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Method for fabrication and verification of conjugated nanoparticle-antibody tuning elements for multiplexed electrochemical biosensors

Description

There is a critical need for more accurate, highly sensitive and specific assay for disease diagnosis and management. A novel, multiplexed, single sensor using rapid and label free electrochemical impedance

There is a critical need for more accurate, highly sensitive and specific assay for disease diagnosis and management. A novel, multiplexed, single sensor using rapid and label free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tuning method has been developed. The key challenges while monitoring multiple targets is frequency overlap. Here we describe the methods to circumvent the overlap, tune by use of nanopartide (NP) and discuss the various fabrication and characterization methods to develop this technique. First sensors were fabricated using printed circuit board (PCB) technology and nickel and gold layers were electrodeposited onto the PCB sensors. An off-chip conjugation of gold NP's to molecular recognition elements (with verification technique) is described as well. A standard covalent immobilization of the molecular recognition elements is also discussed with quality control techniques. Finally use and verification of sensitivity and specificity is also presented. By use of gold NP's of various sizes, we have demonstrated the possibility and shown little loss of sensitivity and specificity in the molecular recognition of inflammatory markers as "model" targets for our tuning system. By selection of other sized NP's or NP's of various materials, the tuning effect can be further exploited. The novel platform technology developed could be utilized in critical care, clinical management and at home health and disease management.

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Date Created
  • 2013-09-09

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A multiplexing immunosensor for the quantification of cytokine biomarkers

Description

Biosensors offer excellent diagnostic methods through precise quantification of bodily fluid biomarkers and could fill an important niche in diagnostic screening. The long term goal of this research is the

Biosensors offer excellent diagnostic methods through precise quantification of bodily fluid biomarkers and could fill an important niche in diagnostic screening. The long term goal of this research is the development of an impedance immunosensor for easy-to-use, rapid, sensitive and selective simultaneously multiplexed quantification of bodily fluid disease biomarkers. To test the hypothesis that various cytokines induce empirically determinable response frequencies when captured by printed circuit board (PCB) impedance immunosensor surface, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods were used to test PCB biosensors versus multiple cytokine biomarkers to determine limits of detection, background interaction and response at all sweep frequencies. Results indicated that sensors for cytokine Interleukin-12 (IL-12) detected their target over three decades of concentration and were tolerant to high levels of background protein. Further, the hypothesis that cytokine analytes may be rapidly detected via constant frequency impedance immunosensing without sacrificing undue sensitivity, CV, EIS, impedance-time (Zt) methods and modeling were used to test CHITM gold electrodes versus IL-12 over different lengths of time to determine limits of detection, detection time, frequency of response and consistent cross-platform sensor performance. Modeling and Zt studies indicate interrogation of the electrode with optimum frequency could be used for detection of different target concentrations within 90 seconds of sensor exposure and that interrogating the immunosensor with fixed, optimum frequency could be used for sensing target antigen. This informs usability of fixed-frequency impedance methods for biosensor research and particularly for clinical biosensor use. Finally, a multiplexing impedance immunosensor prototype for quantification of biomarkers in various body fluids was designed for increased automation of sample handling and testing. This enables variability due to exogenous factors and increased rapidity of assay with eased sensor fabrication. Methods were provided for simultaneous multiplexing through multisine perturbation of a sensor, and subsequent data processing. This demonstrated ways to observe multiple types of antibody-antigen affinity binding events in real time, reducing the number of sensors and target sample used in the detection and quantification of multiple biomarkers. These features would also improve the suitability of the sensor for clinical multiplex detection of disease biomarkers.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012