Matching Items (13)

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Analog-to-Digital Converter Reliability Testing in Hostile Environments

Description

Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) are a critical component in modern circuit applications. ADCs are used in virtually every application in which a digital circuit is interacting with data from

Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) are a critical component in modern circuit applications. ADCs are used in virtually every application in which a digital circuit is interacting with data from the real world, ranging from commercial applications to crucial military and aerospace applications, and are especially important when interacting with sensors that observe environmental factors. Due to the critical nature of these converters, as well as the vast range of environments in which they are used, it is important that they accurately sample data regardless of environmental factors. These environmental factors range from input noise and power supply variations to temperature and radiation, and it is important to know how each may affect the accuracy of the resulting data when designing circuits that depend upon the data from these ADCs. These environmental factors are considered hostile environments, as they each generally have a negative effect on the operation of an ADC. This thesis seeks to investigate the effects of several of these hostile environmental variables on the performance of analog to digital converters. Three different analog to digital converters with similar specifications were selected and analyzed under common hostile environments. Data was collected on multiple copies of an ADC and averaged together to analyze the results using multiple characteristics of converter performance. Performance metrics were obtained across a range of frequencies, input noise, input signal offsets, power supply voltages, and temperatures. The obtained results showed a clear decrease in performance farther from a room temperature environment, but the results for several other environmental variables showed either no significant correlation or resulted in inconclusive data.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Triple sampling an application to a 14b 10 MS/s cyclic converter

Description

Semiconductor device scaling has kept up with Moore's law for the past decades and they have been scaling by a factor of half every one and half years. Every new

Semiconductor device scaling has kept up with Moore's law for the past decades and they have been scaling by a factor of half every one and half years. Every new generation of device technology opens up new opportunities and challenges and especially so for analog design. High speed and low gain is characteristic of these processes and hence a tradeoff that can enable to get back gain by trading speed is crucial. This thesis proposes a solution that increases the speed of sampling of a circuit by a factor of three while reducing the specifications on analog blocks and keeping the power nearly constant. The techniques are based on the switched capacitor technique called Correlated Level Shifting. A triple channel Cyclic ADC has been implemented, with each channel working at a sampling frequency of 3.33MS/s and a resolution of 14 bits. The specifications are compared with that based on a traditional architecture to show the superiority of the proposed technique.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Modeling & analysis of a closed loop class D audio amplifier for PSR improvement

Description

Class D Amplifiers are widely used in portable systems such as mobile phones to achieve high efficiency. The demands of portable electronics for low power consumption to extend battery life

Class D Amplifiers are widely used in portable systems such as mobile phones to achieve high efficiency. The demands of portable electronics for low power consumption to extend battery life and reduce heat dissipation mandate efficient, high-performance audio amplifiers. The high efficiency of Class D amplifiers (CDAs) makes them particularly attractive for portable applications. The Digital class D amplifier is an interesting solution to increase the efficiency of embedded systems. However, this solution is not good enough in terms of PWM stage linearity and power supply rejection. An efficient control is needed to correct the error sources in order to get a high fidelity sound quality in the whole audio range of frequencies. A fundamental analysis on various error sources due to non idealities in the power stage have been discussed here with key focus on Power supply perturbations driving the Power stage of a Class D Audio Amplifier. Two types of closed loop Digital Class D architecture for PSRR improvement have been proposed and modeled. Double sided uniform sampling modulation has been used. One of the architecture uses feedback around the power stage and the second architecture uses feedback into digital domain. Simulation & experimental results confirm that the closed loop PSRR & PS-IMD improve by around 30-40 dB and 25 dB respectively.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Techniques for Wideband All Digital Polar Transmission

Description

Modern Communication systems are progressively moving towards all-digital transmitters (ADTs) due to their high efficiency and potentially large frequency range. While significant work has been done on individual blocks within

Modern Communication systems are progressively moving towards all-digital transmitters (ADTs) due to their high efficiency and potentially large frequency range. While significant work has been done on individual blocks within the ADT, there are few to no full systems designs at this point in time. The goal of this work is to provide a set of multiple novel block architectures which will allow for greater cohesion between the various ADT blocks. Furthermore, the design of these architectures are expected to focus on the practicalities of system design, such as regulatory compliance, which here to date has largely been neglected by the academic community. Amongst these techniques are a novel upconverted phase modulation, polyphase harmonic cancellation, and process voltage and temperature (PVT) invariant Delta Sigma phase interpolation. It will be shown in this work that the implementation of the aforementioned architectures allows ADTs to be designed with state of the art size, power, and accuracy levels, all while maintaining PVT insensitivity. Due to the significant performance enhancement over previously published works, this work presents the first feasible ADT architecture suitable for widespread commercial deployment.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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An Inductor Emulator Approach to Peak Current-mode Control in a 4-Phase Buck Regulator

Description

High-efficiency DC-DC converters make up one of the important blocks of state-of-the-art power supplies. The trend toward high level of transistor integration has caused load current demands to grow significantly.

High-efficiency DC-DC converters make up one of the important blocks of state-of-the-art power supplies. The trend toward high level of transistor integration has caused load current demands to grow significantly. Supplying high output current and minimizing output current ripple has been a driving force behind the evolution of Multi-phase topologies. Ability to supply large output current with improved efficiency, reduction in the size of filter components, improved transient response make multi-phase topologies a preferred choice for low voltage-high current applications.

Current sensing capability inside a system is much sought after for applications which include Peak-current mode control, Current limiting, Overload protection. Current sensing is extremely important for current sharing in Multi-phase topologies. Existing approaches such as Series resistor, SenseFET, inductor DCR based current sensing are simple but their drawbacks such low efficiency, low accuracy, limited bandwidth demand a novel current sensing scheme.

This research presents a systematic design procedure of a 5V - 1.8V, 8A 4-Phase Buck regulator with a novel current sensing scheme based on replication of the inductor current. The proposed solution consists of detailed system modeling in PLECS which includes modification of the peak current mode model to accommodate the new current sensing element, derivation of power-stage and Plant transfer functions, Controller design. The proposed model has been verified through PLECS simulations and compared with a transistor-level implementation of the system. The time-domain parameters such as overshoot and settling-time simulated through transistor-level

implementation is in close agreement with the results obtained from the PLECS model.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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TFT-based active pixel sensors for large area thermal neutron detection

Description

Due to diminishing availability of 3He, which is the critical component of neutron detecting proportional counters, large area flexible arrays are being considered as a potential replacement for neutron detection.

Due to diminishing availability of 3He, which is the critical component of neutron detecting proportional counters, large area flexible arrays are being considered as a potential replacement for neutron detection. A large area flexible array, utilizing semiconductors for both charged particle detection and pixel readout, ensures a large detection surface area in a light weight rugged form. Such a neutron detector could be suitable for deployment at ports of entry. The specific approach used in this research, uses a neutron converter layer which captures incident thermal neutrons, and then emits ionizing charged particles. These ionizing particles cause electron-hole pair generation within a single pixel's integrated sensing diode. The resulting charge is then amplified via a low-noise amplifier. This document begins by discussing the current state of the art in neutron detection and the associated challenges. Then, for the purpose of resolving some of these issues, recent design and modeling efforts towards developing an improved neutron detection system are described. Also presented is a low-noise active pixel sensor (APS) design capable of being implemented in low temperature indium gallium zinc oxide (InGaZnO) or amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistor process compatible with plastic substrates. The low gain and limited scalability of this design are improved upon by implementing a new multi-stage self-resetting APS. For each APS design, successful radiation measurements are also presented using PiN diodes for charged particle detection. Next, detection array readout methodologies are modeled and analyzed, and use of a matched filter readout circuit is described as well. Finally, this document discusses detection diode integration with the designed TFT-based APSs.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Self-calibration and digital-trimming of successive approximation analog-to-digital converters

Description

Several state of the art, monitoring and control systems, such as DC motor

controllers, power line monitoring and protection systems, instrumentation systems and battery monitors require direct digitization of a high

Several state of the art, monitoring and control systems, such as DC motor

controllers, power line monitoring and protection systems, instrumentation systems and battery monitors require direct digitization of a high voltage input signals. Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) that can digitize high voltage signals require high linearity and low voltage coefficient capacitors. A built in self-calibration and digital-trim algorithm correcting static mismatches in Capacitive Digital-to-Analog Converter (CDAC) used in Successive Approximation Register Analog to Digital Converters (SARADCs) is proposed. The algorithm uses a dynamic error correction (DEC) capacitor to cancel the static errors occurring in each capacitor of the array as the first step upon power-up and eliminates the need for an extra calibration DAC. Self-trimming is performed digitally during normal ADC operation. The algorithm is implemented on a 14-bit high-voltage input range SAR ADC with integrated dynamic error correction capacitors. The IC is fabricated in 0.6-um high voltage compliant CMOS process, accepting up to 24Vpp differential input signal. The proposed approach achieves 73.32 dB Signal to Noise and Distortion Ratio (SNDR) which is an improvement of 12.03 dB after self-calibration at 400 kS/s sampling rate, consuming 90-mW from a +/-15V supply. The calibration circuitry occupies 28% of the capacitor DAC, and consumes less than 15mW during operation. Measurement results shows that this algorithm reduces INL from as high as 7 LSBs down to 1 LSB and it works even in the presence of larger mismatches exceeding 260 LSBs. Similarly, it reduces DNL errors from 10 LSBs down to 1 LSB. The ADC occupies an active area of 9.76 mm2.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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A Wide Bandwidth High Power Supply Rejection Ratio PMOS Linear Low-Dropout Regulator With Ultra Low Quiescent Current

Description

With the push for integration, a slew of modern switching power management circuits are operating at higher switching frequencies in order to reduce passive filter sizes. But while these switching

With the push for integration, a slew of modern switching power management circuits are operating at higher switching frequencies in order to reduce passive filter sizes. But while these switching regulators provide power conversion at high efficiencies, their output is prone to ripples due to the inherent switching behavior. These switching regulators use linear-low dropout regulators (LDOs) downstream to provide clean supplies. Typically, these LDOs have good power supply rejection (PSR) at lower frequencies but this degrades at higher frequencies. Therefore, some residual ripple is still manifested on the output. Because of this, high power supply rejection (PSR) with a wide rejection frequency band is becoming a critical requirement in linear low-dropout regulators (LDOs) used in complex systems- on-chip (SOCs).

Typical LDOs achieve higher PSR within their loop-bandwidth; however, their supply rejection performance degrades with reduced loop-gain outside their loop- bandwidth. The LDOs with external filtering capacitors may also have spectral peaking in their PSR response, causing excess system- level supply noise. This work presents an LDO design approach, which achieves a PSR of higher than 68 dB up to 2 MHz frequency and over a wide range of loads up to 250 mA. The wide PSR bandwidth is achieved using a current-mode feedforward ripple canceller (CFFRC) amplifier which provides up to 25 dB of PSR improvement. The feedforward path gain is inherently matched to the forward gain of the LDO, not requiring calibration. The LDO has a fast load transient response with a recovery time of 6.1μs and has a quiescent current of 5.6μA. For a full load transition, the LDO achieves settling with overshoot and undershoot voltages below 27.6 mV and 36.36 mV, respectively. The LDO is designed and fabricated in a 180 nm bipolar/CMOS/DMOS (BCD) technology. The CFFRC amplifier helps to achieve low quiescent power due to its inherent current mode nature, eliminating the need for supply ripple summing amplifiers and adaptive biasing.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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System modeling of next generation digitally modulated automotive radar (DMR)

Description

State-of-the-art automotive radars use multi-chip Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radars to sense the environment around the car. FMCW radars are prone to interference as they operate over a narrow

State-of-the-art automotive radars use multi-chip Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radars to sense the environment around the car. FMCW radars are prone to interference as they operate over a narrow baseband bandwidth and use similar radio frequency (RF) chirps among them. Phase Modulated Continuous Wave radars (PMCW) are robust and insensitive to interference as they transmit signals over a wider bandwidth using spread spectrum technique. As more and more cars are equipped with FMCW radars illuminate the same environment, interference would soon become a serious issue. PMCW radars can be an effective solution to interference in the noisy FMCW radar environment. PMCW radars can be implemented in silicon as System-on-a-chip (SoC), suitable for Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) implementation and is highly programmable. PMCW radars do not require highly linear high frequency chirping oscillators thus reducing the size of the final solution.

This thesis aims to present a behavior model for this promising Digitally modulated radar (DMR) transceiver in Simulink/Matlab. The goal of this work is to create a model for the electronic system level framework that simulates the entire system with non-idealities. This model includes a Top Down Design methodology to understand the requirements of the individual modules’ performance and thus derive the specifications for implementing the real chip. Back annotation of the actual electrical modules’ performance to the model closes the design process loop. Using Simulink’s toolboxes, a passband and equivalent baseband model of the system is built for the transceiver with non-idealities of the components built in along with signal processing routines in Matlab. This model provides a platform for system evaluation and simulation for various system scenarios and use-cases of sensing using the environment around a moving car.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Design techniques for ultra-low noise and low power low dropout (LDO) regulators

Description

Modern day deep sub-micron SOC architectures often demand very low supply noise levels. As supply voltage decreases with decreasing deep sub-micron gate length, noise on the power supply starts playing

Modern day deep sub-micron SOC architectures often demand very low supply noise levels. As supply voltage decreases with decreasing deep sub-micron gate length, noise on the power supply starts playing a dominant role in noise-sensitive analog blocks, especially high precision ADC, PLL, and RF SOC's. Most handheld and portable applications and highly sensitive medical instrumentation circuits tend to use low noise regulators as on-chip or on board power supply. Nonlinearities associated with LNA's, mixers and oscillators up-convert low frequency noise with the signal band. Specifically, synthesizer and TCXO phase noise, LNA and mixer noise figure, and adjacent channel power ratios of the PA are heavily influenced by the supply noise and ripple. This poses a stringent requirement on a very low noise power supply with high accuracy and fast transient response. Low Dropout (LDO) regulators are preferred over switching regulators for these applications due to their attractive low noise and low ripple features. LDO's shield sensitive blocks from high frequency fluctuations on the power supply while providing high accuracy, fast response supply regulation.

This research focuses on developing innovative techniques to reduce the noise of any generic wideband LDO, stable with or without load capacitor. The proposed techniques include Switched RC Filtering to reduce the Bandgap Reference noise, Current Mode Chopping to reduce the Error Amplifier noise & MOS-R based RC filter to reduce the noise due to bias current. The residual chopping ripple was reduced using a Switched Capacitor notch filter. Using these techniques, the integrated noise of a wideband LDO was brought down to 15µV in the integration band of 10Hz to 100kHz. These techniques can be integrated into any generic LDO without any significant area overhead.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014