Matching Items (28)

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A Statistic on a Super Catalan Structure

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The Super Catalan numbers are a known set of numbers which have so far eluded a combinatorial interpretation. Several weighted interpretations have appeared since their discovery, one of which was discovered by William Kuszmaul in 2017. In this paper, we

The Super Catalan numbers are a known set of numbers which have so far eluded a combinatorial interpretation. Several weighted interpretations have appeared since their discovery, one of which was discovered by William Kuszmaul in 2017. In this paper, we connect the weighted Super Catalan structure created previously by Kuszmaul and a natural $q$-analogue of the Super Catalan numbers. We do this by creating a statistic $\sigma$ for which the $q$ Super Catalan numbers, $S_q(m,n)=\sum_X (-1)^{\mu(X)} q^{\sigma(X)}$. In doing so, we take a step towards finding a strict combinatorial interpretation for the Super Catalan numbers.

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2018-05

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Chains of Maximum Length in the Tamari Lattice

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The Tamari lattice Tn was originally defined on bracketings of a set of n + 1 objects, with a cover relation based on the associativity rule in one direction. Although in several related lattices, the number of maximal chains is

The Tamari lattice Tn was originally defined on bracketings of a set of n + 1 objects, with a cover relation based on the associativity rule in one direction. Although in several related lattices, the number of maximal chains is known, quoting Knuth, “The enumeration of such paths in Tamari lattices remains mysterious.”
The lengths of maximal chains vary over a great range. In this paper, we focus on the chains with maximum length in these lattices. We establish a bijection between the maximum length chains in the Tamari lattice and the set of standard shifted tableaux of staircase shape. We thus derive an explicit formula for the number of maximum length chains, using the Thrall formula for the number of shifted tableaux. We describe the relationship between chains of maximum length in the Tamari lattice and certain maximal chains in weak Bruhat order on the symmetric group, using standard Young tableaux. Additionally, recently, Bergeron and Pr ́eville-Ratelle introduced a generalized Tamari lattice. Some of the results mentioned above carry over to their generalized Tamari lattice.

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2014-10-01

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Enumeration Methods and Series Analysis of Self-Avoiding Polygons on the Hexagonal Lattice, with Applications to Self-organizing Particle Systems

Description

We consider programmable matter as a collection of simple computational elements (or particles) that self-organize to solve system-wide problems of movement, configuration, and coordination. Here, we focus on the compression problem, in which the particle system gathers as tightly together

We consider programmable matter as a collection of simple computational elements (or particles) that self-organize to solve system-wide problems of movement, configuration, and coordination. Here, we focus on the compression problem, in which the particle system gathers as tightly together as possible, as in a sphere or its equivalent in the presence of some underlying geometry. Within this model a configuration of particles can be represented as a unique closed self-avoiding walk on the triangular lattice. In this paper we will examine the bias parameter of a Markov chain based algorithm that solves the compression problem under the geometric amoebot model, for particle systems that begin in a connected configuration with no holes. This bias parameter, $\lambda$, determines the behavior of the algorithm. It has been shown that for $\lambda > 2+\sqrt{2}$, with all but exponentially small probability, the algorithm achieves compression. Additionally the same algorithm can be used for expansion for small values of $\lambda$; in particular, for all $0 < \lambda < \sqrt{\tau}$, where $\lim_{n\to\infty} {(p_n)^{1
}}=\tau$. This research will focus on improving approximations on the lower bound of $\tau$. Toward this end we will examine algorithmic enumeration, and series analysis for self-avoiding polygons.

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2019-05

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On the Bounds of Van der Waerden Numbers

Description

Van der Waerden’s Theorem asserts that for any two positive integers k and r, one may find an integer w=w(k,r) known as the Van der Waerden Number such that for every r-coloring of the integers from 1 to w there

Van der Waerden’s Theorem asserts that for any two positive integers k and r, one may find an integer w=w(k,r) known as the Van der Waerden Number such that for every r-coloring of the integers from 1 to w there exists a monochromatic arithmetic progression of length k. This groundbreaking theorem in combinatorics has greatly impacted the field of discrete math for decades. However, it is quite difficult to find the exact values of w. As such, it would be worth more of our time to try and bound such a value, both from below and above, in order to restrict the possible values of the Van der Waerden Numbers. In this thesis we will endeavor to bound such a number; in addition to proving Van der Waerden’s Theorem, we will discuss the unique functions that bound the Van der Waerden Numbers.

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Date Created
2019-12

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Students' ways of thinking about combinatorics solution sets

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Research on combinatorics education is sparse when compared with other fields in mathematics education. This research attempted to contribute to the dearth of literature by examining students' reasoning about enumerative combinatorics problems and how students conceptualize the set of elements

Research on combinatorics education is sparse when compared with other fields in mathematics education. This research attempted to contribute to the dearth of literature by examining students' reasoning about enumerative combinatorics problems and how students conceptualize the set of elements being counted in such problems, called the solution set. In particular, the focus was on the stable patterns of reasoning, known as ways of thinking, which students applied in a variety of combinatorial situations and tasks. This study catalogued students' ways of thinking about solution sets as they progressed through an instructional sequence. In addition, the relationships between the catalogued ways of thinking were explored. Further, the study investigated the challenges students experienced as they interacted with the tasks and instructional interventions, and how students' ways of thinking evolved as these challenges were overcome. Finally, it examined the role of instruction in guiding students to develop and extend their ways of thinking. Two pairs of undergraduate students with no formal experience with combinatorics participated in one of the two consecutive teaching experiments conducted in Spring 2012. Many ways of thinking emerged through the grounded theory analysis of the data, but only eight were identified as robust. These robust ways of thinking were classified into three categories: Subsets, Odometer, and Problem Posing. The Subsets category encompasses two ways of thinking, both of which ultimately involve envisioning the solution set as the union of subsets. The three ways of thinking in Odometer category involve holding an item or a set of items constant and systematically varying the other items involved in the counting process. The ways of thinking belonging to Problem Posing category involve spontaneously posing new, related combinatorics problems and finding relationships between the solution sets of the original and the new problem. The evolution of students' ways of thinking in the Problem Posing category was analyzed. This entailed examining the perturbation experienced by students and the resulting accommodation of their thinking. It was found that such perturbation and its resolution was often the result of an instructional intervention. Implications for teaching practice are discussed.

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2013

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On tiling directed graphs with cycles and tournaments

Description

A tiling is a collection of vertex disjoint subgraphs called tiles. If the tiles are all isomorphic to a graph $H$ then the tiling is an $H$-tiling. If a graph $G$ has an $H$-tiling which covers all of the vertices

A tiling is a collection of vertex disjoint subgraphs called tiles. If the tiles are all isomorphic to a graph $H$ then the tiling is an $H$-tiling. If a graph $G$ has an $H$-tiling which covers all of the vertices of $G$ then the $H$-tiling is a perfect $H$-tiling or an $H$-factor. A goal of this study is to extend theorems on sufficient minimum degree conditions for perfect tilings in graphs to directed graphs. Corrádi and Hajnal proved that every graph $G$ on $3k$ vertices with minimum degree $delta(G)ge2k$ has a $K_3$-factor, where $K_s$ is the complete graph on $s$ vertices. The following theorem extends this result to directed graphs: If $D$ is a directed graph on $3k$ vertices with minimum total degree $delta(D)ge4k-1$ then $D$ can be partitioned into $k$ parts each of size $3$ so that all of parts contain a transitive triangle and $k-1$ of the parts also contain a cyclic triangle. The total degree of a vertex $v$ is the sum of $d^-(v)$ the in-degree and $d^+(v)$ the out-degree of $v$. Note that both orientations of $C_3$ are considered: the transitive triangle and the cyclic triangle. The theorem is best possible in that there are digraphs that meet the minimum degree requirement but have no cyclic triangle factor. The possibility of added a connectivity requirement to ensure a cycle triangle factor is also explored. Hajnal and Szemerédi proved that if $G$ is a graph on $sk$ vertices and $delta(G)ge(s-1)k$ then $G$ contains a $K_s$-factor. As a possible extension of this celebrated theorem to directed graphs it is proved that if $D$ is a directed graph on $sk$ vertices with $delta(D)ge2(s-1)k-1$ then $D$ contains $k$ disjoint transitive tournaments on $s$ vertices. We also discuss tiling directed graph with other tournaments. This study also explores minimum total degree conditions for perfect directed cycle tilings and sufficient semi-degree conditions for a directed graph to contain an anti-directed Hamilton cycle. The semi-degree of a vertex $v$ is $min{d^+(v), d^-(v)}$ and an anti-directed Hamilton cycle is a spanning cycle in which no pair of consecutive edges form a directed path.

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2013

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On minimal levels of Iwasawa towers

Description

In 1959, Iwasawa proved that the size of the $p$-part of the class groups of a $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extension grows as a power of $p$ with exponent ${\mu}p^m+{\lambda}\,m+\nu$ for $m$ sufficiently large. Broadly, I construct conditions to verify if a given $m$

In 1959, Iwasawa proved that the size of the $p$-part of the class groups of a $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extension grows as a power of $p$ with exponent ${\mu}p^m+{\lambda}\,m+\nu$ for $m$ sufficiently large. Broadly, I construct conditions to verify if a given $m$ is indeed sufficiently large. More precisely, let $CG_m^i$ (class group) be the $\epsilon_i$-eigenspace component of the $p$-Sylow subgroup of the class group of the field at the $m$-th level in a $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extension; and let $IACG^i_m$ (Iwasawa analytic class group) be ${\mathbb{Z}_p[[T]]/((1+T)^{p^m}-1,f(T,\omega^{1-i}))}$, where $f$ is the associated Iwasawa power series. It is expected that $CG_m^i$ and $IACG^i_m$ be isomorphic, providing us with a powerful connection between algebraic and analytic techniques; however, as of yet, this isomorphism is unestablished in general. I consider the existence and the properties of an exact sequence $$0\longrightarrow\ker{\longrightarrow}CG_m^i{\longrightarrow}IACG_m^i{\longrightarrow}\textrm{coker}\longrightarrow0.$$ In the case of a $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extension where the Main Conjecture is established, there exists a pseudo-isomorphism between the respective inverse limits of $CG_m^i$ and $IACG_m^i$. I consider conditions for when such a pseudo-isomorphism immediately gives the existence of the desired exact sequence, and I also consider work-around methods that preserve cardinality for otherwise. However, I primarily focus on constructing conditions to verify if a given $m$ is sufficiently large that the kernel and cokernel of the above exact sequence have become well-behaved, providing similarity of growth both in the size and in the structure of $CG_m^i$ and $IACG_m^i$; as well as conditions to determine if any such $m$ exists. The primary motivating idea is that if $IACG_m^i$ is relatively easy to work with, and if the relationship between $CG_m^i$ and $IACG_m^i$ is understood; then $CG_m^i$ becomes easier to work with. Moreover, while the motivating framework is stated concretely in terms of the cyclotomic $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extension of $p$-power roots of unity, all results are generally applicable to arbitrary $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extensions as they are developed in terms of Iwasawa-Theory-inspired, yet abstracted, algebraic results on maps between inverse limits.

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2013

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Optimal degree conditions for spanning subgraphs

Description

In a large network (graph) it would be desirable to guarantee the existence of some local property based only on global knowledge of the network. Consider the following classical example: how many connections are necessary to guarantee that the network

In a large network (graph) it would be desirable to guarantee the existence of some local property based only on global knowledge of the network. Consider the following classical example: how many connections are necessary to guarantee that the network contains three nodes which are pairwise adjacent? It turns out that more than n^2/4 connections are needed, and no smaller number will suffice in general. Problems of this type fall into the category of ``extremal graph theory.'' Generally speaking, extremal graph theory is the study of how global parameters of a graph are related to local properties. This dissertation deals with the relationship between minimum degree conditions of a host graph G and the property that G contains a specified spanning subgraph (or class of subgraphs). The goal is to find the optimal minimum degree which guarantees the existence of a desired spanning subgraph. This goal is achieved in four different settings, with the main tools being Szemeredi's Regularity Lemma; the Blow-up Lemma of Komlos, Sarkozy, and Szemeredi; and some basic probabilistic techniques.

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2011

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Erdős-Ko-Rado theorems: new generalizations, stability analysis and Chvátal's Conjecture

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The primary focus of this dissertation lies in extremal combinatorics, in particular intersection theorems in finite set theory. A seminal result in the area is the theorem of Erdos, Ko and Rado which finds the upper bound on the size

The primary focus of this dissertation lies in extremal combinatorics, in particular intersection theorems in finite set theory. A seminal result in the area is the theorem of Erdos, Ko and Rado which finds the upper bound on the size of an intersecting family of subsets of an n-element set and characterizes the structure of families which attain this upper bound. A major portion of this dissertation focuses on a recent generalization of the Erdos--Ko--Rado theorem which considers intersecting families of independent sets in graphs. An intersection theorem is proved for a large class of graphs, namely chordal graphs which satisfy an additional condition and similar problems are considered for trees, bipartite graphs and other special classes. A similar extension is also formulated for cross-intersecting families and results are proved for chordal graphs and cycles. A well-known generalization of the EKR theorem for k-wise intersecting families due to Frankl is also considered. A stability version of Frankl's theorem is proved, which provides additional structural information about k-wise intersecting families which have size close to the maximum upper bound. A graph-theoretic generalization of Frankl's theorem is also formulated and proved for perfect matching graphs. Finally, a long-standing conjecture of Chvatal regarding structure of maximum intersecting families in hereditary systems is considered. An intersection theorem is proved for hereditary families which have rank 3 using a powerful tool of Erdos and Rado which is called the Sunflower Lemma.

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Date Created
2011

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Listing combinatorial objects

Description

Gray codes are perhaps the best known structures for listing sequences of combinatorial objects, such as binary strings. Simply defined as a minimal change listing, Gray codes vary greatly both in structure and in the types of objects that they

Gray codes are perhaps the best known structures for listing sequences of combinatorial objects, such as binary strings. Simply defined as a minimal change listing, Gray codes vary greatly both in structure and in the types of objects that they list. More specific types of Gray codes are universal cycles and overlap sequences. Universal cycles are Gray codes on a set of strings of length n in which the first n-1 letters of one object are the same as the last n-1 letters of its predecessor in the listing. Overlap sequences allow this overlap to vary between 1 and n-1. Some of our main contributions to the areas of Gray codes and universal cycles include a new Gray code algorithm for fixed weight m-ary words, and results on the existence of universal cycles for weak orders on [n]. Overlap cycles are a relatively new structure with very few published results. We prove the existence of s-overlap cycles for k-permutations of [n], which has been an open research problem for several years, as well as constructing 1- overlap cycles for Steiner triple and quadruple systems of every order. Also included are various other results of a similar nature covering other structures such as binary strings, m-ary strings, subsets, permutations, weak orders, partitions, and designs. These listing structures lend themselves readily to some classes of combinatorial objects, such as binary n-tuples and m-ary n-tuples. Others require more work to find an appropriate structure, such as k-subsets of an n-set, weak orders, and designs. Still more require a modification in the representation of the objects to fit these structures, such as partitions. Determining when and how we can fit these sets of objects into our three listing structures is the focus of this dissertation.

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Date Created
2012