Matching Items (236)

From the Holocaust to the Rwanda Genocide: Development and Effectiveness of Human Rights Law

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In the aftermath of the Second World War and global atrocities that occurred during the Nazi Holocaust, the international community established the United Nations and developed the Universal Declaration of

In the aftermath of the Second World War and global atrocities that occurred during the Nazi Holocaust, the international community established the United Nations and developed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The UN legally defined the term genocide with the development of the Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide in an attempt to deter future genocides from occurring. These are now the governing documents for international human rights law and genocide prevention. Since the development of these documents, however, human rights violations and genocides have continued to occur around the world. In 1994, Rwandan Hutus murdered more than one million Tutsis in the span of one hundred days. Following the genocide, the United Nations developed the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda in which the conviction of Jean-Paul Akayesu established the first trial where an international tribunal was called upon to interpret the definition of genocide as defined in the Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Although the human rights movement has created greater deterrence for human rights crimes, punished perpetrators for their crimes, and established norms for the treatment of human beings, global human rights violations and genocides continue to occur. This project attempts to explore the presence of possible factors in pre-genocidal nations that may predict whether a nation could spiral into genocide and what mechanisms could counter their presence.

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  • 2014-05

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Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism? Welfare State Development in 18 Latin American Countries, 1995-2010

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Much research has been devoted to identifying trends in either convergence upon a neoliberal model or divergence among welfare states in connection to globalization, but most research has focused on

Much research has been devoted to identifying trends in either convergence upon a neoliberal model or divergence among welfare states in connection to globalization, but most research has focused on advanced industrialized countries. This has limited our understanding of the current state of convergence or divergence, especially among welfare states in developing regions. To address this research gap and contribute to the broader convergence vs. divergence debate, this research explores welfare state variation found within Latin America, in terms of the health policy domain, through the use of cross-national data from 18 countries collected between the period of 1995 to 2010 and the application of a series of descriptive and regression analysis techniques. Analyses revealed divergence within Latin America in the form of three distinct welfare states, and that among these welfare states income inequality, trust in traditional public institutions, and democratization, are significantly related to welfare state type and health performance.

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  • 2014-05

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Founders of Human Service Non-profits in Maricopa County, Arizona: Inception and Start-up Stories

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The growth the nonprofit sector has experienced not only nationally but within the state of Arizona has been tremendous. The growth occurs one organization at a time and the research

The growth the nonprofit sector has experienced not only nationally but within the state of Arizona has been tremendous. The growth occurs one organization at a time and the research looks at the motivators as to why individuals part take in a profit less sector. The research focuses on nonprofits within Maricopa County offering human services. A combination of qualitative methods were used to guide the research. Interviews with nonprofits founders was the main form of data collection. The findings revealed self-efficacy, spirituality, and personal relations played a pivotal role as motivators for the participants. The findings also illuminated the role class, gender, and race play in the structural arrangement and opportunities to engage in adopting a nonprofit organization.

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  • 2014-05

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Prostitution Policy: Alternatives for the U.S.

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This thesis intends to identify various alternatives to current prostitution policy in the United States. Specifically, this paper focuses on the proposals of abolition, legalization, and decriminalization, as they are

This thesis intends to identify various alternatives to current prostitution policy in the United States. Specifically, this paper focuses on the proposals of abolition, legalization, and decriminalization, as they are interpreted through feminist perspectives. Additionally, the effectiveness of each proposal is based on how well they would reduce the threat and perpetuation of violence, decrease the spread of venereal disease, and lower the rate of drug use amongst sex workers in the U.S. Each method is analyzed through the success and failure rates in the societies in which they have already been implemented. Ultimately, the conclusion is met that legalization would be the most effective and logical policy reform to ensure the safety of American sex workers.

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  • 2014-12

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Fit Minded College Edition: Pilot test of a magazine-based discussion group on physical activity in female college freshmen

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Objective: Fewer than 50% of female college freshmen meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. Innovative approaches that help college women increase their PA are warranted. The study purpose was to pilot

Objective: Fewer than 50% of female college freshmen meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. Innovative approaches that help college women increase their PA are warranted. The study purpose was to pilot test a magazine-based discussion group for improving PA, self-worth, and nutrition behaviors in freshmen college females. Method: Thirty-seven women (18-20 years) were randomized to intervention (n=17) and control (n=20) groups. The intervention group participated in an 8-week magazine-based discussion group adapted from a previously tested social cognitive theory based intervention, Fit Minded. Excerpts from a popular women's health magazine were discussed during weekly meetings incorporating PA, self-worth and nutrition education. The control group did not attend meetings, but received the magazines. Outcomes and feasibility measures included: self-reported PA, general self-worth, knowledge self-worth, self-efficacy, social support, and daily fruits, vegetables, junk food, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Results: Twelve participants from the intervention group attended more than 75% of meetings. A time effect was observed for PA (p=0.001) and family social support (p=0.002). Time x group effects were observed for PA (p=0.001), general self-worth (p=0.04), knowledge self-worth (p=0.03), and daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (p=0.03), with the intervention group reporting greater increases in PA, general self-worth and knowledge self-worth and greater decreases in daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Although not significant, the intervention group demonstrated positive trends in self-efficacy, friend social support and fruit and veggie consumption as compared to the control group. Conclusion: A magazine-based discussion group may provide a promising platform to improve PA, self-worth and nutrition behaviors in female college freshmen.

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  • 2014-05

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The Effects of Dip and Distraction on Consumption of Vegetables in Adults

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Increasing vegetable consumption among the adult population is a major goal, as the health benefits of vegetables can decrease one's risk of heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and obesity. The current

Increasing vegetable consumption among the adult population is a major goal, as the health benefits of vegetables can decrease one's risk of heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and obesity. The current study examined a potential strategy to increase consumption of vegetables by pairing them with a dip and a TV distraction. Based upon results of previous, similar research studies (Blass et al., 2006; Fisher et al., 2012; Johnston et al., 2012; Mittal, Stevenson, Oaten, & Miller, 2011), we hypothesized that eating vegetables with dip or while distracted with a television sitcom would result in increased consumption. We also hypothesized that both dip and a distraction together will synergistically increase vegetable consumption. A total of 126 college students were assigned to one of four conditions: eating vegetables with dip, with dip and a television distractor, with only a television distractor, or without either dip or a television distractor. While television had no significant influence on vegetable consumption, pairing vegetables with a dip significantly increased consumption of vegetables. Pairing vegetables with a dip may prove to be an effective strategy for increasing vegetable intake in the adult population.

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  • 2013-12

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The Rising Dragon: Chinese Versus Western Aid and Foreign Direct Investment in Africa, Seeking a Partner in Development

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This paper is based on a research undertaking to understand China's presence in Africa and how this relates to Western relations with the continent. The research attempts to determine which

This paper is based on a research undertaking to understand China's presence in Africa and how this relates to Western relations with the continent. The research attempts to determine which option, Europe/US or the Chinese, may be the most suitable partner in development for Africa, as well as discuss what can be done to maximize the benefits, and mitigate the negative aspects of that relationship. A comparative analysis approach is used to judge the viability of each partner, and each is assessed according to a set of criteria, including the following: 1. Equitable and Respectful Relations 2. Maintenance of Sovereignty 3. Ability and Willingness to Finance Sustainable Development in Africa 4. Shared Experience and Understanding 5. Historical Element Drawing on the collected research presented in this document, the major finding is that the Chinese have a fundamentally different approach to aid and investment, and harbor conceptually distinctive ideas regarding development than the West. Based on the outcome of the comparative study against the above criteria, it is suggested that Africa may benefit from selecting China as a partner in achieving its own sustainable development, and suggestions are offered to effectively leverage this partnership.

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  • 2014-05

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An Analysis of the Role of Human Rights Treaty Reservations in International Law

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This paper examines five different human rights treaties in order to test the role of reservations in international law. Through the creation of a typology of reservations, which include Domestic

This paper examines five different human rights treaties in order to test the role of reservations in international law. Through the creation of a typology of reservations, which include Domestic Framework, Minor Objection, Oversight, Cultural, Political, and Negation Reservations, this paper tests the typology against three hypotheses: 1) reservations weaken international law, 2) reservations are neutral to international law, and 3) reservations strengthen international law. By classifying reservations on this spectrum of hypotheses, it became possible to determine whether reservations help or hinder the international human rights regime. The most utilized types of reservations were Domestic Framework Reservations, which demonstrates treaty reservations allow for states to engage with the treaties, thus strengthening international law. However, because the reservations also demonstrate a lack of willingness to be bound by an external oversight body, reservations also highlight a flaw of international law. CEDAW proved to be a general outlier because it had 2-6 times the amount of negation and cultural reservations, which could potentially be attributed to the more societal, as opposed to legal, adjustments required of States Parties.

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  • 2014-05

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The Interaction of Hegemonic Masculinity and Social Power Structures in American School Shootings

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Over the past few decades, concern over the issue of school shootings has increased in the United States of America. Although these events are rare in comparison to other violent

Over the past few decades, concern over the issue of school shootings has increased in the United States of America. Although these events are rare in comparison to other violent crime statistics, they have a huge impact on the communities they occur in and the nation in general. Many causes have been suggested and studied, including gun availability, violent video games, changing communities, bullying, and a number of others. In 2004, a new, more generalized focus began to appear in these studies. Several academics started to focus on hegemonic masculinity as the main cause behind the previously studied causes. This theoretical approach examines prior research regarding the nature and cause of school shootings. This paper focuses primarily on the works of Katherine Newman, Peter Langman, and Jessie Klein looking for common findings across disciplines. The common finding between all three studies was that hegemonic masculinity has an impact on school shootings. Additionally, their definitions of masculinity revealed the pursuit of social power is the underlying purpose of masculinity, as well as other suggested causes for school shootings. Struggles for social power are ingrained in American culture can be correlated to other forms of violent crime. Viewing school shootings through "social power theory" perspective allows school shootings to be compared to other violent crimes. This new theory also reveals how embedded the issue of school shootings is in American culture.

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  • 2013-12

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Gourmet Gab: On the Go The Creation of a Web Series Dedicated to College Cooking and Nutrition

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The purpose of this thesis was to create a web series educating college students about cooking and nutrition. Due the students' on-the-go lifestyle and lack of experience in the kitchen,

The purpose of this thesis was to create a web series educating college students about cooking and nutrition. Due the students' on-the-go lifestyle and lack of experience in the kitchen, meals are often consumed outside of the house and typically lack the recommended nutrition content for a healthy diet. In my research, I studied what college students are eating, where they are spending their money and how to create a web series that would help to remedy the problems. Viewers will be able to watch the episodes on YouTube, where young adults age 18-24 spend a large amount of time engaging in multimedia. The goal is for the audience watching Gourmet Gab: On the Go to be educated and entertained. Every episode they will learn about cooking fundaments, basic nutrition or how to make better choices for an overall healthier lifestyle. Additionally, each episode will include at least one new healthy, easy and inexpensive recipe.

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  • 2014-05