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Phosphorus recovery from microbial biofuel residual using microwave peroxide digestion and anion exchange

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Sustainable production of microalgae for biofuel requires efficient phosphorus (P) utilization, which is a limited resource and vital for global food security. This research tracks the fate of P through biofuel production and investigates P recovery from the biomass using

Sustainable production of microalgae for biofuel requires efficient phosphorus (P) utilization, which is a limited resource and vital for global food security. This research tracks the fate of P through biofuel production and investigates P recovery from the biomass using the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Our results show that Synechocystis contained 1.4% P dry weight. After crude lipids were extracted (e.g., for biofuel processing), 92% of the intracellular P remained in the residual biomass, indicating phospholipids comprised only a small percentage of cellular P. We estimate a majority of the P is primarily associated with nucleic acids. Advanced oxidation using hydrogen peroxide and microwave heating released 92% of the cellular P into orthophosphate. We then recovered the orthophosphate from the digestion matrix using two different types of anion exchange resins. One resin impregnated with iron nanoparticles adsorbed 98% of the influent P through 20 bed volumes, but only released 23% during regeneration. A strong-base anion exchange resin adsorbed 87% of the influent P through 20 bed volumes and released 50% of it upon regeneration. This recovered P subsequently supported growth of Synechocystis. This proof-of-concept recovery process reduced P demand of biofuel microalgae by 54%.

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Created

Date Created
2015-03-01

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Coherent structures in flow over hydraulic engineering surfaces

Description

Wall-bounded turbulence manifests itself in a broad range of applications, not least of which in hydraulic systems. Here we briefly review the significant advances over the past few decades in the fundamental study of wall turbulence over smooth and rough

Wall-bounded turbulence manifests itself in a broad range of applications, not least of which in hydraulic systems. Here we briefly review the significant advances over the past few decades in the fundamental study of wall turbulence over smooth and rough surfaces, with an emphasis on coherent structures and their role at high Reynolds numbers. We attempt to relate these findings to parallel efforts in the hydraulic engineering community and discuss the implications of coherent structures in important hydraulic phenomena.

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Date Created
2012-09-10

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Vortex organization in a turbulent boundary layer overlying sparse roughness elements

Description

Vortex organization in the outer layer of a turbulent boundary layer overlying sparse, hemispherical roughness elements is explored with two-component particle-image velocimetry (PIV) in multiple streamwise-wall-normal measurement planes downstream and between elements. The presence of sparse roughness elements causes a

Vortex organization in the outer layer of a turbulent boundary layer overlying sparse, hemispherical roughness elements is explored with two-component particle-image velocimetry (PIV) in multiple streamwise-wall-normal measurement planes downstream and between elements. The presence of sparse roughness elements causes a shortening of the streamwise length scale in the near-wall region. These measurements confirm that vortex packets exist in the outer layer of flow over rough walls, but that their organization is altered, and this is interpreted as the underlying cause of the length-scale reduction. In particular, the elements shed vortices which appear to align in the near-wall region, but are distinct from the packets. Further, it is observed that ejection events triggered in the element wakes are more intense compared to the ejection events in smooth wall. We speculate that this may initiate a self-sustaining mechanism leading to the formation of hairpin packets as a much more effective instability compared to those typical of smooth-wall turbulence.

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Date Created
2012-09-09

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Experimental study on the role of spanwise vorticity and vortex filaments in the outer region of open-channel flow

Description

The dynamic importance of spanwise vorticity and vortex filaments has been assessed in steady, uniform open-channel flows by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV). By expressing the net force due to Reynolds’ turbulent shear stress, ∂(−[bar over uv]) ∂y, in

The dynamic importance of spanwise vorticity and vortex filaments has been assessed in steady, uniform open-channel flows by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV). By expressing the net force due to Reynolds’ turbulent shear stress, ∂(−[bar over uv]) ∂y, in terms of two velocity-vorticity correlations, [bar over vω[subscript z]] and [bar over wω[subscript y]], the results show that both spanwise vorticity [bar over ω[subscript z]] and the portion of it that is due to spanwise filaments make important contributions to the net force and hence the shape of the mean flow profile. Using the swirling strength to identify spanwise vortex filaments, it is found that they account for about 45% of [bar over vω[subscript z]], the remainder coming from non-filamentary spanwise vorticity, i.e. shear. The mechanism underlying this contribution is the movement of vortex filaments away from the wall. The contribution of spanwise vortex filaments to the Reynolds stress is small because they occupy a small fraction of the flow. The contribution of the induced motion of the spanwise vortex filaments is significant.

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Created

Date Created
2013-11-30

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Lonsdaleite is faulted and twinned cubic diamond and does not exist as a discrete material

Description

Lonsdaleite, also called hexagonal diamond, has been widely used as a marker of asteroidal impacts. It is thought to play a central role during the graphite-to-diamond transformation, and calculations suggest that it possesses mechanical properties superior to diamond. However, despite

Lonsdaleite, also called hexagonal diamond, has been widely used as a marker of asteroidal impacts. It is thought to play a central role during the graphite-to-diamond transformation, and calculations suggest that it possesses mechanical properties superior to diamond. However, despite extensive efforts, lonsdaleite has never been produced or described as a separate, pure material. Here we show that defects in cubic diamond provide an explanation for the characteristic d-spacings and reflections reported for lonsdaleite. Ultrahigh-resolution electron microscope images demonstrate that samples displaying features attributed to lonsdaleite consist of cubic diamond dominated by extensive {113} twins and {111} stacking faults. These defects give rise to nanometre-scale structural complexity. Our findings question the existence of lonsdaleite and point to the need for re-evaluating the interpretations of many lonsdaleite-related fundamental and applied studies.

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Created

Date Created
2014-11-01

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Fatigue Life Prediction Using Hybrid Prognosis for Structural Health Monitoring

Description

Because metallic aircraft components are subject to a variety of in-service loading conditions, predicting their fatigue life has become a critical challenge. To address the failure mode mitigation of aircraft components and at the same time reduce the life-cycle costs

Because metallic aircraft components are subject to a variety of in-service loading conditions, predicting their fatigue life has become a critical challenge. To address the failure mode mitigation of aircraft components and at the same time reduce the life-cycle costs of aerospace systems, a reliable prognostics framework is essential. In this paper, a hybrid prognosis model that accurately predicts the crack growth regime and the residual-useful-life estimate of aluminum components is developed. The methodology integrates physics-based modeling with a data-driven approach. Different types of loading conditions such as constant amplitude, random, and overload are investigated. The developed methodology is validated on an Al 2024-T351 lug joint under fatigue loading conditions. The results indicate that fusing the measured data and physics-based models improves the accuracy of prediction compared to a purely data-driven or physics-based approach.

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Created

Date Created
2014-04-01

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Transposition and Voltage Unbalance in High Phase Order Power Transmission Systems

Description

High phase order systems have been proposed at the early inception of power transmission engineering, but few direct applications have been made. High phase order transmission should be considered as an alternative in the case of high power density applications.

High phase order systems have been proposed at the early inception of power transmission engineering, but few direct applications have been made. High phase order transmission should be considered as an alternative in the case of high power density applications. In this article, an analysis of transposition of high phase order overhead transmission lines is presented and voltage unbalance in high phase order systems is considered. Definitions are presented for “fully transposed” and “roll transposed” along with advantages and disadvantages of each. A generalized voltage unbalance factor is introduced and utilized to determine the benefits of transposition. The generalized voltage unbalance factor is compared with three other possible unbalance factors to determine if the generalized voltage unbalance factor is an appropriate indication of unbalance. Exemplary results are presented for 6-phase and 12-phase designs. Conclusions show that the generalized voltage unbalance factor is a good indication of transmission line voltage unbalance and certain configurations may not need full rotation transposition to minimize the unbalance factor. The transposition analysis and voltage unbalance are considerations in the assessment of high phase order as a high power transmission alternative.

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Created

Date Created
2014-11-18

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High Temperature Low Sag Upgrades and Payback for the Economic Operation Improvement of Power Transmission Systems

Description

The increase of transmission line thermal ratings by reconductoring with high temperature low sag conductors is a comparatively new technology introduced for transmission expansion. A special design permits high temperature low sag conductors to operate at higher temperatures, therefore allowing

The increase of transmission line thermal ratings by reconductoring with high temperature low sag conductors is a comparatively new technology introduced for transmission expansion. A special design permits high temperature low sag conductors to operate at higher temperatures, therefore allowing passage of higher current and, thus, increasing the thermal rating of the transmission line. The comparatively high cost of high temperature low sag conductors may be an obstacle to its large-scale implementation. This article evaluates the expenditures for transmission line reconductoring using high temperature low sag, the consequent benefits obtained from the potential decrease in operating cost for thermally limited power transmission systems. Estimates of the “payback period” are used to evaluate the cost effectiveness of reconductoring with high temperature low sag. The evaluation is performed using a 225 bus equivalent of the 2012 summer peak Arizona portion of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council. The method is offered for transmission expansion analysis in which an economic benefit is calculated to assist in the transmission expansion decision.

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Created

Date Created
2015-02-07

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Analytic Solutions for Three-Dimensional Swirling Strength in Compressible and Incompressible Flows

Description

Eigenvalues of the 3D critical point equation (∇u)ν = λν are normally computed numerically. In the letter, we present analytic solutions for 3D swirling strength in both compressible and incompressible flows. The solutions expose functional dependencies that cannot be seen

Eigenvalues of the 3D critical point equation (∇u)ν = λν are normally computed numerically. In the letter, we present analytic solutions for 3D swirling strength in both compressible and incompressible flows. The solutions expose functional dependencies that cannot be seen in numerical solutions. To illustrate, we study the difference between using fluctuating and total velocity gradient tensors for vortex identification. Results show that mean shear influences vortex detection and that distortion can occur, depending on the strength of mean shear relative to the vorticity at the vortex center.

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Created

Date Created
2014-08-01

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The ratio of flexural strength to uniaxial tensile strength in bulk epoxy resin polymeric materials

Description

The flexural behavior of epoxies was investigated by performing mechanical tests and applying statistical Weibull theory and analytical methods to the results. The effects of loading systems and environmental conditions were also considered. Three kinds of epoxies were studied: Epon

The flexural behavior of epoxies was investigated by performing mechanical tests and applying statistical Weibull theory and analytical methods to the results. The effects of loading systems and environmental conditions were also considered. Three kinds of epoxies were studied: Epon E863, PRI 2002, and PR520. In total, 53 three-point-bending (3PB) Epon E863 samples and 26 3PB PR520 were tested immediately after curing, together with 26 four-point-bending (4PB) PRI2002 samples stored at 60°C and 90% Rh for 48 weeks. The Weibull parameters were estimated using both linear regression and the moments method. The statistical character of the Weibull model leads to uncertainty in the evaluated parameters, even for a large number of experiments. This study analyzed the ratio of flexural strength to tensile strength in bulk epoxy resin polymers. An analytical method previously developed by the authors to study the relationship between uniaxial tension/compression stress-strain curves and flexural load-deflection response was used to obtain the ratio. The results show that the Weibull model overpredicted the aforementioned ratio in different load arrangements.

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Created

Date Created
2014-12-01