Matching Items (20)

The Future of Brain-Computer Interaction: A Potential Brain-Aiding Device of the Future

Description

Brains and computers have been interacting since the invention of the computer. These two entities have worked together to accomplish a monumental set of goals, from landing man on the

Brains and computers have been interacting since the invention of the computer. These two entities have worked together to accomplish a monumental set of goals, from landing man on the moon to helping to understand how the universe works on the most microscopic levels, and everything in between. As the years have gone on, the extent and depth of interaction between brains and computers have consistently widened, to the point where computers help brains with their thinking in virtually infinite everyday situations around the world. The first purpose of this research project was to conduct a brief review for the purposes of gaining a sound understanding of how both brains and computers operate at fundamental levels, and what it is about these two entities that allow them to work evermore seamlessly as the years go on. Next, a history of interaction between brains and computers was developed, which expanded upon the first task and helped to contribute to visions of future brain-computer interaction (BCI). The subsequent and primary task of this research project was to develop a theoretical framework for a potential brain-aiding device of the future. This was done by conducting an extensive literature review regarding the most advanced BCI technology in modern times and expanding upon the findings to argue feasibility of the future device and its components. Next, social predictions regarding the acceptance and use of the new technology were made by designing and executing a survey based on the Unified Theory of the Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). Finally, general economic predictions were inferred by examining several relationships between money and computers over time.

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  • 2017-05

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Modules of Intelligence

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Intelligence is a loosely defined term, but it is a quality that we try to measure in humans, animals, and recently machines. Progress in artificial intelligence is slow, but we

Intelligence is a loosely defined term, but it is a quality that we try to measure in humans, animals, and recently machines. Progress in artificial intelligence is slow, but we have recently made breakthroughs by paying attention to biology and neuroscience. We have not fully explored what biology has to offer us in AI research, and this paper explores aspects of intelligent behavior in nature that machines still struggle with.

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  • 2018-05

Interactive Traffic Simulation

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This document explains the design of a traffic simulator based on an integral-based state machine. This simulator is different from existing traffic simulators because it is driven by a flexible

This document explains the design of a traffic simulator based on an integral-based state machine. This simulator is different from existing traffic simulators because it is driven by a flexible model that supports many different light configurations and has a user-friendly interface.

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  • 2020-05

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Examining and Evaluating the Window of Intervention in Autonomous Vehicles

Description

As autonomous vehicle development rapidly accelerates, it is important to not lose sight of what the worst case scenario is during the drive of an autonomous vehicle. Autonomous vehicles are

As autonomous vehicle development rapidly accelerates, it is important to not lose sight of what the worst case scenario is during the drive of an autonomous vehicle. Autonomous vehicles are not perfect, and will not be perfect for the foreseeable future. These vehicles will shift the responsibility of driving to the passenger in front of the wheel, regardless if said passenger is prepared to do so. However, by studying the human reaction to an autonomous vehicle crash, researchers can mitigate the risk to the passengers in an autonomous vehicle. Located on the ASU Polytechnic campus, there is a car simulation lab, or SIM lab, that enables users to create and simulate various driving scenarios using the Drive Safety and HyperDrive software. Using this simulator and the Window of Intervention, the time a driver has to avoid a crash, vital research into human reaction time while in an autonomous environment can be safely performed. Understanding the Window of Intervention is critical to the development of solutions that can accurately and efficiently help a human driver. After first describing the simulator and its operation in depth, a deeper look will be offered into the autonomous vehicle field, followed by an in-depth explanation into the Window of Intervention and how it is studied and an experiment that looks to study both the Window of Intervention and human reactions to certain events. Finally, additional insight from one of the authors of this paper will be given documenting their contributions to the study as a whole and their concerns about using the simulator for further research.

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  • 2020-05

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Monitoring and Improving User Compliance and Data Quality For Long and Repetitive Self-Reporting MHealth Surveys

Description

For the past decade, mobile health applications are seeing greater acceptance due to their potential to remotely monitor and increase patient engagement, particularly for chronic disease. Sickle Cell Disease is

For the past decade, mobile health applications are seeing greater acceptance due to their potential to remotely monitor and increase patient engagement, particularly for chronic disease. Sickle Cell Disease is an inherited chronic disorder of red blood cells requiring careful pain management. A significant number of mHealth applications have been developed in the market to help clinicians collect and monitor information of SCD patients. Surveys are the most common way to self-report patient conditions. These are non-engaging and suffer from poor compliance. The quality of data gathered from survey instruments while using technology can be questioned as patients may be motivated to complete a task but not motivated to do it well. A compromise in quality and quantity of the collected patient data hinders the clinicians' effort to be able to monitor patient's health on a regular basis and derive effective treatment measures. This research study has two goals. The first is to monitor user compliance and data quality in mHealth apps with long and repetitive surveys delivered. The second is to identify possible motivational interventions to help improve compliance and data quality. As a form of intervention, will introduce intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors within the application and test it on a small target population. I will validate the impact of these motivational factors by performing a comparative analysis on the test results to determine improvements in user performance. This study is relevant, as it will help analyze user behavior in long and repetitive self-reporting tasks and derive measures to improve user performance. The results will assist software engineers working with doctors in designing and developing improved self-reporting mHealth applications for collecting better quality data and enhance user compliance.

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  • 2017

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Data science for small businesses

Description

This reports investigates the general day to day problems faced by small businesses, particularly small vendors, in areas of marketing and general management. Due to lack of man power, internet

This reports investigates the general day to day problems faced by small businesses, particularly small vendors, in areas of marketing and general management. Due to lack of man power, internet availability and properly documented data, small business cannot optimize their business. The aim of the research is to address and find a solution to these problems faced, in the form of a tool which utilizes data science. The tool will have features which will aid the vendor to mine their data which they record themselves and find useful information which will benefit their businesses. Since there is lack of properly documented data, One Class Classification using Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used to build a classifying model that can return positive values for audience that is likely to respond to a marketing strategy. Market basket analysis is used to choose products from the inventory in a way that patterns are found amongst them and therefore there is a higher chance of a marketing strategy to attract audience. Also, higher selling products can be used to the vendors' advantage and lesser selling products can be paired with them to have an overall profit to the business. The tool, as envisioned, meets all the requirements that it was set out to have and can be used as a stand alone application to bring the power of data mining into the hands of a small vendor.

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  • 2016

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Designing an AI-driven System at Scale for Detection of Abusive Head Trauma using Domain Modeling

Description

Traumatic injuries are the leading cause of death in children under 18, with head trauma being the leading cause of death in children below 5. A large but unknown number

Traumatic injuries are the leading cause of death in children under 18, with head trauma being the leading cause of death in children below 5. A large but unknown number of traumatic injuries are non-accidental, i.e. inflicted. The lack of sensitivity and specificity required to diagnose Abusive Head Trauma (AHT) from radiological studies results in putting the children at risk of re-injury and death. Modern Deep Learning techniques can be utilized to detect Abusive Head Trauma using Computer Tomography (CT) scans. Training models using these techniques are only a part of building AI-driven Computer-Aided Diagnostic systems. There are challenges in deploying the models to make them highly available and scalable.

The thesis models the domain of Abusive Head Trauma using Deep Learning techniques and builds an AI-driven System at scale using best Software Engineering Practices. It has been done in collaboration with Phoenix Children Hospital (PCH). The thesis breaks down AHT into sub-domains of Medical Knowledge, Data Collection, Data Pre-processing, Image Generation, Image Classification, Building APIs, Containers and Kubernetes. Data Collection and Pre-processing were done at PCH with the help of trauma researchers and radiologists. Experiments are run using Deep Learning models such as DCGAN (for Image Generation), Pretrained 2D and custom 3D CNN classifiers for the classification tasks. The trained models are exposed as APIs using the Flask web framework, contained using Docker and deployed on a Kubernetes cluster.

The results are analyzed based on the accuracy of the models, the feasibility of their implementation as APIs and load testing the Kubernetes cluster. They suggest the need for Data Annotation at the Slice level for CT scans and an increase in the Data Collection process. Load Testing reveals the auto-scalability feature of the cluster to serve a high number of requests.

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  • 2020

Modeling and measuring cognitive load to reduce driver distraction in smart cars

Description

Driver distraction research has a long history spanning nearly 50 years, intensifying in the last decade. The focus has always been on identifying the distractive tasks and measuring the respective

Driver distraction research has a long history spanning nearly 50 years, intensifying in the last decade. The focus has always been on identifying the distractive tasks and measuring the respective harm level. As in-vehicle technology advances, the list of distractive activities grows along with crash risk. Additionally, the distractive activities become more common and complicated, especially with regard to In-Car Interactive System. This work's main focus is on driver distraction caused by the in-car interactive System. There have been many User Interaction Designs (Buttons, Speech, Visual) for Human-Car communication, in the past and currently present. And, all related studies suggest that driver distraction level is still high and there is a need for a better design. Multimodal Interaction is a design approach, which relies on using multiple modes for humans to interact with the car & hence reducing driver distraction by allowing the driver to choose the most suitable mode with minimum distraction. Additionally, combining multiple modes simultaneously provides more natural interaction, which could lead to less distraction. The main goal of MMI is to enable the driver to be more attentive to driving tasks and spend less time fiddling with distractive tasks. Engineering based method is used to measure driver distraction. This method uses metrics like Reaction time, Acceleration, Lane Departure obtained from test cases.

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  • 2015

Smart car technologies: a comprehensive study of the state of the art with analysis and trends

Description

Driving is already a complex task that demands a varying level of cognitive and physical load. With the advancement in technology, the car has become a place for media consumption,

Driving is already a complex task that demands a varying level of cognitive and physical load. With the advancement in technology, the car has become a place for media consumption, a communications center and an interconnected workplace. The number of features in a car has also increased. As a result, the user interaction inside the car has become overcrowded and more complex. This has increased the amount of distraction while driving and has also increased the number of accidents due to distracted driving. This thesis focuses on the critical analysis of today’s in-car environment covering two main aspects, Multi Modal Interaction (MMI), and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), to minimize the distraction. It also provides deep market research on future trends in the smart car technology. After careful analysis, it was observed that an infotainment screen cluttered with lots of small icons, a center stack with a plethora of small buttons and a poor Voice Recognition (VR) results in high cognitive load, and these are the reasons for the increased driver distraction. Though the VR has become a standard technology, the current state of technology is focused on features oriented design and a sales driven approach. Most of the automotive manufacturers are focusing on making the VR better but attaining perfection in VR is not the answer as there are inherent challenges and limitations in respect to the in-car environment and cognitive load. Accordingly, the research proposed a novel in-car interaction design solution: Multi-Modal Interaction (MMI). The MMI is a new term when used in the context of vehicles, but it is widely used in human-human interaction. The approach offers a non-intrusive alternative to the driver to interact with the features in the car. With the focus on user-centered design, the MMI and ADAS can potentially help to reduce the distraction. To support the discussion, an experiment was conducted to benchmark a minimalist UI design. An engineering based method was used to test and measure distraction of four different UIs with varying numbers of icons and screen sizes. Lastly, in order to compete with the market, the basic features that are provided by all the other competitors cannot be eliminated, but the hard work can be done to improve the HCaI and to make driving safer.

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  • 2015

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Using contextual information to improve phishing warning effectiveness

Description

Internet browsers are today capable of warning internet users of a potential phishing attack. Browsers identify these websites by referring to blacklists of reported phishing websites maintained by trusted organizations

Internet browsers are today capable of warning internet users of a potential phishing attack. Browsers identify these websites by referring to blacklists of reported phishing websites maintained by trusted organizations like Google, Phishtank etc. On identifying a Unified Resource Locator (URL) requested by a user as a reported phishing URL, browsers like Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome display an 'active' warning message in an attempt to stop the user from making a potentially dangerous decision of visiting the website and sharing confidential information like username-password, credit card information, social security number etc.

However, these warnings are not always successful at safeguarding the user from a phishing attack. On several occasions, users ignore these warnings and 'click through' them, eventually landing at the potentially dangerous website and giving away confidential information. Failure to understand the warning, failure to differentiate different types of browser warnings, diminishing trust on browser warnings due to repeated encounter are some of the reasons that make users ignore these warnings. It is important to address these factors in order to eventually improve a user’s reaction to these warnings.

In this thesis, I propose a novel design to improve the effectiveness and reliability of phishing warning messages. This design utilizes the name of the target website that a fake website is mimicking, to display a simple, easy to understand and interactive warning message with the primary objective of keeping the user away from a potentially spoof website.

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  • 2015