Matching Items (64)

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Study of a two species microbial community by an inferential comparative genomic analysis tool: Spatial Analytical Microbial Imaging

Description

Most molecular fingerprinting techniques, including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) [1], comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) [2], real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) [3], destroy community structure and/or cellular integrity, therefore lost

Most molecular fingerprinting techniques, including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) [1], comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) [2], real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) [3], destroy community structure and/or cellular integrity, therefore lost the info. of the spatial locus and the in situ genomic copy number of the cells. An alternative technique, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) doesn't require sample disintegration but needs to develop specific markers and doesn't provide info. related to genomic copy number.
Here, a microbial analysis tool, Spatial Analytical Microbial Imaging (SAMI), is described. An application was performed with a mixture of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and E. coli K-12 MG1655. The intrinsic property of their genome, reflected by the average fluorescence intensity (AFI), distinguished them in 3D. And their growth rates were inferred by comparing the total genomic fluorescence binding area (GFA) with that of the pure culture standards. A 93% of accuracy in differentiating the species was achieved.
• SAMI does not require sample disintegration and preserves the community spatial structure.
• It measures the 3D locus of cells within the mixture and may differentiate them according to the property of their genome.
• It allows assessment of the growth rate of the cells within the mixture by comparing their genomic copy number with that of the pure culture standards.

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Date Created
  • 2015-06-25

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Prestige Worldwide Resort

Description

The Prestige Worldwide Resort and development area will be constructed to the east of Scottsdale Rd and North of the 101 loop. The development area is composed of 442.58 acres

The Prestige Worldwide Resort and development area will be constructed to the east of Scottsdale Rd and North of the 101 loop. The development area is composed of 442.58 acres of land within 9 parcels. Zoning for this development area consists of commercial, recreational, golf course, residential, and water/wastewater treatment. The main feature of the development area is a luxury resort to be located at the southwest corner of Legacy Blvd and Hayden Rd. The resort includes a large pond over which the entrance road traverses. The resort also includes an 18-hole golf course located just north of Legacy Blvd. The proposed residential area is to the east of Hayden Rd on the northern half of the site. Along the northeastern border of this residential area are APS, SRP, and Bureau of Reclamation easements. A recreational area in the form of a park is proposed to the east and west of the southern portion of N Hayden Rd on the site. The southeast corner or the site is reserved for water and wastewater treatment. The southwest corner of the site is for commercial use with an additional recreational/sporting area just to the north of this commercial area. The key feature of the resort is its luxurious eight-story hotel along with two other hotel buildings that accommodate tourists who are visiting Scottsdale. The main hotel includes 210 rooms to provide enough housing for these tourists and acquire more attraction to Scottsdale. The composition of the hotel consists of the first floor being the lobby and a recreational area. The other floors each contain 30 rooms, 3 elevators, and a staircase. Surrounding the hotel is a parking lot for the hotel guests and people attending events hosted at the hotel. Regarding the hotel specifications, two different alternative designs were produced to determine the ideal steel member type, concrete reinforcement, and the steel frame layout. The final hotel design was determined by which alternative had the lowest structural response from loading and cost effective.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Plant Productivity of Various Plants Grown in Coffee Grounds

Description

Over the last century, society has begun to acknowledge and observe how human actions are negatively impacting the environment. Sustainable living is becoming more adopted into daily lives, including a

Over the last century, society has begun to acknowledge and observe how human actions are negatively impacting the environment. Sustainable living is becoming more adopted into daily lives, including a focus on waste management and recycling. Previous informal studies have proposed that coffee grounds can be recycled and added to the soil to increase plant productivity. The objective of this experiment was to test how different concentrations of roasted coffee grounds would affect the overall plant productivity when introduced in the soil of various plant types and environmental atmospheres. Three treatments were selected (100% potting mix, 50% potting mix/50% coffee grounds, and 25% potting mix/75% coffee grounds) and applied to 3 acid-tolerating plants (radish, basil, and parsley). Each of these treatments were grown in 2 different environments, where one was planted in a Tempe, AZ backyard while the other group was planted in a lab environment, locating at Arizona State University's Tempe Campus. Each plant with its respective treatments (plant type, coffee ground treatment, and environment) had 10 identical plants for statistical accuracy, resulting in a total of 180 plants grown, observed, and analyzed for this 3-month long experiment. The plant development, plant height, length of roots, quantity of leaves, and environmental observations were recorded and used to define plant productivity in this investigation. The experiment demonstrated low survival rates in all groups including the control group, suggesting a flaw in the experimental design. Nonetheless, the experiment showed that among the surviving plants, the 75% treatment had the largest negative impact on plant productivity. The measured root lengths and leaf quantity had various results across each plant group, leaving the hypothesis unverified. Overall, the experiment was effective in demonstrating negative impacts of great concentrations of coffee grounds when introduced to various plants, but further investigation with an adjusted experimental design will need to be completed to reach a reliable conclusion.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Potential for Accumulation of Boron in Direct Potable Reuse

Description

This report analyzes the potential for accumulation of boron in direct potable reuse. Direct potable reuse treats water through desalination processes such as reverse osmosis or nanofiltration which can achieve

This report analyzes the potential for accumulation of boron in direct potable reuse. Direct potable reuse treats water through desalination processes such as reverse osmosis or nanofiltration which can achieve rejection rates of salts sometimes above 90%. However, boron achieves much lower rejection rates near 40%. Because of this low rejection rate, there is potential for boron to accumulate in the system to levels that are not recommended for potable human consumption of water. To analyze this issue a code was created that runs a steady state system that tracks the internal concentration, permeate concentration, wastewater concentration and reject concentration at various rejection rates, as well as all the flows. A series of flow and mass balances were performed through five different control volumes that denoted different stages in the water use. First was mixing of clean water with permeate; second, consumptive uses; third, addition of contaminant; fourth, wastewater treatment; fifth, advanced water treatments. The system cycled through each of these a number of times until steady state was reached. Utilities or cities considering employing direct potable reuse could utilize this model by estimating their consumption levels and input of contamination, and then seeing what percent rejection or inflow of makeup water they would need to obtain to keep boron levels at a low enough concentration to be fit for consumption. This code also provides options for analyzing spikes and recovery in the system due to spills, and evaporative uses such as cooling towers and their impact on the system.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

Bella Vida Estates: Due Diligence, Street Improvements, and Quantities

Description

This honors project combines the capstone component of CEE: 486 Integrated Civil Engineering Design and the Barrett, The Honors College requirement by combination of Due Diligence report and Street Improvements

This honors project combines the capstone component of CEE: 486 Integrated Civil Engineering Design and the Barrett, The Honors College requirement by combination of Due Diligence report and Street Improvements and Quantities, respectively.

Overall, this project report provides due diligence for a proposed development project, Bella Vida Estates, designed by Red Rock Engineering. This proposed project is located in the southwest portion of the City of Phoenix, in the Laveen Village community.

Bella Vida Estates is a proposed 560-acre mixed-use development whose composition includes single family residential, commercial, recreational park and greenspace, a preparatory charter school, and water storage and wastewater treatment facilities. The subject property is confined east of the new Loop 202 – South Mountain Freeway Extension, south of W. Dobbins Road, north of W. Elliot Road, and west of S. 51st Avenue.

The Due Diligence report is comprised of relevant information needed to develop these parcels of land, including a Property Overview, Land Development Plan, Development Considerations, Sustainability and Value Add components, and Costs.

To provide a more comprehensive due diligence package for the proposed project, street improvement quantities were estimated and then presented via a Construction Documents Exhibit and an Opinion of Probable Costs document.

The Construction Documents Exhibit was created according to City of Phoenix Standards using AutoCAD Civil 3D. The exhibit includes four sheets: Cover Sheet, Exhibit Sheet, Cross Sections, and Appendix. The purpose of this exhibit is to provide a visual representation of the streets to be improved upon, with proper hatching (based on type of cross section), dimensioning, and annotations to aid in presentation.

The Opinion of Probable Costs tabulates Onsite Development costs, which includes Paving, utilities in the form of Water, Sewer, and Storm, Earthwork/Grading, and Lump Sum costs. In addition to the onsite costs, Contingency, General Conditions, General Contractor Fee, and Taxes are included to provide a comprehensive overview of estimated costs.

Red Rock Engineering is excited to propose this promising, sustainable development as a place of residence, commerce, and recreation to the residents of the Laveen Village community.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Impact of Turbidity on the UV Inactivation of Escherichia coli

Description

Turbidity is a known problem for UV water treatment systems as suspended particles can shield contaminants from the UV radiation. UV systems that utilize a reflective radiation chamber may be

Turbidity is a known problem for UV water treatment systems as suspended particles can shield contaminants from the UV radiation. UV systems that utilize a reflective radiation chamber may be able to decrease the impact of turbidity on the efficacy of the system. The purpose of this study was to determine how kaolin clay and gram flour turbidity affects inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) when using a UV system with a reflective chamber. Both sources of turbidity were shown to reduce the inactivation of E. coli with increasing concentrations. Overall, it was shown that increasing kaolin clay turbidity had a consistent effect on reducing UV inactivation across UV doses. Log inactivation was reduced by 1.48 log for the low UV dose and it was reduced by at least 1.31 log for the low UV dose. Gram flour had a similar effect to the clay at the lower UV dose, reducing log inactivation by 1.58 log. At the high UV dose, there was no change in UV inactivation with an increase in turbidity. In conclusion, turbidity has a significant impact on the efficacy of UV disinfection. Therefore, removing turbidity from water is an essential process to enhance UV efficiency for the disinfection of microbial pathogens.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The Importance of Water Softness- Determining the Effectiveness in Utilizing Electromagnetic Water Treatment

Description

The purpose of this experiment was to determine how effective electromagnetic waves could be at reducing calcium hardness in a body of water as well as see how the makeu

The purpose of this experiment was to determine how effective electromagnetic waves could be at reducing calcium hardness in a body of water as well as see how the makeup of the water (free calcium levels, total calcium levels, pH, alkalinity, and surface tension) were affected over the span of testing. A vary of four different nominal calcium hardness levels, ranging from 80 mg/L \u2014 240 mg/L of calcium in terms of calcium hardness were tested over a span of thirty minutes with samples being taking once every ten minutes. Data collection indicates that there is a noticeable decrease in free calcium, total calcium, and pH over a span of thirty minutes using the electromagnetic device, however, no noticeable trend can be made for the alkalinity and surface tension. Errors can be stated to be caused by lack of protocol for calcium hardness creation as well as needed updates for procedures such as alkalinity and surface tension testing. It can be deduced that the process is favorable, but it cannot be concluded as to whether to not this device can become a sustainable alternative to salt-based water softeners.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Physical Water Treatment Effects on Evaporation Rates, Hardness, and Microbial Life

Description

The rising need for water reuse in the Southwest United States has increased awareness of the quality of wastewater. This need is caused by an increased population having basic water

The rising need for water reuse in the Southwest United States has increased awareness of the quality of wastewater. This need is caused by an increased population having basic water needs; inefficient water use, such as overwatering lawns and leaking pipes; and recent drought conditions all over the southwestern US. Reclaimed water is a possible solution. It's used for a variety of non-potable, or non-drinkable, reasons. These uses include: cooling power plants, concrete mixing, artificial lakes, and irrigation for public parks and golf courts. Cooling power plants utilizes roughly 41% of the total water consumed by the United States, which makes it the highest user of water in the US. The attention is turned to optimizing mechanical processes and reducing the amount of water consumed. Wet-recirculating systems reuse cooling water in a second cycle rather than discharging it immediately. Cooling towers are commonly used to expose water to ambient air. As the water evaporates, more water is withdrawn while the rest continues to circulate. These systems have much lower water withdrawals than once-through systems, but have higher water consumption. The cooling towers in wet-recirculating plants and other warm machinery have two major limitations: evaporation of pumped water and scale formation in the components. Cooling towers circulate water, and only draw as it evaporates, which conserves water. The scale formation in the components is due to the hardness of the water. Scale occurs when hard water evaporates and forms solid calcium carbonate. This formation can lead to reduced flow or even clogging in pipes, fouling of components or pipes, and reduced cooling efficiency. Another concern from the public over the use of reclaimed water is the possibility of there being fecal contamination. This fear stems from the stigma associated with drinking water that essentially came from the toilet. An emerging technology, in order to address these three issues, is the use of an electromagnetic device. The wires have a current flowing through which induces a magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of the flow, while the electrical field is proportional to the flow velocity. In other words, the magnetic and electrical fields will create an effect that will concentrate cations at the center of the pipe and anions at the wall of the pipe or the other way depending on the direction of the flow. Reversing the field will then cause the cations and anions to move toward one another and increase the collision frequency and energy. The purpose of these experiments is to test the effects of the electromagnetic device on the aforementioned topics. There are three tests that were performed, a surface tension test, a hardness test, and a microbial test. The surface tension test focused on the angle of a water droplet until it burst. The angle would theoretically decrease as the bond between water molecules increased due to the device. The results of this test shows a lower angle for the treated water but a higher angle for the untreated one. This means the device had an effect on the surface tension of the water. Hard water is caused by calcium and magnesium ions in the water. These ions are dissolved in the water as it travels past soil and rocks. The purpose of this test is to measure the free calcium ion amount in the water. If the free calcium number lowers, then it can be assumed it collided with the carbonate and formed calcium carbonate. This calcium carbonate causes a reduction in hardness in the water. The result of the test showed no correlation between ion concentrations in the treated/untreated system. The e. coli test focused on testing the effects of an electromagnetic device on inhibiting fecal contamination in water/wastewater at a treatment facility. In order to detect fecal contamination, we test for bacteria known as fecal coliforms, more specifically e. coli. The test involved spiking the system with bacteria and testing its concentrations after time had passed.The e. coli results showed no trend in the inactivation of the bacteria. In conclusion, the device had varying results, but multiple steps can be taken in the future in order to continue research.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Life Cycle Sustainability Analysis (LSCA) of Enzyme-Induced Carbonate Precipitate (EICP)

Description

Current practice and a new technology for mitigating fugitive dust on construction sites are compared on the basis of economic, environmental and social impacts for this assessment. Fugitive dust can

Current practice and a new technology for mitigating fugitive dust on construction sites are compared on the basis of economic, environmental and social impacts for this assessment. Fugitive dust can have serious health impacts, such as repertory illnesses and valley fever, on affected persons and is regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency and enforced by state and local agencies. Current practice consists of either relatively continuous application of potable water, a valuable resource, or application of expensive polymers, however, water application is considered the best available technology (BAT). The new technology, developed by the Center of Bio-medicated and Bio-inspired Geotechnics at Arizona State University, consists of application of Enzyme-Induced Carbonate Precipitate (EICP) to create an erosion-resistant crust. This crust is considered a "one and done" solution, until it is disturbed, however will last longer and stay more effective than quickly evaporating water. Future work will need to include how much disturbance is required to disturb the crust until ineffective towards mitigating fugitive dust. Results of the comparison show that a single EICP treatment produces 37 times less pollutants, uses 41 times less water and is 1.14 times cheaper than using water treatment to mitigate fugitive dust on a 7 acre site for 2 weeks (14 days). 14 days is the threshold at where EICP treatment becomes less expensive than water application for the purpose of mitigating fugitive dust. The EICP treatment benefits include lowering global warming inducing emissions, providing better air quality, becoming more cost effective, staying constantly effective to mitigate fugitive dust, and saving potable water.

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Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Colonization of granular activated carbon media filters by Legionella and heterotrophic bacterial cells

Description

Granular activated carbon (GAC) filters are final polishing step in the drinking water treatment systems for removal of dissolved organic carbon fractions. Generally filters are colonized by bacterial communities and

Granular activated carbon (GAC) filters are final polishing step in the drinking water treatment systems for removal of dissolved organic carbon fractions. Generally filters are colonized by bacterial communities and their activity reduces biodegradable solutes allowing partial regeneration of GAC's adsorptive capacity. When the bacteria pass into the filtrate due to increased growth, microbiological quality of drinking water is compromised and regrowth in the distribution system occurs. Bacteria attached to carbon particles as biofilms or in conjugation with other bacteria were observed to be highly resistant to post filtration microbial mitigation techniques. Some of these bacteria were identified as pathogenic.

This study focuses on one such pathogen Legionella pneumophila which is resistant to environmental stressors and treatment conditions. It is also responsible for Legionnaires' disease outbreak through drinking water thus attracting attention of regulatory agencies. The work assessed the attachment and colonization of Legionella and heterotrophic bacteria in lab scale GAC media column filters. Quantification of Legionella and HPC in the influent, effluent, column's biofilms and on the GAC particles was performed over time using fluorescent microscopy and culture based techniques.

The results indicated gradual increase in the colonization of the GAC particles with HPC bacteria. Initially high number of Legionella cells were detected in the column effluent and were not detected on GAC suggesting low attachment of the cells to the particles potentially due to lack of any previous biofilms. With the initial colonization of the filter media by other bacteria the number of Legionella cells on the GAC particles and biofilms also increased. Presence of Legionella was confirmed in all the samples collected from the columns spiked with Legionella. Significant increase in the Legionella was observed in column's inner surface biofilm (0.25 logs up to 0.52 logs) and on GAC particles (0.42 logs up to 0.63 logs) after 2 months. Legionella and HPC attached to column's biofilm were higher than that on GAC particles indicating the strong association with biofilms. The bacterial concentration slowly increased in the effluent. This may be due to column's wall effect decreasing filter efficiency, possible exhaustion of GAC capacity over time and potential bacterial growth.

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Date Created
  • 2014