Matching Items (11)

135052-Thumbnail Image.png

People's Perception of Muslims in America

Description

This study provides insight into the perceptions of peoples by assessing their reaction to Muslim and non Muslim couples at two different settings and showing them four photographs of in

This study provides insight into the perceptions of peoples by assessing their reaction to Muslim and non Muslim couples at two different settings and showing them four photographs of in which two of them have the non Muslim couple and two have the Muslim couple. I examine various themes in the responses, including minority, racism, terrorism, hijab and acceptance. Results show that respondents frequently associated traditional clothing with one of the four themes when shown photos of the Muslim couple compared to photos of the non Muslim couple.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

131195-Thumbnail Image.png

Impact of Domestic Violence on Witnesses

Description

Domestic violence is a term one has heard of numerous times. It is not a newfound concept and continues to affect not only victims and those in the household but

Domestic violence is a term one has heard of numerous times. It is not a newfound concept and continues to affect not only victims and those in the household but those outside of the home it occurs in as well. Much research has been carried out on witnesses of domestic violence in the home. The first section of this thesis will discuss the impact of domestic violence directly on victims of the abuse. This may assist in understanding the impact on witnesses of the abuse. The second section of this thesis will conduct a literature review on these witnesses who are often children and teenagers. It will discuss the effects of domestic violence on these children; whether it be mentally, physically, emotionally, or in any other form. While much research has been conducted on children and teenagers, there has not been much research conducted on young adult witnesses of domestic violence. Many young adults share their home with their parents in current times and some will have most likely witnessed some form of domestic violence in their home. The third section of this thesis will offer a proposal to understand the effects of domestic violence on these particular witnesses to answer whether the effects are similar to the younger aged witnesses. A questionnaire is attached to ask questions that may be used to initiate research and collect data.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

Effects of Domestic Violence; A Cross Cultural Study

Description

Most research on domestic violence has been regularly generalized, on the issue and the people involved, who are most commonly but not necessarily, only women. Previous studies have focused mainly

Most research on domestic violence has been regularly generalized, on the issue and the people involved, who are most commonly but not necessarily, only women. Previous studies have focused mainly on women in the United States facing a domestic violence situation and the criminal justice response to them, however studies on the immigrant populations are limited. In this qualitative research we attempt to answer the question of how do domestic violence circumstances during childhood and young formative years, 12 - 18 years old, affect people from diverse cultures, as they become adults in the U.S. This study looks at the perceptions of women from Cambodia, Mexico, Russia and Vietnam as well as the United States, involving Native American women and their dependent children who have emigrated to or lived in the U.S. and experienced violence from their intimate partner and their experiences with the law, culture, Child Protective Services and other programs. Through previous interviews with women of these cultures we gain an understanding of their struggles and thoughts about their experiences and understandings and look into what changes can be implemented in order to help the various cultured victims of domestic violence in the law, community and criminal justice system and programs.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

131293-Thumbnail Image.png

Temporal Progression of Intimate Partner Violence in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Relationships

Description

Psychological and sociological studies have indicated that same-sex relationships form at faster rates than their different-sex counterparts. Studies on the temporal progression of same-sex relationships suggest that same-sex relationships advance

Psychological and sociological studies have indicated that same-sex relationships form at faster rates than their different-sex counterparts. Studies on the temporal progression of same-sex relationships suggest that same-sex relationships advance through relationship stage models at faster rates than different-sex relationships. Given this, the purpose of this study is to explore the temporal progression of same-sex and different-sex intimate partner violence (IPV) and discover if the faster development of same-sex relationships is exhibited within same-sex IPV. The study was led by the following questions: Do same-sex relationships experience IPV earlier than different-sex relationships? Do same-sex relationships progress through the cycle of violence at faster rates than different-sex relationships? The present study surveyed 35 individuals who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) in at least one romantic relationship. Participants included 20 heterosexuals, 8 lesbians, and 7 gay males. The present findings indicate that same-sex relationships experience IPV earlier in their relationship than different-sex relationships. Accordingly, results suggest that IPV is presented earlier within lesbian relationships than any other romantic relationship; gay relationships and different-sex relationships follow after. Data analysis also affirms that same-sex relationships transition faster into Lenore Walker’s tension building phase and acute explosion phase than different-sex relationships. Overall, revealing that the rapid progression of same-sex relationships can be witnessed within violent outcomes as well.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

129380-Thumbnail Image.png

Protection Against Pursuit: A Conceptual and Empirical Comparison of Cyberstalking and Stalking Victimization Among a National Sample

Description

Cyberstalking is a relatively understudied area in criminology, with no consensus among scholars as to whether it represents a modified form of stalking or whether it is an entirely new

Cyberstalking is a relatively understudied area in criminology, with no consensus among scholars as to whether it represents a modified form of stalking or whether it is an entirely new and emerging criminal phenomenon. Using data from the 2006 Supplemental Victimization Survey (SVS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), this study compares stalking and cyberstalking victims across several dimensions, including situational features of their experiences and self-protective behaviors. Results indicate that there are significant differences between stalking and cyberstalking victims, including their number of self-protective behaviors adopted, duration of contact with their stalker, financial costs of victimization, and perceived fear at onset. Perceived fear over time, the occurrence of a physical attack, and sex of the victim were all associated with a higher number of self-protective behaviors for cyberstalking victims compared to stalking victims, net of the effect of the control variables. Implications for stalking theory, research, and criminal justice policy are discussed.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-11-30

132231-Thumbnail Image.png

Post-Conviction Polygraph Examinations: Useful or Useless?

Description

A polygraph exam attempts to measure “truthfulness” based on several physiological factors—such as changes in heart rate, breathing, sweating, and other physical responses. Ever since the polygraph exam was invented

A polygraph exam attempts to measure “truthfulness” based on several physiological factors—such as changes in heart rate, breathing, sweating, and other physical responses. Ever since the polygraph exam was invented in 1921, however, it has been surrounded by heavy controversy. The largest controversy is whether or not polygraph exams are scientifically valid. Aside from debate over whether “truthfulness” can actually be scientifically measured, polygraph testing is vulnerable to factors like the skill level of the examiner, the IQ of the subject, the setting of the exam, and finally, the ability for subjects to employ “countermeasures.” Countermeasures include physical movements, mental exercises, drug use, and biofeedback training. In addition to these drawbacks, the polygraph exam is not admissible in court. Despite this, the polygraph can still serve other purposes—anywhere from assisting in the law enforcement hiring process to classifying the behavior of convicted sex offenders. Polygraph examinations may be administered at various points during a criminal investigation, both pre-conviction and post-conviction. For example, when a criminal investigation first begins, a subject may be polygraphed to be eliminated as a suspect. Once charges are filed against an individual for an offense, law enforcement may polygraph the subject to obtain more information. After conviction, an offender may be polygraphed at various points during their incarceration, as a part of research studies, as well as part of monitoring sex offenders. In the United States, more than thirty states require that polygraph exams be administered to monitor sex offenders. These periodic exams help track sexual offender’s therapeutic progress, identify risk factors, and shed light on any new offenses. This thesis paper provides a synthesis of the current state of literature surrounding the use of post-conviction polygraphs on sex offenders by outlining the numerous advantages and disadvantages.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

158625-Thumbnail Image.png

Citizen Satisfaction and Officer Understanding of Citizen Expectations: A Quantitative and Observational Analysis

Description

Scholars have extensively researched citizens’ preferences regarding the actions, language, and demeanors displayed by officers during citizen-police interactions. Specifically, there are a multitude of factors that can influence a citizens’

Scholars have extensively researched citizens’ preferences regarding the actions, language, and demeanors displayed by officers during citizen-police interactions. Specifically, there are a multitude of factors that can influence a citizens’ perception of such interactions as either satisfactory or unsatisfactory. What appears to be missing from the literature, however, is police officers’ understanding of citizens’ preferences for regarding factors. In other words, it is unclear if and how officers are actively attempting to interact with victims and witnesses based on actual citizen preferences or if officers do not consider these preferences during citizen interactions. This gap has important implications for officer training on citizen’s preferences due to the influence such interactions can have on citizens, specifically citizens’ physical and psychological well-being, as well as citizens’ perceptions of - and reaction to - the criminal justice system. This project examines original data collection of citizen and officer surveys regarding officers’ actions, language, and demeanors. Additionally, observations during ride-alongs are presented to expand on the current literature regarding citizen preferences during interactions with the police and to assess officers’ understanding and application of this knowledge. Results indicate that, while officers seem to understand what actions, language, and demeanors will increase citizen satisfaction, officers may believe that there exist situational factors that are more important in affecting citizen satisfaction with officers. Observations revealed that the vast majority of citizen-police interactions were positive and productive. Even so, results from the surveys and observations point to several important policy implications for improvement between officers and citizens.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

158341-Thumbnail Image.png

Who is to Blame? The Impact of Race, Age, and Victimization Disclosure on the Blameworthiness of Human Trafficking Victims

Description

This study examined the effects of victim characteristics and past life experiences on attributions of blame to human trafficking victims in hypothetical scenarios. Specifically, this study investigates the main and

This study examined the effects of victim characteristics and past life experiences on attributions of blame to human trafficking victims in hypothetical scenarios. Specifically, this study investigates the main and interaction effects of the victim’s race, age, and victimization disclosure on outsider’s perceptions of blameworthiness. A factorial vignette survey that provided information about a victim altering her race (Black or White), current age (15 or 21), and availability of victimization disclosure was given to a university-based sample (N = 592). Utilizing three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the analysis, the results showed that the main effects of the victim’s age and victimization disclosure significantly influenced attributions of blame. The results also indicated that there are significant two-way and three-way interactions. The conclusion highlights the importance of these findings as well as avenues for future research and potential programming.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

157635-Thumbnail Image.png

Is Restorative Justice Effective in the U.S.? Evaluating Program Methods and Findings Using Meta-analysis

Description

The presence of restorative justice (RJ) in the United States has grown steadily within the last five decades. The dynamics of RJ programs are meant to more holistically address the

The presence of restorative justice (RJ) in the United States has grown steadily within the last five decades. The dynamics of RJ programs are meant to more holistically address the harms caused by crime in comparison to the traditional criminal justice system (CJS). Yet, evaluative research has provided inconsistent evidence of their effectiveness and the quality of empirical study has gone untested. The current study sought to fill the gaps within past research by examining how success has been measured, assessing the rigor of study methodology using the Maryland Scientific Methods Scale (SMS), and determining the impact of RJ programs on recidivism, victim satisfaction and restitution compliance using meta-analysis. A systematic search of past literature identified a sample of 121 studies whose dependent measures were coded, and methodological designs were rated using the SMS. Most studies failed to include community-based measures of success or measures which reflect the goals of RJ to undue harms and restore relationships. SMS scores were well distributed within the sample. Despite restricted sample sizes, meta-analyses used extracted data from 35 case-control, quasi-experimental and experimental studies to generate 43 unique treatment contrasts and 3 summary effects. Meta-analytic findings favored RJ treatment over CJS control groups across all dependent measures. Heterogeneity between subsequent arrest studies was scrutinized using subgroup analysis. The fewest subsequent arrests were associated with adult offenders, mandated participation, mediation and hybrid programs, and the most rigorous methodologies. Findings support continued efforts to improve the methodological rigor of evaluations, targeted focus on specific program types and delivery characteristics. Future meta-analyses would benefit from the inclusion of non-American RJ program evaluations to enlarge pooled sample populations and better detect moderating influences. Other suggestions for research design improvements include the use of more holistic and stakeholder-centric measures for success, use of continuous measures, and refined indicator variables for heterogeneity testing (e.g., crime type severity, characteristics of program fidelity). The author recommends continued use of these programs, specifically with adult offenders and incidents of serious crime toward a better understanding of the true impacts of RJ on stakeholders. More detailed results, study limitations and implications are discussed herein.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

152643-Thumbnail Image.png

On-officer video cameras: examining the effects of police department policy and assignment on camera use and activation

Description

On-officer video camera (OVC) technology in the field of policing is developing at a rapid pace. Large agencies are beginning to adopt the technology on a limited basis, and a

On-officer video camera (OVC) technology in the field of policing is developing at a rapid pace. Large agencies are beginning to adopt the technology on a limited basis, and a number of cities across the United States have required their police departments to adopt the technology for all first responders. Researchers have just begun to examine its effects on citizen complaints, officers' attitudes, and street-level behavior. To date, however, there is no research examining how departmental policy and assignment of officers to a camera program affect officer behavior and opinions of the cameras. Policy and assignment have the potential to impact how officers react to the technology and can affect their interactions with citizens on a daily basis. This study measures camera activations by line officers in the Mesa Police Department during police-citizen encounters over a ten-month period. Data from 1,675 police-citizen contacts involving camera officers were subject to analysis. Net of controls (i.e., the nature of the crime incident, how it was initiated, officer shift, assignment, presence of bystanders and backup, and other situational factors), the bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine how departmental policy (mandatory versus discretionary activation policy) and officer assignment (voluntary versus mandatory assignment) affected willingness to activate the cameras, as well as officer and citizen behavior during field contacts.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014