Matching Items (90)

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Sensory motor mechanisms unify psychology: the embodiment of culture

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Sensorimotor mechanisms can unify explanations at cognitive, social, and cultural levels. As an example, we review how anticipated motor effort is used by individuals and groups to judge distance: the

Sensorimotor mechanisms can unify explanations at cognitive, social, and cultural levels. As an example, we review how anticipated motor effort is used by individuals and groups to judge distance: the greater the anticipated effort the greater the perceived distance. Anticipated motor effort can also be used to understand cultural differences. People with interdependent self- construals interact almost exclusively with in-group members, and hence there is little opportunity to tune their sensorimotor systems for interaction with out-group members. The result is that interactions with out-group members are expected to be difficult and out-group members are perceived as literally more distant. In two experiments we show (a) interdependent Americans, compared to independent Americans, see American confederates (in-group) as closer; (b) interdependent Arabs, compared to independent Arabs, perceive Arab confederates (in- group) as closer, whereas interdependent Americans perceive Arab confederates (out-group) as farther. These results demonstrate how the same embodied mechanism can seamlessly contribute to explanations at the cognitive, social, and cultural levels.

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  • 2013-11-29

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Language comprehension warps the mirror neuron system

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Is the mirror neuron system (MNS) used in language understanding? According to embodied accounts of language comprehension, understanding sentences describing actions makes use of neural mechanisms of action control, including

Is the mirror neuron system (MNS) used in language understanding? According to embodied accounts of language comprehension, understanding sentences describing actions makes use of neural mechanisms of action control, including the MNS. Consequently, repeatedly comprehending sentences describing similar actions should induce adaptation of the MNS thereby warping its use in other cognitive processes such as action recognition and prediction. To test this prediction, participants read blocks of multiple sentences where each sentence in the block described transfer of objects in a direction away or toward the reader. Following each block, adaptation was measured by having participants predict the end-point of videotaped actions. The adapting sentences disrupted prediction of actions in the same direction, but (a) only for videos of biological motion, and (b) only when the effector implied by the language (e.g., the hand) matched the videos. These findings are signatures of the MNS.

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Date Created
  • 2013-12-17

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How intent to interact can affect action scaling of distance: reply to Wilson

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Soliman et al. (2013) set out to demonstrate how the bodily level of analysis can unify explanations in psychology. Our argument was that common sensorimotor mechanisms underlie many of the

Soliman et al. (2013) set out to demonstrate how the bodily level of analysis can unify explanations in psychology. Our argument was that common sensorimotor mechanisms underlie many of the behavioral phenomena that are currently segregated as cognitive, social, or cultural. Toward that end, we re-characterized a cultural construct—self-construal along the dimension of independence and interdependence (Markus and Kitayama, 1991)—as reflecting degree of interaction with ethnically diverse others.

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Created

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  • 2014-06-04

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Contribution of Embodiment to Solving the Riddle of Infantile Amnesia

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At least since the late nineteenth century, researchers have sought an explanation for infantile amnesia (IA)—the lack of autobiographical memories dating from early childhood—and childhood amnesia (CA), faster forgetting of

At least since the late nineteenth century, researchers have sought an explanation for infantile amnesia (IA)—the lack of autobiographical memories dating from early childhood—and childhood amnesia (CA), faster forgetting of events up until the age of about seven. Evidence suggests that IA occurs across altricial species, and a number of studies using animal models have converged on the hypothesis that maturation of the hippocampus is an important factor. But why does the hippocampus mature at one time and not another, and how does that maturation relate to memory? Our hypothesis is rooted in theories of embodied cognition, and it provides an explanation both for hippocampal development and the end of IA. Specifically, the onset of locomotion prompts the alignment of hippocampal place cells and grid cells to the environment, which in turn facilitates the ontogeny of long-term episodic memory and the end of IA. That is, because the animal can now reliably discriminate locations, location becomes a stable cue for memories. Furthermore, as the mode of human locomotion shifts from crawling to walking, there is an additional shift in the alignment of the hippocampus that marks the beginning of adult-like episodic memory and the end of CA. Finally, given a reduction in self-locomotion and exploration with aging, the hypothesis suggests a partial explanation for cognitive decline with aging.

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  • 2016-01-25

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The Influence of Soul Perception on Concepts of Self

Description

Perceptions of the self differ between cultures, generally between those cultures in the West and East. Some of the ways that these individuals from these cultures may differ are in

Perceptions of the self differ between cultures, generally between those cultures in the West and East. Some of the ways that these individuals from these cultures may differ are in their self-construal, their collectivist and individualist tendencies, and how they perceive control in their lives. The current study proposes that some of these differences are influenced by different concepts individuals hold regarding the "soul", or inner self. These concepts may be promoted by the different religious beliefs prominent in different regions. The Soul Perception Index, being developed through this study, measures belief in multiple souls, a universal soul, a single soul, or no soul. It was predicted that a belief in a single soul will correlate with an individual view of the self (individualism, independent self-construal, internal locus of control), and a universal or multi-soul belief will correlate with an interdependent view of the self (collectivism, interdependent self-construal, and external locus of control). We found that these variables did not significantly differ in their relationships with soul belief. However, Indian Hindu participants and Chinese participants seemed to score highly on all self-view variables and all soul perception types indicating that individuals from these cultures may be more predisposed to hold opposing beliefs simultaneously while US Christians are not.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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The Effect of Gender, Education Level, and Field of Academic Study on Anti-Gay Bias

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Anti-gay bias is a prevalent aspect of traditional male gender norms that has negatively impacted the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community, both in terms of mental and physical

Anti-gay bias is a prevalent aspect of traditional male gender norms that has negatively impacted the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community, both in terms of mental and physical health. This study examined how anti-gay bias varies as a function of gender, education level, and field of study. We hypothesized that men will have more bias than women, that seniors in college will be less biased than freshmen in college, and that male students in sub disciplines of engineering that have relatively more women (e.g., biomedical engineering), will be less biased than those in more homogeneous, male-dominated fields (e.g., mechanical engineering). Past research has identified the implications of gender and education level in anti-gay bias; the current study looked to further such research and to investigate possible implications of the impact of settings that have a gender imbalance. A total of 303 undergraduate students from Arizona State University completed an online survey that measured attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals and communities. Neither education level nor academic field of study were found to have influenced degree of bias. Limitations and implications of the study are discussed.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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The Effect of Work-Life Balance on Subjective Well-Being and Social Support in Midlife

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Understanding work-life balance is crucial for improving the work environment, managing work and personal demands, and maintaining well-being. However, scientific literature regarding work-life balance has not adequately investigated its long-term

Understanding work-life balance is crucial for improving the work environment, managing work and personal demands, and maintaining well-being. However, scientific literature regarding work-life balance has not adequately investigated its long-term relationships with subjective well-being and social support factors. Up to this point, empirical research uses cross-sectional or short-term longitudinal data and is focused on broad outcomes related to work-life balance. The current study adds to the literature by breaking down work-life balance into work interference, how work experiences negatively contribute to personal life, and work enhancement, how work experiences positively contribute to personal life. Work-life balance factors will be explored with relationships between three components of subjective well-being: positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction. Additional examined relationships are between work-life balance factors and quality of social support through positive and negative relationships with spouse, family, and friends. Finally, the relationships with work-life balance are examined with potential covariates. The research questions will be tested with multilevel models using data collected from 2006 \u2014 2014 from the Health and Retirement Study, a longitudinal panel survey of participants in midlife and old age. In short, work enhancement is predictive of the level and change in life satisfaction and positive factors; work interference is predictive of the level and change in negative factors. The discussion focuses on understanding the directionality of the relationships and how future research can build upon the understanding of subjective well-being and social support.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Interactive Effects of Broad Social Motives and Descriptive Norms on Drinking Behavior

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Individuals with strong broad social motives (BSM) place high personal value on social activities and are at increased risk for heavy drinking. Those with strong BSM who also perceive that

Individuals with strong broad social motives (BSM) place high personal value on social activities and are at increased risk for heavy drinking. Those with strong BSM who also perceive that college students are heavy drinkers (high descriptive norms) might be particularly susceptible to increases in alcohol use during the transition to college, and may be likely to drink for social facilitation (social drinking motives). To test these hypotheses, we examined a mediated moderation model testing interactive effects of BSM and descriptive norms (perceptions of drinking in college) on drinking behavior, mediated by social drinking motives. Data were from 426 incoming college students and analyses were based on a subsample of 218 who reported drinking behavior at either time point. Results indicated that BSM interacted with descriptive norms to predict increases in social drinking motives from high school to college and social drinking motives in turn predicted increases in alcohol use. Probing this interaction revealed that those with high BSM and high descriptive norms experienced greater increases in social drinking motives than those with low descriptive norms. Tests of moderated indirect effects indicated that effects of BSM on drinking behavior through social drinking motives were also stronger among those with high descriptive norms. These results identify a particularly high risk group for changes in alcohol use during an important developmental period. This may have important implications for prevention and intervention methods which can attenuate college alcohol use by targeting individuals with strong BSM who perceive heavy drinking among college peers.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

Theory of Mind Development in Middle Childhood

Description

How do children understand how others see the world? I examined correlations between 4-8 year old children's understanding of beliefs and their understanding of other ways that people represent the

How do children understand how others see the world? I examined correlations between 4-8 year old children's understanding of beliefs and their understanding of other ways that people represent the world. Beliefs that I measured are understanding of pretense, understanding that things can have multiple identities, understanding that people can know things by inference, and understanding that people can look at the same thing and have different representations of it. I predicted that there would be correlations among these tasks. In particular, I predicted children would be able to understand these tasks when they understood true and false beliefs, based on current theories on belief understanding. I predicted that the classic false belief task alone would not be a good predictor of task performance, but that the combination of true and false belief tasks would. Participants were 100 children recruited at the Phoenix Children's Museum between ages 4 and 8. Previous research has found that children pass all of these tasks between the ages of 6 and 8, but no other studies have looked at the inter-correlations among them. Contrary to my prediction, children did not pass these tasks all at once, but scores went up gradually with age and belief understanding.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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A Prediction of Academic Achievement from Child Emotionality and School Quality: A Case for Differential Susceptibility

Description

Early academic adjustment has been found to be predictive of later academic success. This study sought to determine how child emotionality at school, specifically positive and negative emotions, as well

Early academic adjustment has been found to be predictive of later academic success. This study sought to determine how child emotionality at school, specifically positive and negative emotions, as well as the quality of the school, might affect child's academic achievement. Further, the possibility that emotionality and school quality interact was tested. Two hundred and twenty eight second grade children's expressions of positive and negative emotions were observed in the school setting. Teachers also submitted questionnaires on the children's positive emotionality. Academic adjustment was measured by standardized tests and teacher reports. School quality scores were based on multiple indicators obtained from online public information data. Regression analyses and multi-level modeling (when necessary) were used to predict academic performance from children's emotions, school quality, and their interaction. Results demonstrated that school quality was at least marginally positively related to all aspects of children's academic competence. Further, teacher-reported positive emotion positively predicted all scores of academic competence, and teacher-reported dispositional positive emotion positively predicted Woodcock Johnson III applied problems subtest scores. Further, interaction effects showed that teacher-reported positive emotion and school quality significantly predicted teacher-reported academic competence and Woodcock Johnson III applied problems subtest scores. Using both statistical strategies (MLM & regressions), observer-reported positive emotion and school quality marginally significantly predicted Woodcock Jonson III applied problems subtest scores. The results indicate that children's emotional behaviors at school, as well as school quality, play a role in the development of children's academic achievement.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05