Matching Items (23)

133379-Thumbnail Image.png

A Statistic on a Super Catalan Structure

Description

The Super Catalan numbers are a known set of numbers which have so far eluded a combinatorial interpretation. Several weighted interpretations have appeared since their discovery, one of which was

The Super Catalan numbers are a known set of numbers which have so far eluded a combinatorial interpretation. Several weighted interpretations have appeared since their discovery, one of which was discovered by William Kuszmaul in 2017. In this paper, we connect the weighted Super Catalan structure created previously by Kuszmaul and a natural $q$-analogue of the Super Catalan numbers. We do this by creating a statistic $\sigma$ for which the $q$ Super Catalan numbers, $S_q(m,n)=\sum_X (-1)^{\mu(X)} q^{\sigma(X)}$. In doing so, we take a step towards finding a strict combinatorial interpretation for the Super Catalan numbers.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

129382-Thumbnail Image.png

CHAINS OF MAXIMUM LENGTH IN THE TAMARI LATTICE

Description

The Tamari lattice T[subscript n] was originally defined on bracketings of a set of n + 1 objects, with a cover relation based on the associativity rule in one direction.

The Tamari lattice T[subscript n] was originally defined on bracketings of a set of n + 1 objects, with a cover relation based on the associativity rule in one direction. Although in several related lattices, the number of maximal chains is known, quoting Knuth, “The enumeration of such paths in Tamari lattices remains mysterious.”
The lengths of maximal chains vary over a great range. In this paper, we focus on the chains with maximum length in these lattices. We establish a bijection between the maximum length chains in the Tamari lattice and the set of standard shifted tableaux of staircase shape. We thus derive an explicit formula for the number of maximum length chains, using the Thrall formula for the number of shifted tableaux. We describe the relationship between chains of maximum length in the Tamari lattice and certain maximal chains in weak Bruhat order on the symmetric group, using standard Young tableaux. Additionally, recently, Bergeron and Pr ́eville-Ratelle introduced a generalized Tamari lattice. Some of the results mentioned above carry over to their generalized Tamari lattice.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-10-01

132082-Thumbnail Image.png

On the Bounds of Van der Waerden Numbers

Description

Van der Waerden’s Theorem asserts that for any two positive integers k and r, one may find an integer w=w(k,r) known as the Van der Waerden Number such that for

Van der Waerden’s Theorem asserts that for any two positive integers k and r, one may find an integer w=w(k,r) known as the Van der Waerden Number such that for every r-coloring of the integers from 1 to w there exists a monochromatic arithmetic progression of length k. This groundbreaking theorem in combinatorics has greatly impacted the field of discrete math for decades. However, it is quite difficult to find the exact values of w. As such, it would be worth more of our time to try and bound such a value, both from below and above, in order to restrict the possible values of the Van der Waerden Numbers. In this thesis we will endeavor to bound such a number; in addition to proving Van der Waerden’s Theorem, we will discuss the unique functions that bound the Van der Waerden Numbers.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-12

132360-Thumbnail Image.png

Enumeration Methods and Series Analysis of Self-Avoiding Polygons on the Hexagonal Lattice, with Applications to Self-organizing Particle Systems

Description

We consider programmable matter as a collection of simple computational elements (or particles) that self-organize to solve system-wide problems of movement, configuration, and coordination. Here, we focus on the compression

We consider programmable matter as a collection of simple computational elements (or particles) that self-organize to solve system-wide problems of movement, configuration, and coordination. Here, we focus on the compression problem, in which the particle system gathers as tightly together as possible, as in a sphere or its equivalent in the presence of some underlying geometry. Within this model a configuration of particles can be represented as a unique closed self-avoiding walk on the triangular lattice. In this paper we will examine the bias parameter of a Markov chain based algorithm that solves the compression problem under the geometric amoebot model, for particle systems that begin in a connected configuration with no holes. This bias parameter, $\lambda$, determines the behavior of the algorithm. It has been shown that for $\lambda > 2+\sqrt{2}$, with all but exponentially small probability, the algorithm achieves compression. Additionally the same algorithm can be used for expansion for small values of $\lambda$; in particular, for all $0 < \lambda < \sqrt{\tau}$, where $\lim_{n\to\infty} {(p_n)^{1
}}=\tau$. This research will focus on improving approximations on the lower bound of $\tau$. Toward this end we will examine algorithmic enumeration, and series analysis for self-avoiding polygons.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

151578-Thumbnail Image.png

Coloring graphs from almost maximum degree sized palettes

Description

Every graph can be colored with one more color than its maximum degree. A well-known theorem of Brooks gives the precise conditions under which a graph can be colored with

Every graph can be colored with one more color than its maximum degree. A well-known theorem of Brooks gives the precise conditions under which a graph can be colored with maximum degree colors. It is natural to ask for the required conditions on a graph to color with one less color than the maximum degree; in 1977 Borodin and Kostochka conjectured a solution for graphs with maximum degree at least 9: as long as the graph doesn't contain a maximum-degree-sized clique, it can be colored with one fewer than the maximum degree colors. This study attacks the conjecture on multiple fronts. The first technique is an extension of a vertex shuffling procedure of Catlin and is used to prove the conjecture for graphs with edgeless high vertex subgraphs. This general approach also bears more theoretical fruit. The second technique is an extension of a method Kostochka used to reduce the Borodin-Kostochka conjecture to the maximum degree 9 case. Results on the existence of independent transversals are used to find an independent set intersecting every maximum clique in a graph. The third technique uses list coloring results to exclude induced subgraphs in a counterexample to the conjecture. The classification of such excludable graphs that decompose as the join of two graphs is the backbone of many of the results presented here. The fourth technique uses the structure theorem for quasi-line graphs of Chudnovsky and Seymour in concert with the third technique to prove the Borodin-Kostochka conjecture for claw-free graphs. The fifth technique adds edges to proper induced subgraphs of a minimum counterexample to gain control over the colorings produced by minimality. The sixth technique adapts a recoloring technique originally developed for strong coloring by Haxell and by Aharoni, Berger and Ziv to general coloring. Using this recoloring technique, the Borodin-Kostochka conjectured is proved for graphs where every vertex is in a large clique. The final technique is naive probabilistic coloring as employed by Reed in the proof of the Borodin-Kostochka conjecture for large maximum degree. The technique is adapted to prove the Borodin-Kostochka conjecture for list coloring for large maximum degree.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

151231-Thumbnail Image.png

Listing combinatorial objects

Description

Gray codes are perhaps the best known structures for listing sequences of combinatorial objects, such as binary strings. Simply defined as a minimal change listing, Gray codes vary greatly both

Gray codes are perhaps the best known structures for listing sequences of combinatorial objects, such as binary strings. Simply defined as a minimal change listing, Gray codes vary greatly both in structure and in the types of objects that they list. More specific types of Gray codes are universal cycles and overlap sequences. Universal cycles are Gray codes on a set of strings of length n in which the first n-1 letters of one object are the same as the last n-1 letters of its predecessor in the listing. Overlap sequences allow this overlap to vary between 1 and n-1. Some of our main contributions to the areas of Gray codes and universal cycles include a new Gray code algorithm for fixed weight m-ary words, and results on the existence of universal cycles for weak orders on [n]. Overlap cycles are a relatively new structure with very few published results. We prove the existence of s-overlap cycles for k-permutations of [n], which has been an open research problem for several years, as well as constructing 1- overlap cycles for Steiner triple and quadruple systems of every order. Also included are various other results of a similar nature covering other structures such as binary strings, m-ary strings, subsets, permutations, weak orders, partitions, and designs. These listing structures lend themselves readily to some classes of combinatorial objects, such as binary n-tuples and m-ary n-tuples. Others require more work to find an appropriate structure, such as k-subsets of an n-set, weak orders, and designs. Still more require a modification in the representation of the objects to fit these structures, such as partitions. Determining when and how we can fit these sets of objects into our three listing structures is the focus of this dissertation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

158314-Thumbnail Image.png

Estimating Low Generalized Coloring Numbers of Planar Graphs

Description

The chromatic number $\chi(G)$ of a graph $G=(V,E)$ is the minimum

number of colors needed to color $V(G)$ such that no adjacent vertices

receive the same color. The coloring number $\col(G)$ of

The chromatic number $\chi(G)$ of a graph $G=(V,E)$ is the minimum

number of colors needed to color $V(G)$ such that no adjacent vertices

receive the same color. The coloring number $\col(G)$ of a graph

$G$ is the minimum number $k$ such that there exists a linear ordering

of $V(G)$ for which each vertex has at most $k-1$ backward neighbors.

It is well known that the coloring number is an upper bound for the

chromatic number. The weak $r$-coloring number $\wcol_{r}(G)$ is

a generalization of the coloring number, and it was first introduced

by Kierstead and Yang \cite{77}. The weak $r$-coloring number $\wcol_{r}(G)$

is the minimum integer $k$ such that for some linear ordering $L$

of $V(G)$ each vertex $v$ can reach at most $k-1$ other smaller

vertices $u$ (with respect to $L$) with a path of length at most

$r$ and $u$ is the smallest vertex in the path. This dissertation proves that $\wcol_{2}(G)\le23$ for every planar graph $G$.

The exact distance-$3$ graph $G^{[\natural3]}$ of a graph $G=(V,E)$

is a graph with $V$ as its set of vertices, and $xy\in E(G^{[\natural3]})$

if and only if the distance between $x$ and $y$ in $G$ is $3$.

This dissertation improves the best known upper bound of the

chromatic number of the exact distance-$3$ graphs $G^{[\natural3]}$

of planar graphs $G$, which is $105$, to $95$. It also improves

the best known lower bound, which is $7$, to $9$.

A class of graphs is nowhere dense if for every $r\ge 1$ there exists $t\ge 1$ such that no graph in the class contains a topological minor of the complete graph $K_t$ where every edge is subdivided at most $r$ times. This dissertation gives a new characterization of nowhere dense classes using generalized notions of the domination number.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

156198-Thumbnail Image.png

On the uncrossing partial order on matchings

Description

The uncrossing partially ordered set $P_n$ is defined on the set of matchings on $2n$ points on a circle represented with wires. The order relation is $\tau'\leq \tau$ in $P_n$

The uncrossing partially ordered set $P_n$ is defined on the set of matchings on $2n$ points on a circle represented with wires. The order relation is $\tau'\leq \tau$ in $P_n$ if and only if $\tau'$ is obtained by resolving a crossing of $\tau$. %This partial order has been studied by Alman-Lian-Tran, Huang-Wen-Xie, Kenyon, and Lam. %The posets $P_n$ emerged from studies of circular planar electrical networks. Circular planar electrical networks are finite weighted undirected graphs embedded into a disk, with boundary vertices and interior vertices. By Curtis-Ingerman-Morrow and de Verdi\`ere-Gitler-Vertigan, the electrical networks can be encoded with response matrices. By Lam the space of response matrices for electrical networks has a cell structure, and this cell structure can be described by the uncrossing partial orders. %Lam proves that the posets can be identified with dual Bruhat order on affine permutations of type $(n,2n)$. Using this identification, Lam proves the poset $\hat{P}_n$, the uncrossing poset $P_n$ with a unique minimum element $\hat{0}$ adjoined, is Eulerian. This thesis consists of two sets of results: (1) flag enumeration in intervals in the uncrossing poset $P_n$ and (2) cyclic sieving phenomenon on the set $P_n$.

I identify elements in $P_n$ with affine permutations of type $(0,2n)$. %This identification enables us to explicitly describe the elements in $P_n$ with the elements in $\mathcal{MP}_n$.

Using this identification, I adapt a technique in Reading for finding recursions for the cd-indices of intervals in Bruhat order of Coxeter groups to the uncrossing poset $P_n$. As a result, I produce recursions for the cd-indices of intervals in the uncrossing poset $P_n$. I also obtain a recursion for the ab-indices of intervals in the poset $\hat{P}_n$, the poset $P_n$ with a unique minimum $\hat0$ adjoined. %We define an induced subposet $\mathcal{MP}_n$ of the affine permutations under Bruhat order.

Reiner-Stanton-White defined the cyclic sieving phenomenon (CSP) associated to a finite cyclic group action on a finite set and a polynomial. Sagan observed the CSP on the set of non-crossing matchings with the $q$-Catalan polynomial. Bowling-Liang presented similar results on the set of $k$-crossing matchings for $1\leq k \leq 3$. In this dissertation, I focus on the set of all matchings on $[2n]:=\{1,2,\dots,2n\}$. I find the number of matchings fixed by $\frac{2\pi}{d}$ rotations for $d|2n$. I then find the polynomial $X_n(q)$ such that the set of matchings together with $X_n(q)$ and the cyclic group of order $2n$ exhibits the CSP.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

154926-Thumbnail Image.png

Toward the enumeration of maximal chains in the Tamari lattices

Description

The Tamari lattices have been intensely studied since they first appeared in Dov Tamari’s thesis around 1952. He defined the n-th Tamari lattice T(n) on bracketings of a set of

The Tamari lattices have been intensely studied since they first appeared in Dov Tamari’s thesis around 1952. He defined the n-th Tamari lattice T(n) on bracketings of a set of n+1 objects, with a cover relation based on the associativity rule in one direction. Despite their interesting aspects and the attention they have received, a formula for the number of maximal chains in the Tamari lattices is still unknown. The purpose of this thesis is to convey my results on progress toward the solution of this problem and to discuss future work.

A few years ago, Bergeron and Préville-Ratelle generalized the Tamari lattices to the m-Tamari lattices. The original Tamari lattices T(n) are the case m=1. I establish a bijection between maximum length chains in the m-Tamari lattices and standard m-shifted Young tableaux. Using Thrall’s formula, I thus derive the formula for the number of maximum length chains in T(n).

For each i greater or equal to -1 and for all n greater or equal to 1, I define C(i,n) to be the set of maximal chains of length n+i in T(n). I establish several properties of maximal chains (treated as tableaux) and identify a particularly special property: each maximal chain may or may not possess a plus-full-set. I show, surprisingly, that for all n greater or equal to 2i+4, each member of C(i,n) contains a plus-full-set. Utilizing this fact and a collection of maps, I obtain a recursion for the number of elements in C(i,n) and an explicit formula based on predetermined initial values. The formula is a polynomial in n of degree 3i+3. For example, the number of maximal chains of length n in T(n) is n choose 3.

I discuss current work and future plans involving certain equivalence classes of maximal chains in the Tamari lattices. If a maximal chain may be obtained from another by swapping a pair of consecutive edges with another pair in the Hasse diagram, the two maximal chains are said to differ by a square move. Two maximal chains are said to be in the same equivalence class if one may be obtained from the other by making a set of square moves.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

157261-Thumbnail Image.png

Some diophantine problems

Description

Diophantine arithmetic is one of the oldest branches of mathematics, the search

for integer or rational solutions of algebraic equations. Pythagorean triangles are

an early instance. Diophantus of Alexandria wrote the

Diophantine arithmetic is one of the oldest branches of mathematics, the search

for integer or rational solutions of algebraic equations. Pythagorean triangles are

an early instance. Diophantus of Alexandria wrote the first related treatise in the

fourth century; it was an area extensively studied by the great mathematicians of the seventeenth century, including Euler and Fermat.

The modern approach is to treat the equations as defining geometric objects, curves, surfaces, etc. The theory of elliptic curves (or curves of genus 1, which are much used in modern cryptography) was developed extensively in the twentieth century, and has had great application to Diophantine equations. This theory is used in application to the problems studied in this thesis. This thesis studies some curves of high genus, and possible solutions in both rationals and in algebraic number fields, generalizes some old results and gives answers to some open problems in the literature. The methods involve known techniques together with some ingenious tricks. For example, the equations $y^2=x^6+k$, $k=-39,\,-47$, the two previously unsolved cases for $|k|<50$, are solved using algebraic number theory and the ‘elliptic Chabauty’ method. The thesis also studies the genus three quartic curves $F(x^2,y^2,z^2)=0$ where F is a homogeneous quadratic form, and extend old results of Cassels, and Bremner. It is a very delicate matter to find such curves that have no rational points, yet which do have points in odd-degree extension fields of the rationals.

The principal results of the thesis are related to surfaces where the theory is much less well known. In particular, the thesis studies some specific families of surfaces, and give a negative answer to a question in the literature regarding representation of integers n in the form $n=(x+y+z+w)(1/x+1/y+1/z+1/w).$ Further, an example, the first such known, of a quartic surface $x^4+7y^4=14z^4+18w^4$ is given with remarkable properties: it is everywhere locally solvable, yet has no non-zero rational point, despite having a point in (non-trivial) odd-degree extension fields of the rationals. The ideas here involve manipulation of the Hilbert symbol, together with the theory of elliptic curves.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019