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Differential Responses of Dinitrogen Fixation, Diazotrophic Cyanobacteria, and Ammonia Oxidation Reveal a Potential Warming-Induced Imbalance of the N-Cycle in Biological Soil Crusts

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N2 fixation and ammonia oxidation (AO) are the two most important processes in the nitrogen (N) cycle of biological soil crusts (BSCs). We studied the short-term response of acetylene reduction assay (ARA) rates, an indicator of potential N2 fixation, and

N2 fixation and ammonia oxidation (AO) are the two most important processes in the nitrogen (N) cycle of biological soil crusts (BSCs). We studied the short-term response of acetylene reduction assay (ARA) rates, an indicator of potential N2 fixation, and AO rates to temperature (T, -5°C to 35°C) in BSC of different successional stages along the BSC ecological succession and geographic origin (hot Chihuahuan and cooler Great Basin deserts). ARA in all BSCs increased with T until saturation occurred between 15 and 20°C, and declined at 30–35°C. Culture studies using cyanobacteria isolated from these crusts indicated that the saturating effect was traceable to their inability to grow well diazotrophically within the high temperature range. Below saturation, temperature response was exponential, with Q10 significantly different in the two areas (~ 5 for Great Basin BSCs; 2–3 for Chihuahuan BSCs), but similar between the two successional stages. However, in contrast to ARA, AO showed a steady increase to 30–35°C in Great Basin, and Chihuhuan BSCs showed no inhibition at any tested temperature. The T response of AO also differed significantly between Great Basin (Q10 of 4.5–4.8) and Chihuahuan (Q10 of 2.4–2.6) BSCs, but not between successional stages. Response of ARA rates to T did not differ from that of AO in either desert. Thus, while both processes scaled to T in unison until 20°C, they separated to an increasing degree at higher temperature. As future warming is likely to occur in the regions where BSCs are often the dominant living cover, this predicted decoupling is expected to result in higher proportion of nitrates in soil relative to ammonium. As nitrate is more easily lost as leachate or to be reduced to gaseous forms, this could mean a depletion of soil N over large landscapes globally.

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2016-10-24

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The Role of North American Music Educators in the Introduction of the Kodaly Method in Taiwan

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During the 1970s and 1980s, as Taiwan was undergoing profound economic, cultural and political change, a group of North American music educators collaborated with Taiwanese colleagues to establish the Kodaly Method in Taiwan. A history of this pioneering effort is presented.

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2013-10

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Standardization of the Gordon Primary Measures of Music Audiation in Greece

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The purpose of this study was to standardize the Primary Measures of Music Audiation in Greece (N = 1,188). Split-halves reliability was acceptable across grade levels (K through 3) for the Tonal and Rhythm subtests, but test-retest reliability was generally

The purpose of this study was to standardize the Primary Measures of Music Audiation in Greece (N = 1,188). Split-halves reliability was acceptable across grade levels (K through 3) for the Tonal and Rhythm subtests, but test-retest reliability was generally unacceptable, especially for the Rhythm subtest. Concurrent validity was mixed, with teacher ratings of musical achievement generally significantly correlated with Tonal but not Rhythm subtest scores. Composite test means were significantly higher for suburban and urban samples than for rural samples and were significantly higher for higher grade levels. Item difficulty coefficients were significantly correlated across grade levels. The Greek and U.S. composite means were similar except for a significantly higher U.S. mean for grade 1. However, when the rural subgroup was removed from the Greek sample to equate with the U.S. norming sample, there were nonsignificant differences from grades K through 1, but significant differences in favor of the Greek sample for grades 3 and 4.

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2010-04

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Classroom Observation Ability Among Pre-Service Music Educators in Greece

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The purpose of this study was to examine the classroom observation ability of pre-service music teachers in Greece (N = 62). Two groups of undergraduates, one near the beginning and one near the end of a two-year course sequence in

The purpose of this study was to examine the classroom observation ability of pre-service music teachers in Greece (N = 62). Two groups of undergraduates, one near the beginning and one near the end of a two-year course sequence in teaching methods that included in-class and in-school training in observation ("juniors" and "seniors," respectively), observed videotapes of one elementary (4th grade) and one secondary (8th grade) general music class, each being taught by its own expert music teacher. Subjects wrote comments that judges classified into subcategories within overall categories of lesson, teacher, and students. Results largely confirmed those of previous research from the USA, with the more experienced subjects making significantly more comments and both groups focusing more on teachers than on lessons or students. There were also differences between subcategories and significant intersections involving experience level and sex of the subjects.

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2010-02

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Multicultural and Popular Music Content in an American Music Teacher Education Program

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The teaching of multicultural music, and to a lesser extent popular music, has been the stated goal of music education policy makes for many decades. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to estimate the amount and percentage of time

The teaching of multicultural music, and to a lesser extent popular music, has been the stated goal of music education policy makes for many decades. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to estimate the amount and percentage of time music education majors in a university teacher education program spent on 13 styles of music in history, theory and performance courses during a four-year program, both in and out of class. Subjects were the entire population of undergraduate pre-service music teachers from one large university music school in the southwestern United States (N = 80). Estimates were provided by the course instructors. Subjects spent widely disparate amounts of time on musics of the western art (92.83%), western non-art (6.94%), and non-western (.23), with little time (.54%) devoted to popular music. The discussion centers on solutions sometimes proffered for musically unbalanced music teacher education programs, implications relative to accreditation and national music standards in the USA, and changes implemented by the institution under study.

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2009-02

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Historical Research on Music Education and Music Therapy in the United State: Doctoral Dissertations of the Twentieth Century

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This article presents an analysis of all dissertations directly related to music education and music therapy produced at U.S. institutions throughout the twentieth century--with concentration on the period since a prior study (last decade).

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2007-10

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Alice Carey Inskeep (1875-1942): A Pioneering Iowa Music Educator and MENC Founding Member

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The purpose of this study was to examine the professional contributions of Alice Carey Inskeep (1875-1942), who contributed significantly to music education through her positive and effective teaching, supervising, community service, and leadership in music education. Inskeep was born in

The purpose of this study was to examine the professional contributions of Alice Carey Inskeep (1875-1942), who contributed significantly to music education through her positive and effective teaching, supervising, community service, and leadership in music education. Inskeep was born in Ottumwa, Iowa, and taught for five years in that city's school system after graduating from high school. She served as music supervisor in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, for most of the remainder of her career, and she provided progressive leadership to the schools and community. She was one of three people appointed to plan the initial meeting in Keokuk, Iowa, for what eventually became MENC: The National Association for Music Education, and she was one of sixty-nine founding members of the organization in 1907. The Keokuk meeting served as an impetus for Inskeep to to travel to Chicago, where she studied with several notable music educators. Later, she sat on the organization's nominating committee, the first Educational Council (precursor to the Music Education Research Council) board of directors, and provided leadership to two of the organization's affiliates, the North Central Division and the Iowa Music Educators Association. She served as a part-time or summer faculty member at Iowa State Normal School and Coe College in Cedar Falls and Cedar Rapids, Iowa, respectively, and the American Institute of Normal Methods in Evanston, Illinois, and Auburndale, Massachusetts.

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2007-07