Matching Items (3)

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Surface Activation of Rubber to Enhance the Durability and Chemo-Mechanics of Asphalt

Description

It is common to use crumb rubber as modifier in bitumen. Good performance of crumb rubber in bitumen has been reported in terms of improving characteristics like higher skid resistance,

It is common to use crumb rubber as modifier in bitumen. Good performance of crumb rubber in bitumen has been reported in terms of improving characteristics like higher skid resistance, reducing noise, higher rutting resistance and longevity. However, due to the vulcanization, the polymeric crosslinked structure of crumb rubber suffers from inadequate dispersion and incompatibility in bitumen where storage stability becomes an issue. To solve this problem, partial surface devulcanization of the rubber via chemical and microbial surface activation was examined in this study showing both method can be effective to enhance rubber-bitumen interactions and subsequently storage stability of the rubberized bitumen. To ensure proper surface activation, it is important to thoroughly understand chemo-mechanics of bitumen containing rubber particles as well as underlying interaction mechanism at the molecular level. Therefore, this study integrates a multi-scale approach using density functional theory based computational modeling and laboratory experiments to provide an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms of interaction between surface activated rubber and bitumen. To do so, efficacy of various bio-modifiers was examined and compared it terms of both surface activation capability and durability of resulting rubberized bitumen. It was found that biomodifiers with various compositions can have either synergistic or antagonistic effect onchemo-mechanics of rubberized bitumen. The study was further extended to study the interplay of Polyphosphoric Acid (PPA) and these biomodified rubberized bitumens showing not all modifiers have high synergy with PPA in bitumens. Finally, durability of rubberized bitumen was studied in terms of its resistance to Ultraviolet (UV) aging. It was shown that there is a strong relation between composition of biomodified rubberized bitumen and its resistance to UV-aging.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Plant Produced Asphalt Mixtures Containing RAP in Hot Climate Areas

Description

The use of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavements (RAP) in newly produced asphalt mixtures has been gaining a wide attention from state Departments of Transportations (DOTs) during the past four decades. However,

The use of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavements (RAP) in newly produced asphalt mixtures has been gaining a wide attention from state Departments of Transportations (DOTs) during the past four decades. However, the performance of these mixtures in harsh and hot climate areas such as Phoenix, Arizona has not been carefully addressed. This research focuses on evaluating the laboratory and field performance of Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures (HMA) produced with two different RAP contents 15%, and 25%. A road section was identified by the City of Phoenix where three test sections were constructed; the first being a control (0% RAP), the second and the third sections with 15% and 25% RAP contents, respectively. The 25% RAP mixture used a lower Performance Grade (PG) asphalt per local practices. During construction, loose HMA mixtures were sampled and transported to the laboratory for advanced material characterization.

The testing included Dynamic Modulus (DM) test to characterize the stiffness of the material, Flow Number (FN) test to characterize the rutting resistance of the mixtures, IDEAL CT test to characterize the crack initiation properties, C* Fracture test to investigate the crack propagation properties, Uniaxial Fatigue to evaluate fatigue cracking potential, and Tensile Strength Ratio test (TSR) to evaluate the moisture susceptibility. Field cores were obtained from each test section and were tested for indirect tensile strength characteristics. In addition, asphalt binder testing was done on the extracted and recovered binders.

The laboratory results, compared to the control mixture, indicated that adding 15% and 25% RAP to the mix did not have significant effect on the stiffness, improved the rutting potential, had comparable cracking potential, and gave an acceptable passing performance against potential moisture damage. The binder testing that was done on the extracted and recovered binders indicated that the blended RAP binder yields a high stiffness. Based on results obtained from this study, it is recommended that the City of Phoenix should consider incorporating RAP in their asphalt mixtures using these low to moderate RAP contents. In the future implementation process, it is also recommended to include specifications where proper mixture designs are followed and supported with some of the laboratory tests outlined in this research.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Structure-Property Relationships to Understand Comprehensive Rejuvenation Mechanisms of Aged Asphalt Binder

Description

This research focused on the structure-property relationships of a rejuvenator to understand the comprehensive rejuvenation mechanism of aged asphalt binder. Aged asphalt such as recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) and reclaimed

This research focused on the structure-property relationships of a rejuvenator to understand the comprehensive rejuvenation mechanism of aged asphalt binder. Aged asphalt such as recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) and reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) contain various amounts of asphalt binder. However, the asphalt binder in RAS and RAP is severely aged and inferior in properties compared to a virgin binder. To address this issue, liquid additives have been used under the general title of rejuvenators. That poses an additional challenge associated with the lack of clear metrics to differentiate between softeners and rejuvenators. Therefore, there is a need for a thorough study of rejuvenators. In this study, diverse-sourced rejuvenators have been used in RAS and RAP-modified binders as well as laboratory-prepared aged binders. The properties of the rejuvenated aged binder were characterized at a macro-level and molecular level. The study showed that the performance of the RAS-modified binder was significantly improved after bio-modification by a bio-rejuvenator.

This study further evaluated laboratory-prepared aged asphalt rejuvenated with different rejuvenators. The results found that oxidized bitumen became soft after adding rejuvenators, regardless of their source. Molecular dynamics simulation showed that the effective rejuvenator restored the molecular conformation and reduced the size of asphaltene nanoaggregates.

The study results showed that due to the specific chemical composition of certain rejuvenators, they may negatively impact the durability of the mixture, especially about its resistance to moisture damage and aging. Computational analysis showed that while the restoration capacity of rejuvenators is related to their penetration into and peptizing of asphaltene nanoaggregates, the durability of the restored aged asphalt is mainly related to the polarizability values of the rejuvenator. Rejuvenators with lower polarizability showed better resistance to aging and moisture damage.

In summary, this study develops the rheology-based indicators which relate to the molecular level phenomenon in the rejuvenation mechanism. The rheology-based indicators, for instance, crossover modulus and crossover frequency differentiated the rejuvenators from recycling agents. Moreover, the study found that rejuvenation efficiency and durability are depended on the chemistry of rejuvenators. Finally, based on the learning of chemistry, a chemically balanced rejuvenator is synthesized with superior rejuvenation properties.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020