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Temperature dependency on baseline of polymer modified Tuning Forks

Description

Polymer modified tuning fork-based sensors were fabricated to assure reproducibility. The effect of system valve switching on the modified tuning fork-based sensors was studied at the different temperature. The response to Xylene gas sample on stabilized modified tuning fork-based sensors

Polymer modified tuning fork-based sensors were fabricated to assure reproducibility. The effect of system valve switching on the modified tuning fork-based sensors was studied at the different temperature. The response to Xylene gas sample on stabilized modified tuning fork-based sensors with temperature was defined while learning about the key analytical performance for chemical sensors to be used in the real-world application.

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2017-05

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Colorimetric Humidity Sensor Based on Liquid Composite Materials for the Monitoring of Food and Pharmaceuticals

Description

Using supported ionic-liquid membrane (SILM)-inspired methodologies, we have synthesized, characterized, and developed a humidity sensor by coating a liquid composite material onto a hygroscopic, porous substrate. Similar to pH paper, the sensor responds to the environment’s relative humidity and changes

Using supported ionic-liquid membrane (SILM)-inspired methodologies, we have synthesized, characterized, and developed a humidity sensor by coating a liquid composite material onto a hygroscopic, porous substrate. Similar to pH paper, the sensor responds to the environment’s relative humidity and changes color accordingly. The humidity indicator is prepared by casting a few microliters of low-toxicity reagents on a nontoxic substrate. The sensing material is a newly synthesized liquid composite that comprises a hygroscopic medium for environmental humidity capture and a color indicator that translates the humidity level into a distinct color change. Sodium borohydride was used to form a liquid composite medium, and DenimBlu30 dye was used as a redox indicator. The liquid composite medium provides a hygroscopic response to the relative humidity, and DenimBlu30 translates the chemical changes into a visual change from yellow to blue. The borate–redox dye-based humidity sensor was prepared, and then Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and image analysis methods were used to characterize the chemical composition, optimize synthesis, and gain insight into the sensor reactivity. Test results indicated that this new sensing material can detect relative humidity in the range of 5–100% in an irreversible manner with good reproducibility and high accuracy. The sensor is a low-cost, highly sensitive, easy-to-use humidity indicator. More importantly, it can be easily packaged with products to monitor humidity levels in pharmaceutical and food packaging.

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2014-09-09

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A Novel Wireless Wearable Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Monitoring Device With Disposable Sensors

Description

A novel portable wireless volatile organic compound (VOC) monitoring device with disposable sensors is presented. The device is miniaturized, light, easy-to-use, and cost-effective. Different field tests have been carried out to identify the operational, analytical, and functional performance of the

A novel portable wireless volatile organic compound (VOC) monitoring device with disposable sensors is presented. The device is miniaturized, light, easy-to-use, and cost-effective. Different field tests have been carried out to identify the operational, analytical, and functional performance of the device and its sensors. The device was compared to a commercial photo-ionization detector, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and carbon monoxide detector. In addition, environmental operational conditions, such as barometric change, temperature change and wind conditions were also tested to evaluate the device performance. The multiple comparisons and tests indicate that the proposed VOC device is adequate to characterize personal exposure in many real-world scenarios and is applicable for personal daily use.

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2016-12-03

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Walking Intervention Through Texting for Adolescents

Description

It is well established that physical activity (PA) directly correlates with many health benefits, especially when active habits are formed during childhood and adolescence. PA practiced in adolescence has been seen to carry into adulthood, helping to combat a host

It is well established that physical activity (PA) directly correlates with many health benefits, especially when active habits are formed during childhood and adolescence. PA practiced in adolescence has been seen to carry into adulthood, helping to combat a host of chronic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. However, in recent years there has been a steady decline in PA among adolescents, followed by a resulting rise in sedentary behavior. Walking Intervention Through Texting for Adolescents, or WalkIT-A, was an 11.5-week intervention that built upon behavioral theory to provide an incentive-based, adaptive, physical activity intervention to inactive adolescents. The goal of this study was to investigate an intervention which combined walking with pointed behavior change strategies to incite a larger increase in PA. Using single-case, reversal (ABA) design, the study was aimed at shaping physical activity behavior in adolescents aged 12-17 through a mobile health intervention that paired adaptive goal setting with financial incentives to increase step count. The intervention was delivered using a semi-automated texting, mobile-Health (mHealth) platform, which incorporated FitBit tracking technology, adaptive goals, motivational messages, performance feedback, and points/incentives. It was hypothesized that during the adaptive intervention phase participants would increase both steps per day and active minutes compared to baseline values. Upon conclusion of the study, the three adolescent participants exhibited increased steps and active minutes during the intervention period compared to baseline and withdrawal phases. However, the specific trends identified suggest the need for future research to incorporate even stronger intervention components to overcome PA "drop-off" midway through the intervention, along with other external, environmental influencers. Despite this need, the use of adaptive goal setting combined with incentives can be an effective means to incite PA behavior change in adolescents.

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2016-12

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Optimization of Packaging Conditions for Long-term Stability of Colorimetric Carbon Dioxide Sensors for Capnography Applications in Non-intubated Patients

Description

Capnography is the monitoring of concentrations of carbon dioxide in exhaled breath. It allows reliable insight into patients' metabolism, ventilation, and blood circulation. Capnography has become an integral part of anesthesiology monitoring in operating rooms. However, its used is limited

Capnography is the monitoring of concentrations of carbon dioxide in exhaled breath. It allows reliable insight into patients' metabolism, ventilation, and blood circulation. Capnography has become an integral part of anesthesiology monitoring in operating rooms. However, its used is limited in other contexts due to deeply engrained protocols, size of capnographs, and the complexity of its interpretation. Intensive care units and in-home use could greatly benefit by a widespread usage of capnographs. Measuring methods include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and chemical colorimetric analysis. Infrared technology is currently the most widely used and cost-effective method for measuring carbon dioxide. However, this device can be bulky and costly. A novel portable breath CO2 analyzer was developed for this purpose. The analyzer features an accurate colorimetric CO2 sensor that can analyze ETCO2 in real time. Many advancements have been in made in the sensor fabrication process. Nevertheless, research on optimal packaging conditions and accelerated aging times have been limited. In this experiment, carbon dioxide sensors were packaged at four different environmental conditions to test their long-term stability. This was done to determine if these conditions had an effect on sensor degradation. In the second part of the experiment, a separate batch of sensors was placed inside an oven at 48 oC to investigate the effect of stabilization temperature dependence and accelerated aging. In conclusion, the data obtained from the sensors packaged at different conditions could not be concluded to be statistically different. Sensors packaged at ambient conditions had the highest average value at 0.45030 V and the ones at controlled 33% humidity had the lowest at 0.39348 V. The sensors packaged at 8.25% CO2 had the smallest variance in their voltage measurements. From these data, it can be concluded that environmental testing conditions had the greatest effect on the measured signal. The oven experiment showed that sensors rapidly stabilize at high temperature and these stay constant after reaching this stabilization. For future work, the signal difference at different environmental conditions should be done. Control of environmental conditions can be achieved by building a glove box to control temperature and humidity.

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2015-05

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Thermochemical Humidity Detection in Harsh or Non-Steady Environments

Description

We present a new method of chemical quantification utilizing thermal analysis for the detection of relative humidity. By measuring the temperature change of a hydrophilically-modified temperature sensing element vs. a hydrophobically-modified reference element, the total heat from chemical interactions in

We present a new method of chemical quantification utilizing thermal analysis for the detection of relative humidity. By measuring the temperature change of a hydrophilically-modified temperature sensing element vs. a hydrophobically-modified reference element, the total heat from chemical interactions in the sensing element can be measured and used to calculate a change in relative humidity. We have probed the concept by assuming constant temperature streams, and having constant reference humidity (~0% in this case). The concept has been probed with the two methods presented here: (1) a thermistor-based method and (2) a thermographic method. For the first method, a hydrophilically-modified thermistor was used, and a detection range of 0–75% relative humidity was demonstrated. For the second method, a hydrophilically-modified disposable surface (sensing element) and thermal camera were used, and thermal signatures for different relative humidity were demonstrated. These new methods offer opportunities in either chemically harsh environments or in rapidly changing environments. For sensing humidity in a chemically harsh environment, a hydrophilically-modified thermistor can provide a sensing method, eliminating the exposure of metallic contacts, which can be easily corroded by the environment. On the other hand, the thermographic method can be applied with a disposable non-contact sensing element, which is a low-cost upkeep option in environments where damage or fouling is inevitable. In addition, for environments that are rapidly changing, the thermographic method could potentially provide a very rapid humidity measurement as the chemical interactions are rapid and their changes are easily quantified.

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Date Created
2017-05-24

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Mobile health applications of breath analysis: challenges and solutions

Description

The world of healthcare can be seen as dynamic, often an area where technology and science meet to consummate a greater good for humanity. This relationship has been working well for the last century as evident by the average life

The world of healthcare can be seen as dynamic, often an area where technology and science meet to consummate a greater good for humanity. This relationship has been working well for the last century as evident by the average life expectancy change. For the greater of the last five decades the average life expectancy at birth increased globally by almost 20 years. In the United States specifically, life expectancy has grown from 50 years in 1900 to 78 years in 2009. That is a 76% increase in just over a century. As great as this increase sounds for humanity it means there are soon to be real issues in the healthcare world. A larger older population will need more healthcare services but have fewer young professionals to provide those services. Technology and science will need to continue to push the boundaries in order to develop and provide the solutions needed to continue providing the aging world population sufficient healthcare. One solution sure to help provide a brighter future for healthcare is mobile health (m-health). M-health can help provide a means for healthcare professionals to treat more patients with less work expenditure and do so with more personalized healthcare advice which will lead to better treatments. This paper discusses one area of m-health devices specifically; human breath analysis devices. The current laboratory methods of breath analysis and why these methods are not adequate for common healthcare practices will be discussed in more detail. Then more specifically, mobile breath analysis devices are discussed. The topic will encompass the challenges that need to be met in developing such devices, possible solutions to these challenges, two real examples of mobile breath analysis devices and finally possible future directions for m-health technologies.

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Date Created
2012

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Engineering of Arson Forensics and Fire Debris Investigation: The Scientific, Social, and Curricular Impact

Description

Arson and intentional fires account for significant property losses and over 400 civilian deaths yearly in the United States. However, clearance rates for arson offenses remain low relative to other crimes. This issue can be attributed in part to the

Arson and intentional fires account for significant property losses and over 400 civilian deaths yearly in the United States. However, clearance rates for arson offenses remain low relative to other crimes. This issue can be attributed in part to the challenges associated with performing an arson investigation, in particular the collection and interpretation of reliable data. PLOT-cryoadsorption, a dynamic headspace sampling technique developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, was proposed as an alternate technique for extracting ignitable liquid residues for analysis. The method was generally shown to be robust, flexible, precise, and accurate for a variety of applications. The possibility of using a real-time in situ monitor for screening samples was also discussed. This work, conducted by an undergraduate researcher, has implications in educational curricula as well as in the field of forensic science.

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2013-05

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Synthesis and characterization of boronic-acid-containing metal organic frameworks

Description

We report the synthesis of novel boronic acid-containing metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which was synthesized via solvothermal synthesis of cobalt nitride with 3,5-Dicarboxyphenylboronic acid (3,5-DCPBC). Powder X-ray diffraction and BET surface area analysis have been used to verify the successful synthesis

We report the synthesis of novel boronic acid-containing metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which was synthesized via solvothermal synthesis of cobalt nitride with 3,5-Dicarboxyphenylboronic acid (3,5-DCPBC). Powder X-ray diffraction and BET surface area analysis have been used to verify the successful synthesis of this microporous material.

We have also made the attempts of using zinc nitride and copper nitride as metal sources to synthesize the boronic acid-containing MOFs. However, the attempts were not successful. The possible reason is the existence of copper and zinc ions catalyzed the decomposition of 3,5-Dicarboxyphenylboronic acid, forming isophthalic acid. The ended product has been proved to be isophthalic acid crystals by the single crystal X-ray diffraction. The effects of solvents, reaction temperature, and added bases were investigated. The addition of triethylamine has been shown to tremendously improve the sample crystallinity by facilitating ligand deprotonation

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Date Created
2014

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A novel control engineering approach to designing and optimizing adaptive sequential behavioral interventions

Description

Control engineering offers a systematic and efficient approach to optimizing the effectiveness of individually tailored treatment and prevention policies, also known as adaptive or ``just-in-time'' behavioral interventions. These types of interventions represent promising strategies for addressing many significant public health

Control engineering offers a systematic and efficient approach to optimizing the effectiveness of individually tailored treatment and prevention policies, also known as adaptive or ``just-in-time'' behavioral interventions. These types of interventions represent promising strategies for addressing many significant public health concerns. This dissertation explores the development of decision algorithms for adaptive sequential behavioral interventions using dynamical systems modeling, control engineering principles and formal optimization methods. A novel gestational weight gain (GWG) intervention involving multiple intervention components and featuring a pre-defined, clinically relevant set of sequence rules serves as an excellent example of a sequential behavioral intervention; it is examined in detail in this research.

 

A comprehensive dynamical systems model for the GWG behavioral interventions is developed, which demonstrates how to integrate a mechanistic energy balance model with dynamical formulations of behavioral models, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior and self-regulation. Self-regulation is further improved with different advanced controller formulations. These model-based controller approaches enable the user to have significant flexibility in describing a participant's self-regulatory behavior through the tuning of controller adjustable parameters. The dynamic simulation model demonstrates proof of concept for how self-regulation and adaptive interventions influence GWG, how intra-individual and inter-individual variability play a critical role in determining intervention outcomes, and the evaluation of decision rules.

 

Furthermore, a novel intervention decision paradigm using Hybrid Model Predictive Control framework is developed to generate sequential decision policies in the closed-loop. Clinical considerations are systematically taken into account through a user-specified dosage sequence table corresponding to the sequence rules, constraints enforcing the adjustment of one input at a time, and a switching time strategy accounting for the difference in frequency between intervention decision points and sampling intervals. Simulation studies illustrate the potential usefulness of the intervention framework.

The final part of the dissertation presents a model scheduling strategy relying on gain-scheduling to address nonlinearities in the model, and a cascade filter design for dual-rate control system is introduced to address scenarios with variable sampling rates. These extensions are important for addressing real-life scenarios in the GWG intervention.

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Date Created
2014