Matching Items (3)

151179-Thumbnail Image.png

The acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary effects of a cognitive behavioral skills building intervention in adolescents with chronic daily headaches

Description

ABSTRACT Approximately 3.5% of adolescents in the United States have chronic daily headache (CDH). Chronic daily headaches in adolescents are often refractory to the adult pharmacological interventions. And as a

ABSTRACT Approximately 3.5% of adolescents in the United States have chronic daily headache (CDH). Chronic daily headaches in adolescents are often refractory to the adult pharmacological interventions. And as a result, adolescents typically experience increased levels of stress, which exacerbates their headaches. Chronic daily headaches negatively impact both the adolescent and their family. Adolescents with CDHs frequently exemplify comorbid psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety, depression, and increased risk for suicide. Risk factors for CDH in adolescents have been well studied; however, few studies have focused on psychologically based interventions to enhance effective coping, positive mental health, and pain relief in this group of teens. Given the paucity of psychologically focused interventions in this group, further research is necessary to test and develop the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral skills building (CBSB) interventions. This pilot study focused on the use of a CBSB intervention that emphasized problem solving, cue recognition, effective communication, behavior modeling, cognitive reappraisal, stress management, effective coping, and positive thinking. A randomized controlled trial pilot study was conducted. The intervention group received a seven-week intervention focused on CBSB techniques and headache education, while the comparison headache education group received a seven-week program focused on basic headache hygiene measures (e.g., adequate sleep, adequate hydration, dietary triggers, environmental triggers). The total sample included 32 adolescents inclusive of the ages 13 and 17 years. Paired t-tests resulted in significant preliminary positive effects for COPE-HEP on anxiety, depression, beliefs, headache disability, headache frequency, and headache duration. Comparison group education resulted in significant preliminary positive effects on anxiety, depression, headache disability, headache frequency, headache pain level, headache duration, and medication frequency. There were no significant changes over time in means of parent perception of pain interference for both groups. Independent t-tests revealed that COPE-HEP teens had significantly less anxiety and headache duration at post-intervention. The acceptability of the COPE-HEP intervention with adolescents with CDHs in a specialty care setting is supported by this study, while the feasibility of conducting this study in a specialty care setting is partially supported. These findings support a need to refine the intervention and test both its short and long-term effects in a full-scale randomized controlled trial with adolescents who have CDHs.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

150251-Thumbnail Image.png

The role of close friends in adolescent obesity and related eating and activity behaviors

Description

Growing concern about obesity prevalence among youth has prompted the examination of socio-environmental influences that shape the development of eating and activity behaviors believed to regulate weight. Given the presumed

Growing concern about obesity prevalence among youth has prompted the examination of socio-environmental influences that shape the development of eating and activity behaviors believed to regulate weight. Given the presumed significance of close friendships during adolescence, the present investigation assessed longitudinal relations between friends' physical activity, sedentary activity, and healthy eating behaviors and explored whether friends' obesity-promoting behaviors are linked to heightened obesity risk among adolescents. This prospective study utilized two Waves of data from 862 reciprocal and 1908 nonreciprocal same-sex friend dyads participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. To account for nonindependence tied to membership in a particular friendship dyad, multi-level models were estimated for indistinguishable (i.e., reciprocal) and distinguishable (i.e., nonreciprocal) friend pairs using the Actor Partner Interdependence Model. Adolescents' self-reported physical activity and healthy eating were significantly associated with their own and their friends' physical activity and healthy eating one year later; the strength of socialization across friend dyads did not vary with the frequency of interaction between friends or the stability of friendships over time. Limited support was found for a cumulative risk model of obesity-promoting behaviors as a predictor of increased obesity risk; heightened risk for weight gain was found only for adolescents whose reciprocal same-sex friends reported a higher number of obesity-promoting eating and activity behaviors. Overall, study findings highlight the role of close friends for adolescents' obesity risk and obesity-related behaviors. Stronger evidence of socialization resulted for adolescents that perceived their friends to be salient social models, as reflected by their acknowledgement of an existing friendship with such peers (i.e., reciprocal friends and nominators within nonreciprocal friend dyads).

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

150128-Thumbnail Image.png

Salud con Sabor Latino para los Niños: a feasibility study

Description

Obesity in Hispanic youth has reached alarmingly high levels, increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. In Mexican American children ages 6-11 years, 41.7% are

Obesity in Hispanic youth has reached alarmingly high levels, increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. In Mexican American children ages 6-11 years, 41.7% are overweight and obese, 24.7% are obese and 19.6% have a Body Mass Index (BMI) greater than the 97th percentile. While personal, behavioral, and environmental factors contribute to these high rates, emerging literature suggests acculturation, self-efficacy and social support are key influences. The one-group, pre- and post-test, quasi-experimental design used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) method to test the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of the 8-week intervention. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) was used to guide the design. Measurements included an analysis of recruitment, retention, participant satisfaction, observation of intervention sessions, paired t-tests, effect sizes, and bivariate correlations between study variables (acculturation, nutrition and physical activity [PA] knowledge, attitude and behaviors, perceived confidence and social support) and outcome variables (BMI z-score, waist circumference and BP percentile) Findings showed the SSLN program was feasible and acceptable. Participants (n = 16) reported that the curriculum was fun and they learned about nutrition and PA. The retention rate was 94%. The preliminary effects on adolescent nutrition and PA behaviors showed mixed results with small-to-medium effect sizes for nutrition knowledge and attitude, PA and sedentary behavior. Correlation analysis among acculturation and study variables was not significant. Positive associations were found between perceived confidence in eating and nutrition attitude (r = .61, p < .05) and nutrition behavior (r = .62, p < .05), perceived confidence in exercise and nutrition behavior (r = .66, p < .05), social support from family for exercise and PA behavior (r = .67, p < .01) and social support from friends for exercise and PA behavior (r = .56, p < .05). These findings suggest a culturally specific healthy eating and activity program for adolescents was feasible and acceptable and warrants further investigation, since it may fill a gap in existing obesity programs designed for Hispanic youth. The positive correlations suggest further testing of the theoretical model.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011