Matching Items (14)

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Evolution of Physics and Chemistry of Surfaces and Interfaces: A Perspective of the Last 40 Years

Description

The Physics and Chemistry of Surfaces and Interfaces conference has maintained a focus on the interfacial and surface properties of materials since its initiation in 1974. The conference continues to

The Physics and Chemistry of Surfaces and Interfaces conference has maintained a focus on the interfacial and surface properties of materials since its initiation in 1974. The conference continues to be a major force in this field, bringing together scientists from a variety of disciplines to focus upon the science of interfaces and surfaces. Here, a historical view of the development of the conference and a discussion of some of the themes that have been focal points for many years are presented.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Dynamics of Current, Charge and Mass

Description

Electricity plays a special role in our lives and life. The dynamics of electrons allow light to flow through a vacuum. The equations of electron dynamics are nearly exact and

Electricity plays a special role in our lives and life. The dynamics of electrons allow light to flow through a vacuum. The equations of electron dynamics are nearly exact and apply from nuclear particles to stars. These Maxwell equations include a special term, the displacement current (of a vacuum). The displacement current allows electrical signals to propagate through space. Displacement current guarantees that current is exactly conserved from inside atoms to between stars, as long as current is defined as the entire source of the curl of the magnetic field, as Maxwell did.We show that the Bohm formulation of quantum mechanics allows the easy definition of the total current, and its conservation, without the dificulties implicit in the orthodox quantum theory. The orthodox theory neglects the reality of magnitudes, like the currents, during times that they are not being explicitly measured.We show how conservation of current can be derived without mention of the polarization or dielectric properties of matter. We point out that displacement current is handled correctly in electrical engineering by ‘stray capacitances’, although it is rarely discussed explicitly. Matter does not behave as physicists of the 1800’s thought it did. They could only measure on a time scale of seconds and tried to explain dielectric properties and polarization with a single dielectric constant, a real positive number independent of everything. Matter and thus charge moves in enormously complicated ways that cannot be described by a single dielectric constant,when studied on time scales important today for electronic technology and molecular biology. When classical theories could not explain complex charge movements, constants in equations were allowed to vary in solutions of those equations, in a way not justified by mathematics, with predictable consequences. Life occurs in ionic solutions where charge is moved by forces not mentioned or described in the Maxwell equations, like convection and diffusion. These movements and forces produce crucial currents that cannot be described as classical conduction or classical polarization. Derivations of conservation of current involve oversimplified treatments of dielectrics and polarization in nearly every textbook. Because real dielectrics do not behave in that simple way-not even approximately-classical derivations of conservation of current are often distrusted or even ignored. We show that current is conserved inside atoms. We show that current is conserved exactly in any material no matter how complex are the properties of dielectric, polarization, or conduction currents. Electricity has a special role because conservation of current is a universal law.Most models of chemical reactions do not conserve current and need to be changed to do so. On the macroscopic scale of life, conservation of current necessarily links far spread boundaries to each other, correlating inputs and outputs, and thereby creating devices.We suspect that correlations created by displacement current link all scales and allow atoms to control the machines and organisms of life. Conservation of current has a special role in our lives and life, as well as in physics. We believe models, simulations, and computations should conserve current on all scales, as accurately as possible, because physics conserves current that way. We believe models will be much more successful if they conserve current at every level of resolution, the way physics does.We surely need successful models as we try to control macroscopic functions by atomic interventions, in technology, life, and medicine. Maxwell’s displacement current lets us see stars. We hope it will help us see how atoms control life.

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Date Created
  • 2017-10-28

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Conductance fluctuations in high mobility monolayer graphene: Nonergodicity, lack of determinism and chaotic behavior

Description

We have fabricated a high mobility device, composed of a monolayer graphene flake sandwiched between two sheets of hexagonal boron nitride. Conductance fluctuations as functions of a back gate voltage

We have fabricated a high mobility device, composed of a monolayer graphene flake sandwiched between two sheets of hexagonal boron nitride. Conductance fluctuations as functions of a back gate voltage and magnetic field were obtained to check for ergodicity. Non-linear dynamics concepts were used to study the nature of these fluctuations. The distribution of eigenvalues was estimated from the conductance fluctuations with Gaussian kernels and it indicates that the carrier motion is chaotic at low temperatures. We argue that a two-phase dynamical fluid model best describes the transport in this system and can be used to explain the violation of the so-called ergodic hypothesis found in graphene.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-09-09

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Electrostatic Analysis of Gate All Around (GAA) Nanowire over FinFET

Description

CMOS Technology has been scaled down to 7 nm with FinFET replacing planar MOSFET devices. Due to short channel effects, the FinFET structure was developed to provide better electrostatic control

CMOS Technology has been scaled down to 7 nm with FinFET replacing planar MOSFET devices. Due to short channel effects, the FinFET structure was developed to provide better electrostatic control on subthreshold leakage and saturation current over planar MOSFETs while having the desired current drive. The FinFET structure has an undoped or fully depleted fin, which supports immunity from random dopant fluctuations (RDF – a phenomenon which causes a reduction in the threshold voltage and is prominent at sub 50 nm tech nodes due to lesser dopant atoms) and thus causes threshold voltage (Vth) roll-off by reducing the Vth. However, as the advanced CMOS technologies are shrinking down to a 5 nm technology node, subthreshold leakage and drain-induced-barrier-lowering (DIBL) are driving the introduction of new metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) structures to improve performance. GAA field effect transistors are shown to be the potential candidates for these advanced nodes. In nanowire devices, due to the presence of the gate on all sides of the channel, DIBL should be lower compared to the FinFETs.

A 3-D technology computer aided design (TCAD) device simulation is done to compare the performance of FinFET and GAA nanowire structures with vertically stacked horizontal nanowires. Subthreshold slope, DIBL & saturation current are measured and compared between these devices. The FinFET’s device performance has been matched with the ASAP7 compact model with the impact of tensile and compressive strain on NMOS & PMOS respectively. Metal work function is adjusted for the desired current drive. The nanowires have shown better electrostatic performance over FinFETs with excellent improvement in DIBL and subthreshold slope. This proves that horizontal nanowires can be the potential candidate for 5 nm technology node. A GAA nanowire structure for 5 nm tech node is characterized with a gate length of 15 nm. The structure is scaled down from 7 nm node to 5 nm by using a scaling factor of 0.7.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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The Role of the Collisional Broadening of the States on the Low-Field Mobility in Silicon Inversion Layers

Description

Scaling of the Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) towards shorter channel lengths, has lead to an increasing importance of quantum effects on the device performance. Until now, a semi-classical model

Scaling of the Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) towards shorter channel lengths, has lead to an increasing importance of quantum effects on the device performance. Until now, a semi-classical model based on Monte Carlo method for instance, has been sufficient to address these issues in silicon, and arrive at a reasonably good fit to experimental mobility data. But as the semiconductor world moves towards 10nm technology, many of the basic assumptions in this method, namely the very fundamental Fermi’s golden rule come into question. The derivation of the Fermi’s golden rule assumes that the scattering is infrequent (therefore the long time limit) and the collision duration time is zero. This thesis overcomes some of the limitations of the above approach by successfully developing a quantum mechanical simulator that can model the low-field inversion layer mobility in silicon MOS capacitors and other inversion layers as well. It solves for the scattering induced collisional broadening of the states by accounting for the various scattering mechanisms present in silicon through the non-equilibrium based near-equilibrium Green’s Functions approach, which shall be referred to as near-equilibrium Green’s Function (nEGF) in this work. It adopts a two-loop approach, where the outer loop solves for the self-consistency between the potential and the subband sheet charge density by solving the Poisson and the Schrödinger equations self-consistently. The inner loop solves for the nEGF (renormalization of the spectrum and the broadening of the states), self-consistently using the self-consistent Born approximation, which is then used to compute the mobility using the Green-Kubo Formalism.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Multiscale Modeling of Thermal and Electrical Characteristics in Silicon CMOS Devices

Description

This dissertation explores thermal effects and electrical characteristics in metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) devices and circuits using a multiscale dual-carrier approach. Simulating electron and hole transport with carrier-phonon interactions

This dissertation explores thermal effects and electrical characteristics in metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) devices and circuits using a multiscale dual-carrier approach. Simulating electron and hole transport with carrier-phonon interactions for thermal transport allows for the study of complementary logic circuits with device level accuracy in electrical characteristics and thermal effects. The electrical model is comprised of an ensemble Monte Carlo solution to the Boltzmann Transport Equation coupled with an iterative solution to two-dimensional (2D) Poisson’s equation. The thermal model solves the energy balance equations accounting for carrier-phonon and phonon-phonon interactions. Modeling of circuit behavior uses parametric iteration to ensure current and voltage continuity. This allows for modeling of device behavior, analyzing circuit performance, and understanding thermal effects.

The coupled electro-thermal approach, initially developed for individual n-channel MOSFET (NMOS) devices, now allows multiple devices in tandem providing a platform for better comparison with heater-sensor experiments. The latest electro-thermal solver allows simulation of multiple NMOS and p-channel MOSFET (PMOS) devices, providing a platform for the study of complementary MOSFET (CMOS) circuit behavior. Modeling PMOS devices necessitates the inclusion of hole transport and hole-phonon interactions. The analysis of CMOS circuits uses the electro-thermal device simulation methodology alongside parametric iteration to ensure current continuity. Simulating a CMOS inverter and analyzing the extracted voltage transfer characteristics verifies the efficacy of this methodology. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of the dual-carrier electro-thermal solver in simulating thermal effects in CMOS circuits.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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The phonon Monte Carlo simulation

Description

Thermal effects in nano-scaled devices were reviewed and modeling methodologies to deal with this issue were discussed. The phonon energy balance equations model, being one of the important previous works

Thermal effects in nano-scaled devices were reviewed and modeling methodologies to deal with this issue were discussed. The phonon energy balance equations model, being one of the important previous works regarding the modeling of heating effects in nano-scale devices, was derived. Then, detailed description was given on the Monte Carlo (MC) solution of the phonon Boltzmann Transport Equation. The phonon MC solver was developed next as part of this thesis. Simulation results of the thermal conductivity in bulk Si show good agreement with theoretical/experimental values from literature.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Algebraic multigrid poisson equation solver

Description

From 2D planar MOSFET to 3D FinFET, the geometry of semiconductor devices is getting more and more complex. Correspondingly, the number of mesh grid points increases largely to maintain the

From 2D planar MOSFET to 3D FinFET, the geometry of semiconductor devices is getting more and more complex. Correspondingly, the number of mesh grid points increases largely to maintain the accuracy of carrier transport and heat transfer simulations. By substituting the conventional uniform mesh with non-uniform mesh, one can reduce the number of grid points. However, the problem of how to solve governing equations on non-uniform mesh is then imposed to the numerical solver. Moreover, if a device simulator is integrated into a multi-scale simulator, the problem size will be further increased. Consequently, there exist two challenges for the current numerical solver. One is to increase the functionality to accommodate non-uniform mesh. The other is to solve governing physical equations fast and accurately on a large number of mesh grid points.

This research rst discusses a 2D planar MOSFET simulator and its numerical solver, pointing out its performance limit. By analyzing the algorithm complexity, Multigrid method is proposed to replace conventional Successive-Over-Relaxation method in a numerical solver. A variety of Multigrid methods (standard Multigrid, Algebraic Multigrid, Full Approximation Scheme, and Full Multigrid) are discussed and implemented. Their properties are examined through a set of numerical experiments. Finally, Algebraic Multigrid, Full Approximation Scheme and Full Multigrid are integrated into one advanced numerical solver based on the exact requirements of a semiconductor device simulator. A 2D MOSFET device is used to benchmark the performance, showing that the advanced Multigrid method has higher speed, accuracy and robustness.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Multi scale study of heat transfer using Monte Carlo technique for phonon transport

Description

Self-heating degrades the performance of devices in advanced technology nodes. Understanding of self-heating effects is necessary to improve device performance. Heat generation in these devices occurs at nanometer scales but

Self-heating degrades the performance of devices in advanced technology nodes. Understanding of self-heating effects is necessary to improve device performance. Heat generation in these devices occurs at nanometer scales but heat transfer is a microscopic phenomena. Hence a multi-scale modeling approach is required to study the self-heating effects. A state of the art Monte Carlo device simulator and the commercially available Giga 3D tool from Silvaco are used in our study to understand the self heating effects. The Monte Carlo device simulator solves the electrical transport and heat generation for nanometer length scales accurately while the Giga 3D tool solves for thermal transport over micrometer length scales. The approach used is to understand the self-heating effects in a test device structure, composed of a heater and a sensor, fabricated and characterized by IMEC. The heater is the Device Under Test(DUT) and the sensor is used as a probe. Therefore, the heater is biased in the saturation region and the sensor is biased in the sub-threshold regime. Both are planar MOSFETs of gate length equal to 22 nm. The simulated I-V characteristics of the sensor match with the experimental behavior at lower applied drain voltages but differ at higher applied biases.

The self-heating model assumes that the heat transport within the device follows Energy Balance model which may not be accurate. To properly study heat transport within the device, a state of the art Monte Carlo device simulator is necessary. In this regard, the Phonon Monte Carlo(PMC) simulator is developed. Phonons are treated as quasi particles that carry heat energy. Like electrons, phonons obey a corresponding Boltzmann Transport Equation(BTE) which can be used to study their transport. The direct solution of the BTE for phonons is possible, but it is difficult to incorporate all scattering mechanisms. In the Monte Carlo based solution method, it is easier to incorporate different relevant scattering mechanisms. Although the Monte Carlo method is computationally intensive, it provides good insight into the physical nature of the transport problem. Hence Monte Carlo based techniques are used in the present work for studying phonon transport. Monte Carlo simulations require calculating the scattering rates for different scattering processes. In the present work, scattering rates for three phonon interactions are calculated from different approaches presented in the literature. Optical phonons are also included in the transport problem. Finally, the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity for silicon is calculated in the range from 100K to 900K and is compared to available experimental data.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Electromechanical properties of single molecule devices

Description

Understanding the interplay between the electrical and mechanical properties of single molecules is of fundamental importance for molecular electronics. The sensitivity of charge transport to mechanical fluctuations is a key

Understanding the interplay between the electrical and mechanical properties of single molecules is of fundamental importance for molecular electronics. The sensitivity of charge transport to mechanical fluctuations is a key problem in developing long lasting molecular devices. Furthermore, harnessing this response to mechanical perturbation, molecular devices which can be mechanically gated can be developed. This thesis demonstrates three examples of the unique electromechanical properties of single molecules.

First, the electromechanical properties of 1,4-benzenedithiol molecular junctions are investigate. Counterintuitively, the conductance of this molecule is found to increase by more than an order of magnitude when stretched. This conductance increase is found to be reversible when the molecular junction is compressed. The current-voltage, conductance-voltage and inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy characteristics are used to attribute the conductance increase to a strain-induced shift in the frontier molecular orbital relative to the electrode Fermi level, leading to resonant enhancement in the conductance.

Next, the effect of stretching-induced structural changes on charge transport in DNA molecules is studied. The conductance of single DNA molecules with lengths varying from 6 to 26 base pairs is measured and found to follow a hopping transport mechanism. The conductance of DNA molecules is highly sensitive to mechanical stretching, showing an abrupt decrease in conductance at surprisingly short stretching distances, with weak dependence on DNA length. This abrupt conductance decrease is attributed to force-induced breaking of hydrogen bonds in the base pairs at the end of the DNA sequence.

Finally, the effect of small mechanical modulation of the base separation on DNA conductance is investigated. The sensitivity of conductance to mechanical modulation is studied for molecules of different sequence and length. Sequences with purine-purine stacking are found to be more responsive to modulation than purine-pyrimidine sequences. This sensitivity is attributed to the perturbation of &pi-&pi stacking interactions and resulting effects on the activation energy and electronic coupling for the end base pairs.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014