Matching Items (34)

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Dynamics of Dyadic Parent-Child Interactions and Predicting Internalizing and Externalizing Behavioral Outcomes

Description

The relationship between parent and child is one that has been studied intensively for years. Much of the previous research in this field has quantified the parent-child relationship through self-report

The relationship between parent and child is one that has been studied intensively for years. Much of the previous research in this field has quantified the parent-child relationship through self-report measures, with a subsample coding behavior from videotape and averaging individual scores across the entire parent-child interaction. Using a dynamic systems approach, we attempted to gain a deeper understanding of the parent-child relationship by quantifying the relationship in terms of dyadic patterns using the software Gridware. We then used these dyadic patterns to predict internalizing and externalizing behaviors in eight-year-old twin children. Dyadic relationship patterns predicted externalizing behaviors such as aggression and conduct disorder (i.e., frequency and stability within negative attractor states, and infrequency and low stability in positive attractor states), but not internalizing behaviors. Findings provide a method for capturing variance in parent-child interactions that is important for children's externalizing behaviors. Future studies should utilize these patterns in understanding risk and resilience family processes for children's mental health and well being.

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  • 2015-05

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Understanding the Predictors of School Engagement and Implications for Intervention

Description

The predictors of school engagement in early childhood were examined, and mechanisms to improve classroom engagement levels were proposed for interventionists to consider. Literature was reviewed on the relations of

The predictors of school engagement in early childhood were examined, and mechanisms to improve classroom engagement levels were proposed for interventionists to consider. Literature was reviewed on the relations of child characteristics (i.e. effortful control, negative emotionality) and environmental characteristics (i.e. teacher-child relationship quality, classroom environment) to children's school engagement. Finally, a logic model was developed to guide future intervention work.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Relations of Empathy to Anger, Gender, and Intrusive Maternal Parenting in Toddlers

Description

This longitudinal study examines the relations of anger, gender, and intrusive maternal parenting to empathy in toddlers. Participants (247 toddlers at the initial assessment) were assessed in a laboratory at

This longitudinal study examines the relations of anger, gender, and intrusive maternal parenting to empathy in toddlers. Participants (247 toddlers at the initial assessment) were assessed in a laboratory at approximately 18 (T1, N = 247), 30 (T2, N = 216), and 42 (T3, N = 192) months of age. Toddlers' observed anger was measured during a toy removal task and maternal intrusiveness was observed during free play between mother and toddler. Reported empathy was measured using questionnaires completed by mothers and fathers. At 18 months, a positive relation between observed anger and reported empathy was found for boys, but not for girls. At 30 months, maternal intrusiveness positively predicted empathy in boys, but it negatively predicted empathy in girls. These findings provide insight about sex differences in the development of empathy and concern for others in early childhood.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Assessing the Referral Sources of a Non-Profit Health Clinic: A Collaboration Between the WellCare Foundation and the Community Action Research Experiences Program

Description

The Community Action Research Experiences (CARE) Program collaborated with the WellCare Foundation (WCF) to assess the referral sources of the clinic in order to more effectively reach additional potential patients.

The Community Action Research Experiences (CARE) Program collaborated with the WellCare Foundation (WCF) to assess the referral sources of the clinic in order to more effectively reach additional potential patients. Archival data were analyzed from a 19-month period from the medical records of patients. Also, data were collected from interviews with the case manager of agencies that were a known referral source of WCF. These case manager interviews were completed over a one-month period. For the archival data part of the project, data were collected from 117 patients. Four representatives from community agencies participated in phone interviews. The results indicated that the most common referral sources were word of mouth, followed by community agency referrals. The results also indicated that WCF appears to have served a unique niche that is not served by other non-profit health clinics. These results led to implications for action and direction for future applied research.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

Through My Eyes: A Video Preparation Tool for Patients With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Description

Child life specialists work in a health care setting work alongside patients and families to provide coping strategies, preparation, education, and comfort to promote well-being and reduce fear and anxiety

Child life specialists work in a health care setting work alongside patients and families to provide coping strategies, preparation, education, and comfort to promote well-being and reduce fear and anxiety in the health care environment. They also serve as advocates for children's developmental needs, specifically in terms of their reactions to stress, and support the active involvement of families in the child's care. In this work, development of fear, coping, and medical preparation are reviewed. In order to further the mission of family-centered care, all types of patient populations must be studied. This reviews children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in order to explore their needs and how they best interpret information. With this in mind, a proposed tool, video modeling is introduced as a way to prepare children, increase their coping skills, and reduce fear and anxiety related to the medical environment.

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  • 2014-05

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Factors that Contribute Toward Volunteer Satisfaction and Retention Rate of Alas de Amor: A Collaboration Between Alas de Amor and the C.A.R.E. Program

Description

Alas de Amor is a fairly new organization whose most significant need right now is to grow in numbers and remain growing. This growth is important to the organization because

Alas de Amor is a fairly new organization whose most significant need right now is to grow in numbers and remain growing. This growth is important to the organization because it will allow them to not only treat and see more patients while in Mexico, but it will also benefit the organization in terms of presence in the Phoenix area and general knowledge of the organization. Volunteers are in some ways are unpaid marketing tools because they tell their peers about the experiences they have and encourage those they know to join the cause as well ("Why Involve Volunteers?," n.d.). As demonstrated through prior research on volunteering, volunteer motivations and satisfaction play an important role in retaining volunteers. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the motivations, satisfaction, and likelihood of continuation in volunteering for the individuals who have served as volunteers at Alas de Amor within the past year.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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A Prediction of Academic Achievement from Child Emotionality and School Quality: A Case for Differential Susceptibility

Description

Early academic adjustment has been found to be predictive of later academic success. This study sought to determine how child emotionality at school, specifically positive and negative emotions, as well

Early academic adjustment has been found to be predictive of later academic success. This study sought to determine how child emotionality at school, specifically positive and negative emotions, as well as the quality of the school, might affect child's academic achievement. Further, the possibility that emotionality and school quality interact was tested. Two hundred and twenty eight second grade children's expressions of positive and negative emotions were observed in the school setting. Teachers also submitted questionnaires on the children's positive emotionality. Academic adjustment was measured by standardized tests and teacher reports. School quality scores were based on multiple indicators obtained from online public information data. Regression analyses and multi-level modeling (when necessary) were used to predict academic performance from children's emotions, school quality, and their interaction. Results demonstrated that school quality was at least marginally positively related to all aspects of children's academic competence. Further, teacher-reported positive emotion positively predicted all scores of academic competence, and teacher-reported dispositional positive emotion positively predicted Woodcock Johnson III applied problems subtest scores. Further, interaction effects showed that teacher-reported positive emotion and school quality significantly predicted teacher-reported academic competence and Woodcock Johnson III applied problems subtest scores. Using both statistical strategies (MLM & regressions), observer-reported positive emotion and school quality marginally significantly predicted Woodcock Jonson III applied problems subtest scores. The results indicate that children's emotional behaviors at school, as well as school quality, play a role in the development of children's academic achievement.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Item Analysis of the Late Adolescent Home Observation for Measure of the Environment Inventory

Description

This thesis was an analysis of items in the Late Adolescent Home Observation for Measure of the Environment (LA HOME) after the first wave of N = 138 interviews. The

This thesis was an analysis of items in the Late Adolescent Home Observation for Measure of the Environment (LA HOME) after the first wave of N = 138 interviews. The purpose of this project was to learn how to utilize a statistical software such as SPSS to analyze items and interpret results. Frequency analysis, inter-rater reliability (IRR), correlation analysis, internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha, and feedback from research assistants were considered when deciding which items should be eliminated from the measure. After running these analyses, ten items were suggested for deletion including: clean, adolescent's room allows for privacy, reference materials, news, family encourages adolescent to think independently, community service, parent knows where adolescent spends time, weekly household responsibilities, school/career planning, and dentist. Future interviews generating a larger sample size as well as discussions and subsequent revisions to the manual will clarify additional items that may be eliminated from the final version of the instrument.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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What Happens When They Become Disabled: An Examination of Adolescent Development While Living With Muscular Dystrophy

Description

Using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), a qualitative research method, combined with quantitative data, this study was designed to examine what it means to be an adolescent living with muscular dystrophy,

Using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), a qualitative research method, combined with quantitative data, this study was designed to examine what it means to be an adolescent living with muscular dystrophy, a life-limiting disease. A sample of twelve adolescents with Duchenne (eight), limb-girdle (two), and friedreich's ataxia (two) as subsets of muscular dystrophy were interviewed one-on-one, as were their parent or adult guardian. Interviews consisted of 16 opened-ended questions for adolescents, and 17 open-ended questions for parents or guardians. Participants also completed a pre-interview online survey consisting of 38 closed-ended questions using a Likert-type scale to gather demographic and treatment information. The focus of these interviews included peer relationships, self-concepts, and family dynamics in the lives of adolescents with muscular dystrophy. Each of these categories was examined in relation to participants' processes of making meaning of their experiences. It was discovered that parent and child attitudes towards disability run parallel, whether that be positive, negative, or neutral in regards to quality of life with a disability. It was also determined that at least one parent must be a stay-at-home job or be able to work from home in order to be the caliber of caregiver required for their child. Adolescents in this study all had a strong support system in place, with the predominant support system being their family. Self-reports on whether or not adolescents worried about how their muscular dystrophy affected their families were split. Families planned activities within their family unit by utilizing a complete activity inclusion approach, separate opportunities for siblings approach, or activity elimination approach. Regardless of level of family support, it was found that the majority of adolescents in this sample try not to think about muscular dystrophy, or have neutral feelings towards these thoughts. They also thought that people who do not have muscular dystrophy do not know what it is like to live with this disease, and felt neutrally towards the way that they look. Medically speaking, the majority of adolescents reported feeling neutral towards the support that they receive from their medical providers, and that their providers do not talk directly to them but rather to the rest of their family or caregiver instead. These adolescents could not manage their own medical needs and their medical appointments were made by a parent or other type of caregiver. A strong misperception that a physical disability also signals the presence of an intellectual disability when at school was evident. Adolescents were also quick to point out the social stigma that comes with having the assistance of an aid at school with able-bodied peers. However, a small few, particularly those younger in age, reported a lack of peer stigma, and even the social benefit of having an adult friend at school. While the Muscular Dystrophy Association is trusted in coordinating patient care, their treatment advisements are perceived to be outdated, and Goodwill Ambassador program considered manipulative by patients. Application to the Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA) Transitions Program are named so that the organization formerly relied upon most to serve these families and who has a program designed to serve this exact population can benefit from them. With zero families interviewed having heard of or utilized this program, a clear change in their programs and practices need to take place. The information gathered from this study provides insight for developing and to guide new programs to assist this population in making the difference the MDA Transitions Program aims to do.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Jumping in with Both Feet: How Involvement and Use of Resources Relates to College Freshmen's Satisfaction and GPA

Description

Researchers suggests that college students' involvement and use of resources on campus are important for success, in the form of satisfaction and GPA, in the first year. College officials invest

Researchers suggests that college students' involvement and use of resources on campus are important for success, in the form of satisfaction and GPA, in the first year. College officials invest substantial resources in activities to encourage freshmen students to become involved in campus activities and utilize resources that promote successful outcomes, yet we do not know which activities best relate to success. Using a self-report survey, we sought to corroborate previous research that has shown that overall levels of involvement and use of resources relate to satisfaction/GPA. Furthermore, we disentangled which individual types of involvement and use of resources are most highly correlated with satisfaction and GPA. And finally, we identified the barriers and benefits to involvement and resource use, according to the students themselves. We found evidence that higher levels of involvement were related to satisfaction and attending faculty office hours appears to be particularly important, given a significant relation to both satisfaction and GPA. Implications for program promotion and resource allocation are discussed.

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Date Created
  • 2017-12