Matching Items (20)

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Composite Bricks from Fungus Mycelium and Nanomaterials for Sustainable Applications

Description

Plastics make up a large proportion of solid waste that ends up in landfills and pollute ecosystems, and do not readily decompose. Composites from fungus mycelium are a recent and

Plastics make up a large proportion of solid waste that ends up in landfills and pollute ecosystems, and do not readily decompose. Composites from fungus mycelium are a recent and promising alternative to replace plastics. Mycelium is the root-like fibers from fungi that grow underground. When fed with woody biomass, the mycelium becomes a dense mass. From there, the mycelium is placed in mold to take its shape and grow. Once the growth process is done, the mycelium is baked to end the growth, thus making a mycelium brick. The woody biomass fed into the mycelium can include materials such as sawdust and pistachio shells, which are all cheap feedstock. In comparison to plastics, mycelium bricks are mostly biodegradable and eco-friendly. Mycelium bricks are resistant to water, fire, and mold and are also lightweight, sustainable, and affordable. Mycelium based materials are a viable option to replace less eco-friendly materials. This project aims to explore growth factors of mycelium and incorporate nanomaterials into mycelium bricks to achieve strong and sustainable materials, specifically for packaging materials. The purpose of integrating nanomaterials into mycelium bricks is to add further functionality such as conductivity, and to enhance properties such as mechanical strength.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Development of Nanozymes from 2D Materials for Optical Detection of Neurotransmitters

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This paper discusses the possibility of utilizing 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a nanozyme to detect dopamine colorimetric assays, first by detecting color change in liquid solutions due to oxidation

This paper discusses the possibility of utilizing 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a nanozyme to detect dopamine colorimetric assays, first by detecting color change in liquid solutions due to oxidation and then second on paper-based assays. MoS2 samples dispersed in methylcellulose (MC) solution were prepared using liquid-phase exfoliation through sonication. The dopamine (DOPA) and hydrogen peroxide (H¬¬2O2) solutions were prepared separately in specific concentrations. The solutions were mixed in a well plate and colorimetric results were analyzed by a plate reader, revealing a quantitative relationship between dopamine concentration and absorbance. Subsequent testing was conducted using paper assays, where combined solutions of DOPA and H2O2 were dropped onto paper with printed wax wells that contained dried MoS2. An analysis of the color change was conducted using a smartphone application called Color Grab to detect the red, green, and blue (RGB) values. Plotting the RGB results across the dopamine concentrations revealed a positively correlated relationship between the two factors, suggesting that a predictive model could be developed to predict dopamine concentrations based on measured colorimetric values.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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The Effect of Cu3Au Parent Phase Crystallography on Nanoporous Gold Morphology

Description

In this research, the effect of the crystal structure of the parent phase on the morphology of nanoporous gold is explored. Specifically, Cu-Au alloys are studied. For this experiment, Cu0.75Au0.25

In this research, the effect of the crystal structure of the parent phase on the morphology of nanoporous gold is explored. Specifically, Cu-Au alloys are studied. For this experiment, Cu0.75Au0.25 is heat treated to achieve an ordered phase Cu3Au and a disordered random solid solution, face centered cubic, Cu0.75Au0.25 phase, which are then dealloyed to form nanoporous gold (NPG). Using a morphology digital image analysis software called AQUAMI, SEM images of the NPG morphology were characterized to collect data on the ligament length, ligament diameter, porosity size, etc. of the samples. It was determined that the NPG formed from the ordered parent phase had an average ligament diameter that was 10 nm larger than the NPG formed from the disordered parent phase. This may be due to the ordered crystal structure allowing for faster gold diffusion and coarsening resulting in an increased average ligament size. Further future work is needed in order to obtain further evidence to support this hypothesis.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Selenium Removal with Nanotechnology-Enabled Water Treatment Using Conductive Copolymer Sorbents

Description

Heavy metals such as selenium can be especially important to limit because they can cause serious health problems even at relatively low concentrations. In an effort to selectively remove selenium

Heavy metals such as selenium can be especially important to limit because they can cause serious health problems even at relatively low concentrations. In an effort to selectively remove selenium from solution, a PAABA (poly(aniline-co-p-aminobenzoic acid) conductive copolymer was synthesized in a selenic acid solution, and its ability to remove selenium was studied. Analysis of the Raman spectra confirmed the hypothesized formation of PAABA polymer. Constant voltage cycles showed success in precipitating the selenium out of solution via electroreduction, and ICP-MS confirmed the reduction of selenium concentrated in solution. These results indicate the PAABA synthesized in selenic acid shows promise for selective water treatment.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

Nanotechnology Activity Videos

Description

Many nanotechnology-related principles can be demonstrated in a way that is understandable for elementary school-aged children through at-home activity videos. As a part of a National Science Foundation funded grant,

Many nanotechnology-related principles can be demonstrated in a way that is understandable for elementary school-aged children through at-home activity videos. As a part of a National Science Foundation funded grant, Dr. Qing Hua Wang’s research group at Arizona State University developed a nanotechnology-related activity website, Nano@Home, for students. In conjunction with ASU’s virtual Open Door 2021, this creative project aimed to create activity videos based on the Nano@Home website to make the activities more interactive for students.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Chemical and geometric transformations of MoS2/WS2 heterostructures by plasma treatment

Description

Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) like molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) are effective components in optoelectronic devices due to their tunable and attractive electric, optical and chemical

Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) like molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) are effective components in optoelectronic devices due to their tunable and attractive electric, optical and chemical properties. Combining different 2D TMDCs into either vertical or lateral heterostructures has been pursued to achieve new optical and electronic properties. Chemical treatments have also been pursued to effectively tune the properties of 2D TMDCs. Among many chemical routes that have been studied, plasma treatment is notable for being rapid and versatile. In Wang’s group earlier work, plasma treatment of MoS2 and WS2 resulted in the formation of MoO3 and WO3 nanosheets and nanoscrolls. However, plasma treatment of 2D TMDC heterostructures have not been widely studied. In this dissertation, MoS2/WS2 vertical and lateral heterostructures were grown and treated with air plasma. The result showed that the vertical heterostructure and lateral heterostructures behaved differently. For the vertical heterostructures, the top WS2 layer acts as a shield for the underlying MoS2 monolayer from oxidizing and forming transition metal oxide nanoscrolls, as shown by Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). On the contrary, for the lateral heterostructures, the WS2 that was grown surrounding the MoS2 triangular core served as a tight frame to stop the propagation of the oxidized MoS2, resulting a gradient of crack distribution. These findings provide insight into how plasma treatment can affect the formation of oxide in heterostructure, which can have further application in nanoelectronic devices and electrocatalysts.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Carbon nanomaterials for energy storage, actuators and environmental applications

Description

Carbon nanomaterials have caught tremendous attention in the last few decades due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Tremendous effort has been made to develop new synthesis techniques for

Carbon nanomaterials have caught tremendous attention in the last few decades due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Tremendous effort has been made to develop new synthesis techniques for carbon nanomaterials and investigate their properties for different applications. In this work, carbon nanospheres (CNSs), carbon foams (CF), and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were studied for various applications, including water treatment, energy storage, actuators, and sensors.

A facile spray pyrolysis synthesis technique was developed to synthesize individual CNSs with specific surface area (SSA) up to 1106 m2/g. The hollow CNSs showed adsorption of up to 300 mg rhodamine B dye per gram carbon, which is more than 15 times higher than that observed for conventional carbon black. They were also evaluated as adsorbents for removal of arsenate and selenate from water and displayed good binding to both species, outperforming commercial activated carbons for arsenate removal in pH > 8. When evaluated as supercapacitor electrode materials, specific capacitances of up to 112 F/g at a current density of 0.1 A/g were observed. When used as Li-ion battery anode materials, the CNSs achieved a discharge capacity of 270 mAh/g at a current density of 372 mA/g (1C), which is 4-fold higher than that of commercial graphite anode.

Carbon foams were synthesized using direct pyrolysis and had SSA up to 2340 m2/g. When used as supercapacitor electrode materials, a specific capacitance up to 280 F/g was achieved at current density of 0.1 A/g and remained as high as 207 F/g, even at a high current density of 10 A/g.

A printed walking robot was made from common plastic films and coatings of SWNTs. The solid-state thermal bimorph actuators were multifunctional energy transducers powered by heat, light, or electricity. The actuators were also investigated for photo/thermal detection. Electrochemical actuators based on MnO2 were also studied for potential underwater applications.

SWNTs were also used to fabricate printable electrodes for trace Cr(VI) detection, which displayed sensitivity up to 500 nA/ppb for Cr(VI). The limit of detection was shown to be as low as 5 ppb. A flow detection system based on CNT/printed electrodes was also demonstrated.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Modeling Complex Material Systems Using Stochastic Reconstruction and Lattice Particle Simulation

Description

In this dissertation, three complex material systems including a novel class of hyperuniform composite materials, cellularized collagen gel and low melting point alloy (LMPA) composite are investigated, using statistical pattern

In this dissertation, three complex material systems including a novel class of hyperuniform composite materials, cellularized collagen gel and low melting point alloy (LMPA) composite are investigated, using statistical pattern characterization, stochastic microstructure reconstruction and micromechanical analysis. In Chapter 1, an introduction of this report is provided, in which a brief review is made about these three material systems. In Chapter 2, detailed discussion of the statistical morphological descriptors and a stochastic optimization approach for microstructure reconstruction is presented. In Chapter 3, the lattice particle method for micromechanical analysis of complex heterogeneous materials is introduced. In Chapter 4, a new class of hyperuniform heterogeneous material with superior mechanical properties is investigated. In Chapter 5, a bio-material system, i.e., cellularized collagen gel is modeled using correlation functions and stochastic reconstruction to study the collective dynamic behavior of the embed tumor cells. In chapter 6, LMPA soft robotic system is generated by generalizing the correlation functions and the rigidity tunability of this smart composite is discussed. In Chapter 7, a future work plan is presented.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Understanding Solar Cell Contacts Through Simulations

Description

The maximum theoretical efficiency of a terrestrial non-concentrated silicon solar cell is 29.4%, as obtained from detailed balance analysis. Over 90% of the current silicon photovoltaics market is based on

The maximum theoretical efficiency of a terrestrial non-concentrated silicon solar cell is 29.4%, as obtained from detailed balance analysis. Over 90% of the current silicon photovoltaics market is based on solar cells with diffused junctions (Al-BSF, PERC, PERL, etc.), which are limited in performance by increased non-radiative recombination in the doped regions. This limitation can be overcome through the use of passivating contacts, which prevent recombination at the absorber interfaces while providing the selectivity to efficiently separate the charge carriers generated in the absorber. This thesis aims at developing an understanding of how the material properties of the contact affect device performance through simulations.The partial specific contact resistance framework developed by Onno et al. aims to link material behavior to device performance specifically at open circuit. In this thesis, the framework is expanded to other operating points of a device, leading to a model for calculating the partial contact resistances at any current flow. The error in calculating these resistances is irrelevant to device performance resulting in an error in calculating fill factor from resistances below 0.1% when the fill factors of the cell are above 70%, i.e., for cells with good passivation and selectivity.
Further, silicon heterojunction (SHJ) and tunnel-oxide based solar cells are simulated in 1D finite-difference modeling package AFORS-HET. The effects of material property changes on device performance are investigated using novel contact materials like Al0.8Ga0.2As (hole contact for SHJ) and ITO (electron contact for tunnel-oxide cells). While changing the bandgap and electron affinity of the contact affect the height of the Schottky barrier and hence contact resistivity, increasing the doping of the contact will increase its selectivity. In the case of ITO, the contact needs to have a work function below 4.2 eV to be electron selective, which suggests that other low work function TCOs (like AZO) will be more applicable as alternative dopant-free electron contacts. The AFORS-HET model also shows that buried doped regions arising from boron diffusion in the absorber can damage passivation and decrease the open circuit voltage of the device.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Surface interactions of layered chalcogenides in covalent functionalization and metal adsorption

Description

Layered chalcogenides are a diverse class of crystalline materials that consist of covalently bound building blocks held together by van der Waals forces, including the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and

Layered chalcogenides are a diverse class of crystalline materials that consist of covalently bound building blocks held together by van der Waals forces, including the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and the pnictogen chalcogenides (PCs) among all. These materials, in particular, MoS2 which is the most widely studied TMDC material, have attracted significant attention in recent years due to their unique physical, electronic, optical, and chemical properties that depend on the number of layers. Due to their high aspect ratios and extreme thinness, 2D materials are sensitive to modifications via chemistry on their surfaces. For instance, covalent functionalization can be used to robustly modify the electronic properties of 2D materials, and can also be used to attach other materials or structures. Metal adsorption on the surfaces of 2D materials can also tune their electronic structures, and can be used as a strategy for removing metal contaminants from water. Thus, there are many opportunities for studying the fundamental surface interactions of 2D materials and in particular the TMDCs and PCs.

The work reported in this dissertation represents detailed fundamental studies of the covalent functionalization and metal adsorption behavior of layered chalcogenides, which are two significant aspects of the surface interactions of 2D materials. First, we demonstrate that both the Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models, and the pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics model are good descriptors of the reaction due to the energetically inhomogeneous surface MoS2 and the indirect adsorbate-adsorbate interactions from previously attached nitrophenyl (NP) groups. Second, the covalent functionalization using aryl diazonium salts is extended to nanosheets of other representative TMDC materials MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2, and of the representative PC materials Bi2S3 and Sb2S3, demonstrated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Finally, using AFM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), it is shown that Pb, Cd Zn and Co form nanoclusters on the MoS2 surface without affecting the structure of the MoS2 itself. The metals can also be thermally desorbed from MoS2, thus suggesting a potential application as a reusable water purification technology.

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Date Created
  • 2019