of 14 and 18. These students are multilingual and they learn English as a First Additional Language (English-FAL). Firstly, we predict that students who are highly motivated to read will have high comprehension scores than those who are slightly or not at all motivated to read. Secondly, we predict that the use of iSTART-3 will improve students' reading comprehension, regardless of their level of reading motivation, with better results for those who are more motivated to read. Counter to our predictions, the results did not reveal a relation between reading motivation and reading comprehension. Furthermore, an effect of iSTART-3 on reading comprehension was not found. These results were likely influenced by the small sample size and the length of the intervention.

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2018-12

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An Investigation into the Influence of Dimensions of Containment on Externalizing Behaviors in Affluent Youth

Description

Recent evidence suggests that youth from affluent and upper-middle-class, white collar families are at high risk for maladaptive behaviors, such as aggression, rule breaking, and substance use. A major hypothesized underlying factor is lax parental discipline that involves low repercussions

Recent evidence suggests that youth from affluent and upper-middle-class, white collar families are at high risk for maladaptive behaviors, such as aggression, rule breaking, and substance use. A major hypothesized underlying factor is lax parental discipline that involves low repercussions for errant behaviors such as substance use—also known as perceived parents’ “containment” of such behaviors. In this study, the focus is on multiple dimensions of perceived containment among parents and school authorities, in relation to both externalizing problems and drug use behaviors. These associations are examined in four different schools: two boarding schools and two day schools. Results show much stronger links with maladjustment for perceived containment by parents as opposed to perceived containment by school. The largest significant effects within the containment indices were found to be between parent containment of drug use and the levels of substance use behaviors reported by students. These effects were found across gender and all schools, indicating robust links. Overall, the most robust index studied was the perceived parental monitoring variables; monitoring effects were stronger than effects from any containment variables. Students who perceived the highest levels of parental monitoring exhibited the least amount of externalizing behaviors across all schools and genders. A possible explanation includes students perceiving that their parents monitor their behavior due to caring on the behalf of the parent, which then leads to fewer externalizing outcomes. These results suggest that the most effective means of decreasing substance use levels seem to lie within the parents of the students and not the schools.

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2018-12

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An Evaluation of the Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine Device and its Impact on Cognitive Function in a Rat Model

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The aim of this study was to determine whether IUD administration, with and without the presence of Levo, and with and without the presence of the ovaries, impacts cognition in a rat model. Rats received either Sham or Ovariectomy (Ovx)

The aim of this study was to determine whether IUD administration, with and without the presence of Levo, and with and without the presence of the ovaries, impacts cognition in a rat model. Rats received either Sham or Ovariectomy (Ovx) surgery (removal of the ovaries), plus either no IUD, a Blank IUD (without Levo), or a Levo-releasing IUD (Levo IUD), enabling us to evaluate the effects of Ovx and the effects of IUD administration on cognition. Two weeks after surgery, all treatment groups were tested on the water radial arm maze, Morris water maze, and visible platform task to evaluate cognition. At sacrifice, upon investigation of the uteri, it was determined that some of the IUDs were no longer present in animals from these groups: Sham\u2014Blank IUD, Ovx\u2014Blank IUD, and Sham\u2014Levo IUD. Results from the remaining three groups showed that compared to Sham animals with no IUDs, Ovx animals with no IUDs had marginally impaired working memory performance, and that Ovx animals with Levo IUDs as compared to Ovx animals with no IUDs had marginally enhanced memory performance, not specific to a particular memory type. Results also showed that Ovx animals with Levo IUDs had qualitatively more cells in their vaginal smears and increased uterine horn weight compared to Ovx animals with no IUDs, suggesting local stimulation of the Levo IUDs to the uterine horns. Overall, these results provide alternative evidence to the hypothesis that the Levo IUD administers Levo in solely a localized manner, and suggests that the possibility for the Levo IUD to affect reproductive cyclicity in ovary-intact animals is not rejected. The potential for the Levo IUD to exert effects on cognition suggests that either the hormone does in fact systemically circulate, or that the Levo IUD administration affects cognition by altering an as yet undetermined hormonal or other feedback between the uterus and the brain.

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2018-12

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The Temporal Stability and Predictive Utility of Semiannual Teacher Assessments Across Elementary School

Description

Teacher assessments are often used alongside parent assessments to identify behavioral problems and patterns in school-aged children. These assessments can aid in the diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders and are used to screen children for targeted delinquency prevention programs. Although

Teacher assessments are often used alongside parent assessments to identify behavioral problems and patterns in school-aged children. These assessments can aid in the diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders and are used to screen children for targeted delinquency prevention programs. Although researchers have heavily studied the relationship between parent and teacher assessments, not as much research has analyzed teacher assessments alone, specifically semiannual teacher assessments. Teacher assessments are typically conducted during the fall semester, normally a couple months into the school year, or during the spring semester, normally a couple months after the winter break period. Using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (PYS), we aimed to determine the temporal stability and predictive utility of semiannual teacher assessments of children's behavioral problems from 2nd grade to 5th grade. Results showed that mean assessment scores increased from the fall to the spring semester across all 4 grades. We also found that teacher assessments of behavioral problems in grade school were significantly correlated with future serious violence. Although our statistical model did not identify a specific time period or semester when these assessments were most predictive, we observed a pattern where the spring semesters were more predictive for the younger grades, and the fall semesters were more predictive for the older grades. Future research could aim to understand why this pattern exists and what its implications are.

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2018-12

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Prevalence and Management of Dementia and Delirium in Hospice Acute Care Settings

Description

BACKGROUND: Delirium is often not recognized by clinicians at hospice facilities, leading to the lack of beneficial interventions. The aim of this study is to find a baseline of how many patients show signs of delirium, dementia, or both, determine

BACKGROUND: Delirium is often not recognized by clinicians at hospice facilities, leading to the lack of beneficial interventions. The aim of this study is to find a baseline of how many patients show signs of delirium, dementia, or both, determine whether clinicians are recognizing these signs, and observe how dementia and delirium are being treated for these patients.

DESIGN: Patient charts were reviewed to obtain demographic information, medications, and patients' progress throughout stay including pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions and results. Patients were then interviewed using the short portable mental status questionnaire.

SETTING: The prevalence and management of dementia and delirium was evaluated in 10 Hospice of the Valley inpatient settings.

RESULTS: Out of the 159 participants (mean age = 77.72 years), 93 (58.5%) presented with moderate to severe cognitive impairment, but only 38 participants (23.9%) had a formal diagnosis of dementia. Out of the 93 participants with significant cognitive impairment, 60 participants (65.6%) were treated with benzodiazepines and 82 (88.2%) were treated with opioids. Fifty-nine (63.4%) participants with cognitive impairment had documented non pharmacological interventions such as repositioning and reorientation, but only 22 (23.7%) participants received more meaningful non-pharmacological interventions such as hand massages, targeted videos, and favorite music.

CONCLUSIONS: The current study found a high prevalence of moderate to severe cognitive impairment without a diagnosis of dementia. A likely cause is the high frequency of opioids and benzodiazepines prescribed, causing drug-induced sedation and delirium which significantly impairs cognitive abilities. Safer alternatives, such as non-opioid pain medications, should be considered within the hospice population, especially given that age is a risk factor for delirium. A tool would be helpful to encourage staff to identify and document use of non-pharmacological interventions.

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2018-12

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The Push for Perfection: Parent Influence, Perfectionism, & Stress as Predictors of Student Adjustment

Description

Nearly a decade of research has shown that high achieving students are at elevated risk for serious adjustment problems \u2014 including internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use. In this study, we examine the relationship among three types of risk

Nearly a decade of research has shown that high achieving students are at elevated risk for serious adjustment problems \u2014 including internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use. In this study, we examine the relationship among three types of risk factors, including parent expectations and criticism, self-reported perfectionism, and daily stressors, and internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and substance use.

Perfectionism and daily stressors (e.g., relationship stress and hours of sleep) were significantly associated with internalizing symptoms and rule-breaking behaviors for both males and females across schools. Our findings suggest that there may be a unique interplay among perfectionism, relationship stress, and hours of sleep for students attending high achieving schools. Future research should attempt to tease apart the interactions among these risk factors and determine whether interventions should address them as separate, modifiable dimensions or treat them in a holistic manner.

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2018-12