Matching Items (21)

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Validity and Reliability of Nike + Fuelband for Estimating Physical Activity Energy Expenditure

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Background: The Nike + Fuelband is a commercially available, wrist-worn accelerometer used to track physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during exercise. However, validation studies assessing the accuracy of this device for estimating PAEE are lacking. Therefore, this study examined the validity and reliability

Background: The Nike + Fuelband is a commercially available, wrist-worn accelerometer used to track physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during exercise. However, validation studies assessing the accuracy of this device for estimating PAEE are lacking. Therefore, this study examined the validity and reliability of the Nike + Fuelband for estimating PAEE during physical activity in young adults. Secondarily, we compared PAEE estimation of the Nike + Fuelband with the previously validated SenseWear Armband (SWA).

Methods: Twenty-four participants (n = 24) completed two, 60-min semi-structured routines consisting of sedentary/light-intensity, moderate-intensity, and vigorous-intensity physical activity. Participants wore a Nike + Fuelband and SWA, while oxygen uptake was measured continuously with an Oxycon Mobile (OM) metabolic measurement system (criterion).

Results: The Nike + Fuelband (ICC = 0.77) and SWA (ICC = 0.61) both demonstrated moderate to good validity. PAEE estimates provided by the Nike + Fuelband (246 ± 67 kcal) and SWA (238 ± 57 kcal) were not statistically different than OM (243 ± 67 kcal). Both devices also displayed similar mean absolute percent errors for PAEE estimates (Nike + Fuelband = 16 ± 13 %; SWA = 18 ± 18 %). Test-retest reliability for PAEE indicated good stability for Nike + Fuelband (ICC = 0.96) and SWA (ICC = 0.90).

Conclusion: The Nike + Fuelband provided valid and reliable estimates of PAEE, that are similar to the previously validated SWA, during a routine that included approximately equal amounts of sedentary/light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity.

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2015-06-30

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The effects of high-intensity interval exercise on postprandial fat and carbohydrate oxidation in healthy adults

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on postprandial fat and carbohydrate oxidation after a high carbohydrate and fat meal in healthy adults. It was hypothesized that the HIIE would result

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on postprandial fat and carbohydrate oxidation after a high carbohydrate and fat meal in healthy adults. It was hypothesized that the HIIE would result in greater postprandial fat oxidation than the control condition. Three subjects, all non-obese (BMI<30) from the ages of 21-24, underwent a 3 visit protocol. The first visit was to establish a VO2 max (on a cycle ergometer) and the following two were randomized between a control and exercise condition. The exercise condition was comprised of one hour rest to provide baseline data, followed by a 1 minute on (90-95% HR max), one minute off high intensity interval protocol on a cycle ergometer. This was conducted until the same amount of kcal as the standard meal (490 kcal. 250 kcal snickers and 240 kcal sprite) was expended. After the exercise, the participant waited for one hour to minimize the effects of the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) period, and then consumed the meal. Once this was completed, VO2 was measured for the last 10 minutes of every 30 minutes for a full 5 hours postprandial. The same methodology was employed in the control condition except for the exercise protocol. Results showed a significantly greater fat oxidation in the HIIE condition, oxidizing 28 grams, 32 grams, and 27 grams of fat in each of the 3 subjects compared to 14, 16, and 17 grams in the control condition respectively. This supports the notion that HIIE results in greater postprandial fat oxidation compared to seated rest.

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2018-05

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Physiological Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Women with Breast Cancer Undergoing Anthracycline-based Chemotherapy

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Estimates indicate that in the United States 1 in 8 women will develop breast cancer in their lifetime. Improved cancer screenings, early detection, and targeted treatments have increased breast cancer survival rates. However, breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy are

Estimates indicate that in the United States 1 in 8 women will develop breast cancer in their lifetime. Improved cancer screenings, early detection, and targeted treatments have increased breast cancer survival rates. However, breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, functional impairments, and loss of cardiorespiratory fitness. These negative outcomes have implications for early morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this thesis was to test the hypothesis that high-intensity exercise preconditioning (exercise commenced prior to initiating chemotherapy and continued throughout treatment cycles) preserves health-related outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. Here, we present a subset of preliminary data from an ongoing trial (NCT02842658) that is focused on VO2peak and skeletal muscle outcomes from the first 10 participants that have enrolled in the trial. Breast cancer patients (N=10; 50 ± 11 y; 168 ± 4 cm; 92 ± 37 kg; 32.3 ± 12.3 kg/m2) scheduled to receive anthracycline-containing chemotherapy were randomly assigned to one of two interventions: 1) exercise preconditioning, (3 days per week of supervised exercise throughout treatment) or 2) standard of care (attention-control). Pre-testing occurred 1-2 week prior to chemotherapy. The interventions were initiated 1 week prior to chemotherapy and continued throughout anthracycline treatment. Post-testing occurred 3-7 days following the last anthracycline treatment. VO2peak (L/min) was reduced by 16% in the control group (P < 0.05), whereas VO2peak was preserved in the exercise preconditioning group. Trends for greater preservation and/or improvement in the exercise preconditioning group were also observed for lean body mass and peak heart rate. Hand grip strength was not changed in either group (P > 0.05). Both groups demonstrated an increase in ultrasound-derived echogenicity measures of the vastus lateralis (P < 0.05), indicating changes in the composition of the skeletal muscle during treatment. These preliminary data highlight that exercise preconditioning may serve as a strategy to preserve cardiorespiratory fitness and perhaps lean mass during anthracycline treatment of breast cancer. There remains a need for larger, definitive clinical trials to identify strategies to prevent the array of chemotherapy-induced toxicities that are observed in breast cancer patients treated with anthracyclines.

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2020-05

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Accuracy of Neck Circumference in Classifying Overweight and Obese US Children

Description

Objective: To evaluate classification accuracy of NC and compare it with body mass index (BMI) in identifying overweight/obese US children.

Methods: Data were collected from 92 children (boys: 61) aged 7 to 13 over a 2-year period. NC, BMI, and percent

Objective: To evaluate classification accuracy of NC and compare it with body mass index (BMI) in identifying overweight/obese US children.

Methods: Data were collected from 92 children (boys: 61) aged 7 to 13 over a 2-year period. NC, BMI, and percent of body fat (BF%) were measured in each child and their corresponding cut-off values were applied to classify the children as being overweight/obese. Classification accuracy of NC and BMI was systematically investigated for boys and girls in relation to true overweight/obesity categorization as assessed with a criterion measure of BF% (i.e., Bod Pod).

Results: For boys, Cohen’s k (0.25), sensitivity (38.1%), and specificity (85.0%) of NC were smaller in comparison with Cohen’s k (0.57), sensitivity (57.1%), and specificity (95.0%) of BMI in relation to BF% categorization. For girls, Cohen’s k (0.45), sensitivity (50.0%), and specificity (91.3%) of NC were smaller in comparison with Cohen’s k (0.52), sensitivity (50.0%), and specificity (95.7%) of BMI.

Conclusion: NC measurement was not better than BMI in classifying childhood overweight/obesity and, for boys, NC was inferior to BMI. Pediatricians and/or pediatric researchers should be cautious or wary about incorporating NC measurements in their pediatric care and/or research.

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Date Created
2014-01-30

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Examination of Different Accelerometer Cut-Points for Assessing Sedentary Behaviors in Children

Description

Background: Public health research on sedentary behavior (SB) in youth has heavily relied on accelerometers. However, it has been limited by the lack of consensus on the most accurate accelerometer cut-points as well as by unknown effects caused by accelerometer position

Background: Public health research on sedentary behavior (SB) in youth has heavily relied on accelerometers. However, it has been limited by the lack of consensus on the most accurate accelerometer cut-points as well as by unknown effects caused by accelerometer position (wrist vs. hip) and output (single axis vs. multiple axes). The present study systematically evaluates classification accuracy of different Actigraph cut-points for classifying SB using hip and wrist-worn monitors and establishes new cut-points to enable use of the 3-dimensional vector magnitude data (for both hip and wrist placement).

Methods: A total of 125 children ages 7–13 yrs performed 12 randomly selected activities (from a set of 24 different activities) for 5 min each while wearing tri-axial Actigraph accelerometers on both the hip and wrist. The accelerometer data were categorized as either sedentary or non-sedentary minutes using six previously studied cut-points: 100counts-per-minute (CPM), 200CPM, 300CPM, 500CPM, 800CPM and 1100CPM. Classification accuracy was evaluated with Cohen's Kappa (κ) and new cut-points were identified from Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC).

Results: Of the six cut-points, the 100CPM value yielded the highest classification accuracy (κ = 0.81) for hip placement. For wrist placement, all of the cut-points produced low classification accuracy (ranges of κ from 0.44 to 0.67). Optimal sedentary cut-points derived from ROC were 554.3CPM (ROC-AUC of 0.99) for vector magnitude for hip, 1756CPM (ROC-AUC of 0.94) for vertical axis for wrist, and 3958.3CPM (ROC-AUC of 0.93) for vector magnitude for wrist placement.

Conclusions: The 100CPM was supported for use with vertical axis for hip placement, but not for wrist placement. The ROC-derived cut-points can be used to classify youth SB with the wrist and with vector magnitude data.

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2014-04-03

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Changes in Glycemia and Serum Lipids Following a 4-Month mHealth Walking Intervention

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Walking interventions focused on increasing step counts are typically associated with salutary effects on glycemia, fasting insulin, insulin resistance and blood lipids which may be in turn associated with improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake – VO2peak) and vascular

Walking interventions focused on increasing step counts are typically associated with salutary effects on glycemia, fasting insulin, insulin resistance and blood lipids which may be in turn associated with improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake – VO2peak) and vascular stiffness. We hypothesized that a novel 4-month, behavioral economics-based walking intervention would have favorable effects on glucose homeostasis and blood lipids and that these in turn would be related to VO2peak and vascular stiffness (carotid femoral pulse wave velocity – cfPWV).

We carried out secondary analyses on a subsample of sedentary, overweight/obese adults who participated in a 4-month, 2x2, randomized-controlled walking intervention examining the effects of goal setting (static v. adaptive goals) and rewards (immediate v. delayed) on steps/day (N=96). Fasting blood samples (n=58) were collected from participants before and after the intervention. Premenopausal females were in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycles. Lipid and glucose levels were measured using an automated chemistry analyzer, while insulin was measured using radio-immunoassay. Homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated using the following formula (HOMA-IR=glucose x insulin / 405). We examined associations [partial correlations (adjusted for age)] between changes in blood biomarkers and VO2peak and cfPWV, irrespective of group, and we used linear mixed models to examine between-group differences in levels of and change in biomarker outcomes.

Groups did not differ in overall levels of, or degree of change in, biomarker outcomes (all p>0.05). Mean changes, irrespective of group, in biomarkers were as follows: glucose Δ= 0.74± 4.5mg/dl; insulin Δ= 0.09 ± 4.1 µU/ml; total cholesterol Δ= 0.24 ± 20.6 mg/dl; HDL-C Δ= 0.27 ± 5.1 mg/dl; LDL-C Δ= 1.3 ± 19.9 mg/dl; triglycerides Δ= 1.7 ± 27.2 mg/dl; HOMA-IR Δ = -.0548 ± 1.05). We found no significant associations between change in biomarker levels and change in VO2peak or change in cfPWV (all correlation coefficients < 0.15; p > 0.05).

A 4-month, behavioral economics-based mHealth intervention focused on increasing steps/day did not bring about favorable changes on markers of glycemia, insulin resistance and blood lipids.

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2016-05

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The efficacy of nopales (Opuntia spp) on lipoprotein profile and oxidative stress among moderately hypercholesterolemic adults

Description

Background: Evidence about the purported hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of nopales (prickly pear cactus pads) is limited. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of nopales for improving cardiometabolic risk factors and oxidative stress, compared to control, in adults with hypercholesterolemia. Design:

Background: Evidence about the purported hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of nopales (prickly pear cactus pads) is limited. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of nopales for improving cardiometabolic risk factors and oxidative stress, compared to control, in adults with hypercholesterolemia. Design: In a randomized crossover trial, participants were assigned to a 2-wk intervention with 2 cups/day of nopales or cucumbers (control), with a 2 to 3-wk washout period. The study included 16 adults (5 male; 46±14 y; BMI = 31.4±5.7 kg/m2) with moderate hypercholesterolemia (low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c] = 137±21 mg/dL), but otherwise healthy. Main outcomes measured included: dietary intake (energy, macronutrients and micronutrients), cardiometabolic risk markers (total cholesterol, LDL-c, high density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], triglycerides, cholesterol distribution in LDL and HDL subfractions, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment, and C-reactive protein), and oxidative stress markers (vitamin C, total antioxidant capacity, oxidized LDL, and LDL susceptibility to oxidation). Effects of treatment, time, or interactions were assessed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: There was no significant treatment-by-time effect for any dietary composition data, lipid profile, cardiometabolic outcomes, or oxidative stress markers. A significant time effect was observed for energy, which was decreased in both treatments (cucumber, -8.3%; nopales, -10.1%; pTime=0.026) mostly due to lower mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids intake (pTime=0.023 and pTime=0.003, respectively). Both treatments significantly increased triglyceride concentrations (cucumber, 14.8%; nopales, 15.2%; pTime=0.020). Despite the lack of significant treatment-by-time effects, great individual response variability was observed for all outcomes. After the cucumber and nopales phases, a decrease in LDL-c was observed in 44% and 63% of the participants respectively. On average LDL-c was decreased by 2.0 mg/dL (-1.4%) after the cucumber phase and 3.9 mg/dL (-2.9%) after the nopales phase (pTime=0.176). Pro-atherogenic changes in HDL subfractions were observed in both interventions over time, by decreasing the proportion of HDL-c in large HDL (cucumber, -5.1%; nopales, -5.9%; pTime=0.021) and increasing the proportion in small HDL (cucumber, 4.1%; nopales, 7.9%; pTime=0.002). Conclusions: These data do not support the purported benefits of nopales at doses of 2 cups/day for 2-wk on markers of lipoprotein profile, cardiometabolic risk, and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic adults.

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Date Created
2013

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Body composition and physical activity maintenance one year after a 12-week exercise intervention in women

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Purpose: Exercise interventions often result in less than predicted weight loss or even weight gain in some individuals, with over half of the weight that is lost often being regained within one year. The current study hypothesized that one year

Purpose: Exercise interventions often result in less than predicted weight loss or even weight gain in some individuals, with over half of the weight that is lost often being regained within one year. The current study hypothesized that one year following a 12-week supervised exercise intervention, women who continued to exercise regularly but initially gained weight would lose the weight gained, reverting back to baseline with no restoration of set-point, or continue to lose weight if weight was initially lost. Conversely, those who discontinued purposeful exercise at the conclusion of the study were expected to continue to gain or regain weight. Methods: 24 women who completed the initial 12-week exercise intervention (90min/week of supervised treadmill walking at 70%VO2peak) participated in a follow-up study one year after the conclusion of the exercise intervention. Subjects underwent Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry at baseline, 12-weeks, and 15 months, and filled out physical activity questionnaires at 15 months. Results: A considerable amount of heterogeneity was observed in body weight and fat mass changes among subjects, but there was no significant overall change in weight or fat mass from baseline to follow-up. 15 women were categorized as compensators and as a group gained weight (+ 0.94±3.26kg) and fat mass (+0.22±3.25kg) compared to the 9 non-compensators who lost body weight (-0.26±3.59kg) and had essentially no change in fat mass (+0.01±2.61kg) from 12-weeks to follow-up. There was a significant between group difference (p=.003) in change in fat mass from 12-weeks to follow-up between subjects who continued to regularly vigorously exercise (-2.205±3.070kg), and those who did not (+1.320±2.156kg). Additionally, energy compensation from baseline to 12-weeks and early body weight and composition changes during the intervention were moderate predictors of body weight and composition changes from baseline to follow-up. Conclusion: The main finding of this study is that following a 12-week supervised exercise intervention, women displayed a net loss of fat mass during the follow-up period if regular vigorous exercise was continued, regardless of whether they were classified as compensators or non-compensators during the initial intervention.

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Date Created
2013

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Acute affects [i.e. effects] of a walking workstation on ambulatory blood pressure in prehypertensive adults

Description

INTRODUCTION: Exercise performed at moderate to vigorous intensities has been shown to generate a post exercise hypotensive response. Whether this response is observed with very low exercise intensities is unclear. PURPOSE: To compare post physical activity ambulatory blood pressure (ABP)

INTRODUCTION: Exercise performed at moderate to vigorous intensities has been shown to generate a post exercise hypotensive response. Whether this response is observed with very low exercise intensities is unclear. PURPOSE: To compare post physical activity ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) response to a single worksite walking day and a normal sedentary work day in pre-hypertensive adults. METHODS: Participants were 7 pre-hypertensive (127 + 8 mmHg / 83 + 8 mmHg) adults (3 male, 4 female, age = 42 + 12 yr) who participated in a randomized, cross-over study that included a control and a walking treatment. Only those who indicated regularly sitting at least 8 hours/day and no structured physical activity were enrolled. Treatment days were randomly assigned and were performed one week apart. Walking treatment consisted of periodically increasing walk time up to 2.5 hours over the course of an 8 hour work day on a walking workstation (Steelcase Company, Grand Rapids, MI). Walk speed was set at 1 mph. Participants wore an ambulatory blood pressure cuff (Oscar 2, SunTech Medical, Morrisville, NC) for 24-hours on both treatment days. Participants maintained normal daily activities on the control day. ABP data collected from 9:00 am until 10:00 pm of the same day were included in statistical analyses. Linear mixed models were used to detect differences in systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by treatment condition over the whole day and post workday for the time periods between 4 -10 pm when participants were no longer at work. RESULTS:BP was significantly lower in response to the walking treatment compared to the control day (Mean SBP 126 +7 mmHg vs.124 +7 mmHg, p=.043; DBP 80 + 3 mmHg vs. 77 + 3 mmHg, p = 0.001 respectively). Post workday (4:00 to 10:00 pm) SBP decreased 3 mmHg (p=.017) and DBP decreased 4 mmHg (p<.001) following walking. CONCLUSION: Even low intensity exercise such as walking on a walking workstation is effective for significantly reducing acute BP when compared to a normal work day.

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Date Created
2013

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Comparison of hemodynamic responses to acute and chronic exercise in obese and lean prehypertensive men

Description

PURPOSE: Lean hypertension (HTN) is characterized by a mechanistically different HTN when compared to obese HTN. The purpose of this study is to assess whether body phenotype influences blood pressure (BP) responses following both acute and chronic exercise.

PURPOSE: Lean hypertension (HTN) is characterized by a mechanistically different HTN when compared to obese HTN. The purpose of this study is to assess whether body phenotype influences blood pressure (BP) responses following both acute and chronic exercise. METHODS: Obese (body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2) and lean (BMI < 25 kg/m2) men with pre-hypertension (PHTN) (systolic BP (SBP) 120 - 139 or diastolic BP (DBP) 80 - 89 mm Hg) were asked to participate in a two-phase trial. Phase 1 assessed differences in post-exercise hypotension between groups in response to an acute exercise bout. Phase 2 consisted of a two-week aerobic exercise intervention at 65-70% of heart rate (HR) max on a cycle ergometer. Primary outcome measures were: brachial BP, central (aortic) BP, cardiac output (CO), and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) measured acutely after one exercise session and following two weeks of training. RESULTS: There were no differences between groups for baseline resting brachial BP, central BP, age, or VO2 peak (all P > 0.05). At rest, obese PHTN had greater CO compared to lean PHTN (6.3 ± 1 vs 4.7 ± 1 L/min-1, P = 0.005) and decreased SVR compared to lean PHTN (1218 ± 263 vs 1606 ± 444 Dyn.s/cm5, P = 0.003). Average 60-minute post-exercise brachial and central SBP reduced by 3 mm Hg in Lean PHTN in response to acute exercise (P < 0.005), while significantly increasing 4 mm Hg for brachial and 3 mm Hg for central SBP (P < 0.05). SVR had a significantly greater reduction following acute exercise in lean PHTN (-223 Dyn·s/cm5) compared to obese PHTN (-75 Dyn·s/cm5, P < 0.001). In lean subjects chronic training reduced brachial BP by 4 mm Hg and central BP by 3 mm Hg but training had no effect on the BP’s in obese subjects. Resting BP reduction in response to training was accompanied by reductions in SVR within lean (-169 Dyn·s/cm5, P < 0.001), while obese experienced increased SVR following training (47 Dyn·s/cm5, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Hemodynamic response to both acute and chronic exercise training differ between obese and lean individuals.

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Date Created
2016