Matching Items (4)

128162-Thumbnail Image.png

A type-I diacylglycerol acyltransferase modulates triacylglycerol biosynthesis and fatty acid composition in the oleaginous microalga, Nannochloropsis oceanica

Description

Background
Photosynthetic oleaginous microalgae are considered promising feedstocks for biofuels. The marine microalga, Nannochloropsis oceanica, has been attracting ever-increasing interest because of its fast growth, high triacylglycerol (TAG) content, and

Background
Photosynthetic oleaginous microalgae are considered promising feedstocks for biofuels. The marine microalga, Nannochloropsis oceanica, has been attracting ever-increasing interest because of its fast growth, high triacylglycerol (TAG) content, and available genome sequence and genetic tools. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the last and committed step of TAG biosynthesis in the acyl-CoA-dependent pathway. Previous studies have identified 13 putative DGAT-encoding genes in the genome of N. oceanica, but the functional role of DGAT genes, especially type-I DGAT (DGAT1), remains ambiguous.
Results
Nannochloropsis oceanica IMET1 possesses two DGAT1 genes: NoDGAT1A and NoDGAT1B. Functional complementation demonstrated the capability of NoDGAT1A rather than NoDGAT1B to restore TAG synthesis in a TAG-deficient yeast strain. In vitro DGAT assays revealed that NoDGAT1A preferred saturated/monounsaturated acyl-CoAs and eukaryotic diacylglycerols (DAGs) for TAG synthesis, while NoDGAT1B had no detectable enzymatic activity. Assisted with green fluorescence protein (GFP) fusion, fluorescence microscopy analysis indicated the localization of NoDGAT1A in the chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum (cER) of N. oceanica. NoDGAT1A knockdown caused ~25% decline in TAG content upon nitrogen depletion, accompanied by the reduced C16:0, C18:0, and C18:1 in TAG sn-1/sn-3 positions and C18:1 in the TAG sn-2 position. NoDGAT1A overexpression, on the other hand, led to ~39% increase in TAG content upon nitrogen depletion, accompanied by the enhanced C16:0 and C18:1 in the TAG sn-1/sn-3 positions and C18:1 in the TAG sn-2 position. Interestingly, NoDGAT1A overexpression also promoted TAG accumulation (by ~2.4-fold) under nitrogen-replete conditions without compromising cell growth, and TAG yield of the overexpression line reached 0.49 g L[superscript −1] at the end of a 10-day batch culture, 47% greater than that of the control line.
Conclusions
Taken together, our work demonstrates the functional role of NoDGAT1A and sheds light on the underlying mechanism for the biosynthesis of various TAG species in N. oceanica. NoDGAT1A resides likely in cER and prefers to transfer C16 and C18 saturated/monounsaturated fatty acids to eukaryotic DAGs for TAG assembly. This work also provides insights into the rational genetic engineering of microalgae by manipulating rate-limiting enzymes such as DGAT to modulate TAG biosynthesis and fatty acid composition for biofuel production.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-07-05

128307-Thumbnail Image.png

Chlorella zofingiensis as an Alternative Microalgal Producer of Astaxanthin: Biology and Industrial Potential

Description

Astaxanthin (3,3′-dihydroxy-β,β-carotene-4,4′-dione), a high-value ketocarotenoid with a broad range of applications in food, feed, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries, has been gaining great attention from science and the public in recent

Astaxanthin (3,3′-dihydroxy-β,β-carotene-4,4′-dione), a high-value ketocarotenoid with a broad range of applications in food, feed, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries, has been gaining great attention from science and the public in recent years. The green microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis and Chlorella zofingiensis represent the most promising producers of natural astaxanthin. Although H. pluvialis possesses the highest intracellular astaxanthin content and is now believed to be a good producer of astaxanthin, it has intrinsic shortcomings such as slow growth rate, low biomass yield, and a high light requirement. In contrast, C. zofingiensis grows fast phototrophically, heterotrophically and mixtrophically, is easy to be cultured and scaled up both indoors and outdoors, and can achieve ultrahigh cell densities. These robust biotechnological traits provide C. zofingiensis with high potential to be a better organism than H. pluvialis for mass astaxanthin production. This review aims to provide an overview of the biology and industrial potential of C. zofingiensis as an alternative astaxanthin producer. The path forward for further expansion of the astaxanthin production from C. zofingiensis with respect to both challenges and opportunities is also discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-06-10

128780-Thumbnail Image.png

Reversal of the ΔdegP Phenotypes by a Novel rpoE Allele of Escherichia coli

Description

RseA sequesters RpoE (σ[superscript E]) to the inner membrane of Escherichia coli when envelope stress is low. Elevated envelope stress triggers RseA cleavage by the sequential action of two membrane

RseA sequesters RpoE (σ[superscript E]) to the inner membrane of Escherichia coli when envelope stress is low. Elevated envelope stress triggers RseA cleavage by the sequential action of two membrane proteases, DegS and RseP, releasing σ[superscript E] to activate an envelope stress reducing pathway. Revertants of a ΔdegP ΔbamB strain, which fails to grow at 37°C due to high envelope stress, harbored mutations in the rseA and rpoE genes. Null and missense rseA mutations constitutively hyper-activated the σ[superscript E] regulon and significantly reduced the major outer membrane protein (OMP) levels. In contrast, a novel rpoE allele, rpoE3, resulting from the partial duplication of the rpoE gene, increased σ[superscript E] levels greater than that seen in the rseA mutant background but did not reduce OMP levels. A σ[superscript E]-dependent RybB::LacZ construct showed only a weak activation of the σ[superscript E] pathway by rpoE3. Despite this, rpoE3 fully reversed the growth and envelope vesiculation phenotypes of ΔdegP. Interestingly, rpoE3 also brought down the modestly activated Cpx envelope stress pathway in the ΔdegP strain to the wild type level, showing the complementary nature of the σ[superscript E] and Cpx pathways. Through employing a labile mutant periplasmic protein, AcrA[subscript L222Q], it was determined that the rpoE3 mutation overcomes the ΔdegP phenotypes, in part, by activating a σ[superscript E]-dependent proteolytic pathway. Our data suggest that a reduction in the OMP levels is not intrinsic to the σ[superscript E]-mediated mechanism of lowering envelope stress. They also suggest that under extreme envelope stress, a tight homeostasis loop between RseA and σ[superscript E] may partly be responsible for cell death, and this loop can be broken by mutations that either lower RseA activity or increase σ[superscript E] levels.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012-03-16

128787-Thumbnail Image.png

Rapid Characterization of Microalgae and Microalgae Mixtures Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)

Description

Current molecular methods to characterize microalgae are time-intensive and expensive. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) may represent a rapid and economical alternative approach. The objectives of

Current molecular methods to characterize microalgae are time-intensive and expensive. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) may represent a rapid and economical alternative approach. The objectives of this study were to determine whether MALDI-TOF MS can be used to: 1) differentiate microalgae at the species and strain levels and 2) characterize simple microalgal mixtures. A common protein extraction sample preparation method was used to facilitate rapid mass spectrometry-based analysis of 31 microalgae. Each yielded spectra containing between 6 and 56 peaks in the m/z 2,000 to 20,000 range. The taxonomic resolution of this approach appeared higher than that of 18S rDNA sequence analysis. For example, two strains of Scenedesmus acutus differed only by two 18S rDNA nucleotides, but yielded distinct MALDI-TOF mass spectra. Mixtures of two and three microalgae yielded relatively complex spectra that contained peaks associated with members of each mixture. Interestingly, though, mixture-specific peaks were observed at m/z 11,048 and 11,230. Our results suggest that MALDI-TOF MS affords rapid characterization of individual microalgae and simple microalgal mixtures.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-08-13