Matching Items (3)

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Utilizing Structural MRI Data to Improve Epilepsy Surgery Planning

Description

In epilepsy, malformations that cause seizures often require surgery. The purpose of this research is to join forces with the Multi-Center Epilepsy Lesion Detection (MELD) project at University College London

In epilepsy, malformations that cause seizures often require surgery. The purpose of this research is to join forces with the Multi-Center Epilepsy Lesion Detection (MELD) project at University College London (UCL) in order to improve the process of detecting lesions in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. This, in turn, will improve surgical outcomes via more structured surgical planning. It is a global effort, with more than 20 sites across 5 continents. The targeted populations for this study include patients whose epilepsy stems from Focal Cortical Dysplasia. Focal Cortical Dysplasia is an abnormality of cortical development, and causes most of the drug-resistant epilepsy. Currently, the creators of MELD have developed a set of protocols which wrap various
commands designed to streamline post-processing of MRI images. Using this partnership, the Applied Neuroscience and Technology Lab at PCH has been able to complete production of a post-processing pipeline which integrates locally sourced smoothing techniques to help identify lesions in patients with evidence of Focal Cortical Dysplasia. The end result is a system in which a patient with epilepsy may experience more successful post-surgical results due to the
combination of a lesion detection mechanism and the radiologist using their trained eye in the presurgical stages. As one of the main points of this work is the global aspect of it, Barrett thesis funding was dedicated for a trip to London in order to network with other MELD project collaborators. This was a successful trip for the project as a whole in addition to this particular thesis. The ability to troubleshoot problems with one another in a room full of subject matter
experts allowed for a high level of discussion and learning. Future work includes implementing machine learning approaches which consider all morphometry parameters simultaneously.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

Interictal spike depolarization in the neocortex: Relationship to action potential inactivation

Description

Interictal spikes have been used to diagnose idiopathic seizure disorder and localize the seizure onset zone. Interictal spikes are thought to arise primarily from large excitatory postsynaptic potentials, and

Interictal spikes have been used to diagnose idiopathic seizure disorder and localize the seizure onset zone. Interictal spikes are thought to arise primarily from large excitatory postsynaptic potentials, and the role of interictal spikes in idiopathic seizure disorder and epileptogenesis remains unclear. We evaluated how local voltage changes due to interictal spikes impact action potential generation and firing using intracellular recordings from human tissue and the Hodgkin-Huxley model. During interictal spikes, bursts of action potentials underwent variable degrees of depolarization-induced inactivation in the intracellular data. Intracellular recordings in neocortical slices of human brain tissue confirmed that bursts of inactivated action potentials occurred during spontaneous paroxysmal depolarization shifts. These ex vitro findings were predicted using the Hodgkin-Huxley model and showed inactivated action potentials being generated by large depolarizations. As the amplitude of the interictal spike increased, there was a progression from low firing rate normal action potentials to higher firing rate normal action potentials to inactivated action potentials. The results show that the Hodgkin-Huxley model confirmed the effect of large interictal spike depolarizations on action potential firing and inactivation. This supports a key element in the hypothesis that interictal spikes, and the associated action potential firing, may alter the electrical environment of the brain and contribute to idiopathic seizure disorder.

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Date Created
  • 2020-12

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Neural mechanisms of sensory integration: frequency domain analysis of spike and field potential activity during arm position maintenance with and without visual feedback

Description

Understanding where our bodies are in space is imperative for motor control, particularly for actions such as goal-directed reaching. Multisensory integration is crucial for reducing uncertainty in arm position

Understanding where our bodies are in space is imperative for motor control, particularly for actions such as goal-directed reaching. Multisensory integration is crucial for reducing uncertainty in arm position estimates. This dissertation examines time and frequency-domain correlates of visual-proprioceptive integration during an arm-position maintenance task. Neural recordings were obtained from two different cortical areas as non-human primates performed a center-out reaching task in a virtual reality environment. Following a reach, animals maintained the end-point position of their arm under unimodal (proprioception only) and bimodal (proprioception and vision) conditions. In both areas, time domain and multi-taper spectral analysis methods were used to quantify changes in the spiking, local field potential (LFP), and spike-field coherence during arm-position maintenance.

In both areas, individual neurons were classified based on the spectrum of their spiking patterns. A large proportion of cells in the SPL that exhibited sensory condition-specific oscillatory spiking in the beta (13-30Hz) frequency band. Cells in the IPL typically had a more diverse mix of oscillatory and refractory spiking patterns during the task in response to changing sensory condition. Contrary to the assumptions made in many modelling studies, none of the cells exhibited Poisson-spiking statistics in SPL or IPL.

Evoked LFPs in both areas exhibited greater effects of target location than visual condition, though the evoked responses in the preferred reach direction were generally suppressed in the bimodal condition relative to the unimodal condition. Significant effects of target location on evoked responses were observed during the movement period of the task well.

In the frequency domain, LFP power in both cortical areas was enhanced in the beta band during the position estimation epoch of the task, indicating that LFP beta oscillations may be important for maintaining the ongoing state. This was particularly evident at the population level, with clear increase in alpha and beta power. Differences in spectral power between conditions also became apparent at the population level, with power during bimodal trials being suppressed relative to unimodal. The spike-field coherence showed confounding results in both the SPL and IPL, with no clear correlation between incidence of beta oscillations and significant beta coherence.

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Date Created
  • 2017