Matching Items (10)

135656-Thumbnail Image.png

Materials Replacement for Solar Thermal Covers

Description

Based on theoretical calculations, a material that is highly transmissive below 3000 nm and opaque above 3000 nm is desired to replace glass covers for flat plate solar thermal systems.

Based on theoretical calculations, a material that is highly transmissive below 3000 nm and opaque above 3000 nm is desired to replace glass covers for flat plate solar thermal systems. Additionally, a suitable replacement material needs to have a sufficiently high operating temperature in order to prevent the glazing from melting and warping in a solar system. Traditional solar thermal applications use conventional soda lime glass or low iron content glass to accomplish this; however, this project aims to investigate acrylic, polycarbonate, and FEP film as suitable alternatives for conventional solar glazings. While UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy indicate that these polymer substitutes may not be ideal when used alone, when used in combination with coatings and additives, these materials may present an opportunity for a glazing replacement. A model representing a flat plate solar collector was developed to qualitatively analyze the various materials and their performance. Using gathered spectroscopy data, the model was developed for a multi-glazing system and it was found that polymer substitutes could perform better in certain system configurations. To complete the model, the model must be verified using empirical data and coatings and additives investigated for the purposes of achieving the desired materials optical specifications.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

150335-Thumbnail Image.png

An in situ Surface Stress Study of Electrochemical Phenomena: Electrodeposition and Molecular Adsorption

Description

Over the last decade copper electrodeposition has become the dominant process by which microelectronic interconnects are made. Replacing ultra-high vacuum evaporative film growth, the technology known as the Cu damascene

Over the last decade copper electrodeposition has become the dominant process by which microelectronic interconnects are made. Replacing ultra-high vacuum evaporative film growth, the technology known as the Cu damascene process has been widely implemented in the microelectronics industry since the early 2000s. The transition from vacuum film growth to electrodeposition was enabled by solution chemistries that provide "bottom-up" or superfilling capability of vias and trenches. While the process has been and is used widely, the actual mechanisms responsible for superfilling remain relatively unknown. This dissertation presents and discusses the background and results of experimental investigations that have been done using in situ electrochemical surface stress monitoring techniques to study the evolution of stress on Cu{111} thin film electrodes. Because of its extreme sensitivity to the structure on both the electrode and solution sides of the interface, surface stress monitoring as analytical technique is well suited for the study of electrodeposition. These ultra-high resolution stress measurements reveal the dynamic response of copper electrodes to a number of electrochemical and chemical experimental variables. In the case of constant current pulsed deposition and stripping, the surface stress evolution depends not only on the magnitude of the current pulse, but also shows a marked response to plating bath composition. The plating bath chemistries used in this work include (1) additive free, (2) deposition suppressing solutions that include polyethylene glycol (PEG) and sodium chloride (NaCl) as well as (3) full additive solution combinations which contain PEG, NaCl, and a one of two deposition accelerating species (bis-(sodiumsulfopropyl)disulfide (SPS) or mercaptopropane sulfonic acid (MPS)). The development of thin film stress is further investigated through a series of solution exchange experiments that correlate the magnitude of electrode exchange current density and the stress state of the film. Remarkably, stress changes as large as ~8.5 N/m are observed during solution exchanges at the open circuit potential. Overall, this research demonstrates that solution chemistry can have a large impact on thin film stress evolution, even for very small deposition thicknesses (e.g. <10 ML) or in the absence of net addition or removal of material from the electrode.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

151233-Thumbnail Image.png

Electrochemical stability of nanoscale electrodes

Description

The electrochemical behavior of nanoscale solids has become an important topic to applications, such as catalysis, sensing, and nano–electronic devices. The electrochemical behavior of elemental metal and alloy particles was

The electrochemical behavior of nanoscale solids has become an important topic to applications, such as catalysis, sensing, and nano–electronic devices. The electrochemical behavior of elemental metal and alloy particles was studied in this work both theoretically and experimentally. A systematic thermodynamic derivation for the size–dependent Pourbaix Diagram for elemental metal particles is presented. The stability of Pt particles was studied by in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (ECSTM). It is shown that small Pt particles dissolve at a lower potential than the corresponding bulk material. For the alloy particles, two size ranges of AuAg particles, ∼4 nm and ∼45 nm in diameter, were synthesized by co–reduction of the salts of Au and Ag from an aqueous phase. The alloy particles were dealloyed at a series of potential by chronoamperometry in acid, and the resulting morphology and composition were characterized by electron microscopy, energy dispersive X–ray spectroscopy (EDX). In the case of the smaller particles, only surface dealloying occurred yielding a core–shell structure. A porous structure was observed for the larger particles when the potential was larger than a critical value that was within 50 mV of the thermodynamic prediction.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

150482-Thumbnail Image.png

Stress and structure evolution during Cu/Au(111) -(22 x [square root of three]) heteroepitaxy: an in-situ study with UHV-STM (ultra high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy)

Description

This research focuses on the stress and structure evolution observed in-situ during the earliest stages of thin film growth in Cu on Au(111)-reconstruction. For the research, an ultra high vacuum-scanning

This research focuses on the stress and structure evolution observed in-situ during the earliest stages of thin film growth in Cu on Au(111)-reconstruction. For the research, an ultra high vacuum-scanning tunneling microscopy (UHV-STM) system was modified to have the additional capabilities of in-situ deposition and in-situ stress evolution monitoring. The design and fabrication processes for the modifications are explained in detail. The deposition source enabled imaging during the deposition of Cu thin films, while also being columnar enough to avoid negatively impacting the function of the microscope. It was found that the stress-induced changes in piezo voltage occurred over a substantially longer time scale and larger piezo scale than used during imaging, allowing for the deconvolution of the two sources of piezo voltage change. The intrinsic stress evolution observed at the onset of Cu growth was tensile in character and reached a maximum of 0.19 N/m at approximately 0.8ML, with an average tensile slope of 1.0GPa. As the film thickness increased beyond 0.8 ML, the stress became less tensile as the observation of disordered stripe and trigon patterns of misfit dislocations began to appear. The transport of atoms from the surface of enlarged Cu islands into the strained layer played an important role in this stage, because they effectively reduce the activation barrier for the formation of the observed surface structures. A rich array of structures were observed in the work presented here including stripe, disordered stripe and trigon patterns co-existing in a single Cu layer. Heteroepitaxial systems in existing literature showed a uniform structure in the single layer. The non-uniform structures in the single layer of this work may be attributed to the room temperature Cu growth, which can kinetically limit uniform pattern formation. The development of the UHV-STM system with additional capabilities for this work is expected to contribute to research for the stress and structure relationships of many other heteroepitaxial systems.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

150409-Thumbnail Image.png

Engineering the electrode-electrolyte interface: from electrode architecture to Zn redox in ionic liquid electrolytes

Description

The electrode-electrolyte interface in electrochemical environments involves the understanding of complex processes relevant for all electrochemical applications. Some of these processes include electronic structure, charge storage, charge transfer, solvent dynamics

The electrode-electrolyte interface in electrochemical environments involves the understanding of complex processes relevant for all electrochemical applications. Some of these processes include electronic structure, charge storage, charge transfer, solvent dynamics and structure and surface adsorption. In order to engineer electrochemical systems, no matter the function, requires fundamental intuition of all the processes at the interface. The following work presents different systems in which the electrode-electrolyte interface is highly important. The first is a charge storage electrode utilizing percolation theory to develop an electrode architecture producing high capacities. This is followed by Zn deposition in an ionic liquid in which the deposition morphology is highly dependant on the charge transfer and surface adsorption at the interface. Electrode Architecture: A three-dimensional manganese oxide supercapacitor electrode architecture is synthesized by leveraging percolation theory to develop a hierarchically designed tri-continuous percolated network. The three percolated phases include a faradaically-active material, electrically conductive material and pore-former templated void space. The micropores create pathways for ionic conductivity, while the nanoscale electrically conducting phase provides both bulk conductivity and local electron transfer with the electrochemically active phase. Zn Electrodeposition: Zn redox in air and water stable N-ethyl-N-methylmorpholinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [C2nmm][NTf2] is presented. Under various conditions, characterization of overpotential, kinetics and diffusion of Zn species and morphological evolution as a function of overpotential and Zn concentration are analyzed. The surface stress evolution during Zn deposition is examined where grain size and texturing play significant rolls in compressive stress generation. Morphological repeatability in the ILs led to a novel study of purity in ionic liquids where it is found that surface adsorption of residual amine and chloride from the organic synthesis affect growth characteristics. The drivers of this work are to understand the processes occurring at the electrode-electrolyte interface and with that knowledge, engineer systems yielding optimal performance. With this in mind, the design of a bulk supercapacitor electrode architecture with excellent composite specific capacitances, as well as develop conditions producing ideal Zn deposition morphologies was completed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

150354-Thumbnail Image.png

The structure and stress development of adsorption, impurity incorporation, and temperature controlled morphology for thin films

Description

There is an inexorable link between structure and stress, both of which require study in order to truly understand the physics of thin films. To further our knowledge of thin

There is an inexorable link between structure and stress, both of which require study in order to truly understand the physics of thin films. To further our knowledge of thin films, the relationship between structure and stress development was examined in three separate systems in vacuum. The first was continued copper thin film growth in ultra-high vacuum after adsorption of a sub-monolayer quantity of oxygen. Results showed an increase in compressive stress generation, and theory was proposed to explain the additional compressive stress within the films. The second system explored was the adsorption of carbon monoxide on the platinum {111} surface in vacuum. The experiments displayed a correlation between known structural developments in the adsorbed carbon monoxide adlayer and the surface stress state of the system. The third system consisted of the growth and annealing stresses of ice thin films at cryogenic temperatures in vacuum. It was shown that the growth stresses are clearly linked to known morphology development from literature, with crystalline ice developing compressive and amorphous ice developing tensile stresses respectively, and that amorphous ice films develop additional tensile stresses upon annealing.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

151514-Thumbnail Image.png

Morphology evolution in dealloying

Description

Dealloying, the selective dissolution of an elemental component from an alloy, is an important corrosion mechanism and a technological significant means to fabricate nanoporous structures for a variety of applications.

Dealloying, the selective dissolution of an elemental component from an alloy, is an important corrosion mechanism and a technological significant means to fabricate nanoporous structures for a variety of applications. In noble metal alloys, dealloying proceeds above a composition dependent critical potential, and bi-continuous structure evolves "simultaneously" as a result of the interplay between percolation dissolution and surface diffusion. In contrast, dealloying in alloys that show considerable solid-state mass transport at ambient temperature is largely unexplored despite its relevance to nanoparticle catalysts and Li-ion anodes. In my dissertation, I discuss the behaviors of two alloy systems in order to elucidate the role of bulk lattice diffusion in dealloying. First, Mg-Cd alloys are chosen to show that when the dealloying is controlled by bulk diffusion, a new type of porosity - negative void dendrites will form, and the process mirrors electrodeposition. Then, Li-Sn alloys are studied with respect to the composition, particle size and dealloying rate effects on the morphology evolution. Under the right condition, dealloying of Li-Sn supported by percolation dissolution results in the same bi-continuous structure as nanoporous noble metals; whereas lattice diffusion through the otherwise "passivated" surface allows for dealloying with no porosity evolution. The interactions between bulk diffusion, surface diffusion and dissolution are revealed by chronopotentiometry and linear sweep voltammetry technics. The better understanding of dealloying from these experiments enables me to construct a brief review summarizing the electrochemistry and morphology aspects of dealloying as well as offering interpretations to new observations such as critical size effect and encased voids in nanoporous gold. At the end of the dissertation, I will describe a preliminary attempt to generalize the morphology evolution "rules of dealloying" to all solid-to-solid interfacial controlled phase transition process, demonstrating that bi-continuous morphologies can evolve regardless of the nature of parent phase.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

154857-Thumbnail Image.png

Post-combustion electrochemical capture and release of CO₂ and deformation and bulk stress evolution in LiMn₂O₄ intercalation compounds

Description

This investigation is divided into two portions linked together by the momentous reaches of electrochemistry science, principles influencing everyday phenomena as well as innovative research in the field of energy

This investigation is divided into two portions linked together by the momentous reaches of electrochemistry science, principles influencing everyday phenomena as well as innovative research in the field of energy transformation. The first portion explores the strategies for flue gas carbon dioxide capture and release using electrochemical means. The main focus is in the role thiolates play as reversible strong nucleophiles with the ability to capture CO2 and form thiocarbonates. Carbon dioxide in this form is transported and separated from thiocarbonate through electrochemical oxidation to complete the release portion of this catch-and-release approach. Two testing design systems play a fundamental role in achieving an efficient CO2 catch and release process and were purposely build and adapted for this work. A maximum faradaic efficiency of seventeen percent was attained in the first membrane tests whose analysis is presented in this work. An efficiency close to thirty percent was attained with the membrane cell in recent experiments but have not been included in this manuscript.

The second portion of this manuscript studies bulk stress evolution resulting from insertion/extraction of lithium in/from a lithium manganese oxide spinel cathode structure. A cantilever-based testing system uses a sophisticated, high resolution capacitive technique capable of measuring beam deflections of the cathode in the subnanometer scale. Tensile stresses of up to 1.2 MPa are reported during delithiation along with compressive stresses of 1.0 MPa during lithiation. An analysis of irreversible charge loss is attributed to surface passivation phenomena with its associated stresses of formation following patterns of tensile stress evolution.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

150314-Thumbnail Image.png

Effects of extrinsic and intrinsic proton activity on the mechanism of oxygen reduction in ionic liquids

Description

Mechanisms for oxygen reduction are proposed for three distinct cases covering two ionic liquids of fundamentally different archetypes and almost thirty orders of magnitude of proton activity. Proton activity is

Mechanisms for oxygen reduction are proposed for three distinct cases covering two ionic liquids of fundamentally different archetypes and almost thirty orders of magnitude of proton activity. Proton activity is treated both extrinsically by varying the concentration and intrinsically by selecting proton donors with a wide range of aqueous pKa values. The mechanism of oxygen reduction in ionic liquids is introduced by way of the protic ionic liquid (pIL) triethylammonium triflate (TEATf) which shares some similarities with aqueous acid solutions. Oxygen reduction in TEATf begins as the one electron rate limited step to form superoxide, O2*-, which is then rapidly protonated by the pIL cation forming the perhydroxyl radical, HO2*. The perhydroxyl radical is further reduced to peroxidate (HO2-) and hydrogen peroxide in proportions in accordance with their pKa. The reaction does not proceed beyond this point due to the adsorption of the conjugate base triethylammine interfering with the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide. This work demonstrates that this mechanism is consistent across Pt, Au, Pd, and Ag electrodes. Two related sets of experiments were performed in the inherently aprotic ionic liquid 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium triflate (C4dMImTf). The first involved the titration of acidic species of varying aqueous pKa into the IL while monitoring the extent of oxygen reduction as a function of pKa and potential on Pt and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. These experiments confirmed the greater propensity of Pt to reduce oxygen by its immediate and abrupt transition from one electron reduction to four electron reduction, while oxygen reduction on GC gradually approaches four electron reduction as the potentials were driven more cathodic. The potential at which oxygen reduction initiates shows general agreement with the Nernst equation and the acid's tabulated aqueous pKa value, however at the extremely acidic end, a small deviation is observed. The second set of experiments in C4dMImTf solicited water as the proton donor for oxygen reduction in an approximation of the aqueous alkaline case. The water content was varied between extremely dry (<0.1 mol% H2O) and saturated (approximately 15.8 mol% H2O}). As the water content increased so too did the extent of oxygen reduction eventually approach two electrons on both Pt and GC. However, additional water led to a linear increase in the Tafel slope under enhanced mass transport conditions up to the point of 10 mol% water. This inhibition of oxygen adsorption is the result of the interaction between superoxide and water and more specifically is proposed to be associated with decomposition of theC4dMIm+ cation by hydroxide at the elevated temperatures required for the experiment. Oxygen reduction on both Pt and GC follows Nernstian behavior as the water content is increased. Separate mechanisms for oxygen reduction on Pt and GC are proposed based on the nature of the Nernstian response in these systems.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

Surface stress during electro-oxidation of carbon monoxide and bulk stress evolution during electrochemical intercalation of lithium

Description

This work investigates in-situ stress evolution of interfacial and bulk processes in electrochemical systems, and is divided into two projects. The first project examines the electrocapillarity of clean and CO-covered

This work investigates in-situ stress evolution of interfacial and bulk processes in electrochemical systems, and is divided into two projects. The first project examines the electrocapillarity of clean and CO-covered electrodes. It also investigates surface stress evolution during electro-oxidation of CO at Pt{111}, Ru/Pt{111} and Ru{0001} electrodes. The second project explores the evolution of bulk stress that occurs during intercalation (extraction) of lithium (Li) and formation of a solid electrolyte interphase during electrochemical reduction (oxidation) of Li at graphitic electrodes. Electrocapillarity measurements have shown that hydrogen and hydroxide adsorption are compressive on Pt{111}, Ru/Pt{111}, and Ru{0001}. The adsorption-induced surface stresses correlate strongly with adsorption charge. Electrocatalytic oxidation of CO on Pt{111} and Ru/Pt{111} gives a tensile surface stress. A numerical method was developed to separate both current and stress into background and active components. Applying this model to the CO oxidation signal on Ru{0001} gives a tensile surface stress and elucidates the rate limiting steps on all three electrodes. The enhanced catalysis of Ru/Pt{111} is confirmed to be bi-functional in nature: Ru provides adsorbed hydroxide to Pt allowing for rapid CO oxidation. The majority of Li-ion batteries have anodes consisting of graphite particles with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as binder. Intercalation of Li into graphite occurs in stages and produces anisotropic strains. As batteries have a fixed size and shape these strains are converted into mechanical stresses. Conventionally staging phenomena has been observed with X-ray diffraction and collaborated electrochemically with the potential. Work herein shows that staging is also clearly observed in stress. The Li staging potentials as measured by differential chronopotentiometry and stress are nearly identical. Relative peak heights of Li staging, as measured by these two techniques, are similar during reduction, but differ during oxidation due to non-linear stress relaxation phenomena. This stress relaxation appears to be due to homogenization of Li within graphite particles rather than viscous flow of the binder. The first Li reduction wave occurs simultaneously with formation of a passivating layer known as the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). Preliminary experiments have shown the stress of SEI formation to be tensile (~+1.5 MPa).

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011