Matching Items (51)

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In Vitro Gametogenesis (IVG): Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) in Development

Description

In vitro gametogenesis (IVG) research has been growing in countries like Japan, US, and China after the development of stem cell research and other scientific advancements as well as because of the perception of infertility as a domestic and international

In vitro gametogenesis (IVG) research has been growing in countries like Japan, US, and China after the development of stem cell research and other scientific advancements as well as because of the perception of infertility as a domestic and international problem. IVG research’s progress has been deliberated internationally, with discussion of questions, challenges, and possibilities that have arisen and may arise in the future as the technology is adopted by different countries. The first section introduces the meaning of IVG, explains the importance of review by scientists and citizens for IVG, and describes a rise in infertility reported in multiple developed countries that could be addressed by IVG. The second section discusses IVG’s applications and implications using 5 ethical categories articulated by Obama’s Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues: Public Beneficence, Responsible Stewardship, Intellectual Freedom and Responsibility, Democratic Deliberation, and Justice and Fairness. These five ethical principles were intended for analysis of emerging technologies, and IVG is an emerging technology with possible integration into clinical settings. Among the principles, it seemed that a major weak point of inquiry concerns LGBT+ and disability inclusion, especially of gender dysphoric and transgender people who may experience higher rates of infertility and have a harder time conceiving due to a mix of discrimination, gender dysphoria, and infertility due to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) treatment or gender/sex reassignment surgeries (GRSs/SRSs) that may impair or remove reproductive body parts. A number of other ethical considerations arise about this technology.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2019-05

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Reproduction in Science Fiction

Description

Science fiction works can reflect the relationship between science and society by telling a story set in the future of ethical implications or social consequences of scientific advancement. This thesis investigated how the concept of reproduction is depicted in popular

Science fiction works can reflect the relationship between science and society by telling a story set in the future of ethical implications or social consequences of scientific advancement. This thesis investigated how the concept of reproduction is depicted in popular science fiction works. I reviewed and analyzed four popular science fiction works that all showed fear over the government controlling our choices in reproductive technology. The analysis of my thesis can be used as a way to understand how we view the ideas and the consequences of reproductive technology through concepts of reproduction. These perspectives and ideas as a reflection of society's concerns as we discuss the future of the ethics and politics of reproductive technology and reproductive issues.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2016-05

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The Past, Present, and Future Role of the Humanities in American Medical Education

Description

There is growing concern among physicians, scholars, medical educators, and most importantly among patients, that science and technology have begun to eclipse fundamental attributes, such as empathy in the doctor-patient relationship. As a result, “humanism” in medicine has been a

There is growing concern among physicians, scholars, medical educators, and most importantly among patients, that science and technology have begun to eclipse fundamental attributes, such as empathy in the doctor-patient relationship. As a result, “humanism” in medicine has been a widely debated topic—how to define it, how to promote it, whether it can be taught, and how to qualify (much less quantify) its value in the practice of medicine. Through this research project I sought to better understand the role of humanities coursework in American medical school curricula, and determine whether there was a relationship between the integration of humanities coursework and the maintenance or enhancement of empathy levels in medical students. I reviewed literature with three objectives. (1) To better understand the influential social and political factors of pervasive reforms in US medical school curricula at the beginning of the 20th century, which led to science exclusive pedagogy in physician training (2) To become familiar with the works of iconic personalities in the history of American medical school pedagogy, paying special attention to attitudes and claims describing the role of humanities coursework, and the concept of humanism in the practice of medicine. (3) To observe the discourse underway across a variety of disciplines with regard to the current role of humanities coursework in medical curricula. My research shows that empathy is an essential attribute in the healing relationship, which benefits patients, physicians and improves health outcomes. Despite the importance of empathy, current physician training is documented as eroding empathy levels in medical students. Though the definition of ‘humanities’ in the context of medical school curricula remains vague and even contradictory, support for integration of humanities coursework is growing as an effective intervention for maintaining or enhancing levels of empathy.

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Created

Date Created
2014-05

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The Past, Present, and Future Role of the Humanities in American Medical Education

Description

There is growing concern among physicians, scholars, medical educators, and most importantly among patients, that science and technology have begun to eclipse fundamental attributes, such as empathy in the doctor-patient relationship. As a result, “humanism” in medicine has been a

There is growing concern among physicians, scholars, medical educators, and most importantly among patients, that science and technology have begun to eclipse fundamental attributes, such as empathy in the doctor-patient relationship. As a result, “humanism” in medicine has been a widely debated topic—how to define it, how to promote it, whether it can be taught, and how to qualify (much less quantify) its value in the practice of medicine. Through this research project I sought to better understand the role of humanities coursework in American medical school curricula, and determine whether there was a relationship between the integration of humanities coursework and the maintenance or enhancement of empathy levels in medical students. I reviewed literature with three objectives. (1) To better understand the influential social and political factors of pervasive reforms in US medical school curricula at the beginning of the 20th century, which led to science exclusive pedagogy in physician training (2) To become familiar with the works of iconic personalities in the history of American medical school pedagogy, paying special attention to attitudes and claims describing the role of humanities coursework, and the concept of humanism in the practice of medicine. (3) To observe the discourse underway across a variety of disciplines with regard to the current role of humanities coursework in medical curricula. My research shows that empathy is an essential attribute in the healing relationship, which benefits patients, physicians and improves health outcomes. Despite the importance of empathy, current physician training is documented as eroding empathy levels in medical students. Though the definition of ‘humanities’ in the context of medical school curricula remains vague and even contradictory, support for integration of humanities coursework is growing as an effective intervention for maintaining or enhancing levels of empathy.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2014-05

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Evaluating Social Factors Affecting Treatment of Acute Fibromyalgia Pain in the Emergency Department

Description

Fibromyalgia is a multi-systemic syndrome linked to musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, nausea, and other comorbid syndromes and chronic illnesses. However, difficulties evaluating and managing acute fibromyalgia symptoms may cause individuals to present to the emergency department for pain control or further

Fibromyalgia is a multi-systemic syndrome linked to musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, nausea, and other comorbid syndromes and chronic illnesses. However, difficulties evaluating and managing acute fibromyalgia symptoms may cause individuals to present to the emergency department for pain control or further diagnostic workup. However, oligoanalgesia (the undertreatment of pain) detrimentally affects an individual's treatment while in the emergency department. Furthermore, social factors known to influence pain management, such as race, age, or past medical history, affect the diagnostic treatment and evaluation of fibromyalgia patients. As such, ethical evaluation of case studies will indicate how emergency physicians can better manage pain treatment in the emergency department.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2014-05

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Sharks and Society: Changing the Reputation of a Keystone Predator

Description

Globally, many species of shark are facing rapid population decline. This is due to increasing fishing pressures, primarily from the booming demand in China for shark fins for soup. In recent years there has also been an increase in international

Globally, many species of shark are facing rapid population decline. This is due to increasing fishing pressures, primarily from the booming demand in China for shark fins for soup. In recent years there has also been an increase in international shark conservation efforts, but there is still a long way to go in gathering support for those efforts. Public perception of sharks in America has been greatly influenced by negative media representations of them, Jaws being one of the most influential. Many of these representations are based on inaccurate information that has been disproven by science, but still lingers in popular culture. Symbolic Interactionism Theory proved to be a useful framework for unpacking the connections between public perception, mainstream culture and media, and conservation regarding sharks. A social psychological theory, Symbolic Interactionism describes the ways that people construct meaning about a topic through direct and indirect interactions, and how this meaning can change on individual, social, and cultural levels. By changing the way sharks are perceived and represented to the public, these important and incredible animals may gather the support they need to continue living in the world's oceans.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2014-05

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Instagram and Adoption Rates: The Impact of Proactive Social Media on Adoption Rates at the Arizona Animal Welfare League & SPCA

Description

This thesis explores how we can harness new technology to improve our relationship with companion animals and promote shelter animal welfare. The study looked into using the photo-sharing application Instagram to increase adoption rates at the Arizona Animal Welfare League

This thesis explores how we can harness new technology to improve our relationship with companion animals and promote shelter animal welfare. The study looked into using the photo-sharing application Instagram to increase adoption rates at the Arizona Animal Welfare League & SPCA. An Instagram page was created and managed for the shelter, and data was collected regarding the impact the page had on adoption rates. The results were mixed, but overall it was determined that the Instagram page has unique value for the shelter.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015-05

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The Ethics of Keeping Large Felids in Zoos

Description

This thesis aims to address the ethics of keeping the big cats, such as lions, tigers, and leopards, in zoos. It is a practice that has generated some controversy in light of scientific studies reporting stress among wide-ranging animals in

This thesis aims to address the ethics of keeping the big cats, such as lions, tigers, and leopards, in zoos. It is a practice that has generated some controversy in light of scientific studies reporting stress among wide-ranging animals in captive enclosures, as well as in the context of wider discussions in animal welfare and conservation ethics in zoos. A driving question for this project, therefore, was "What are the arguments for and against keeping large felids in zoos/captivity?" This thesis examines the historical and current ethical approaches to evaluating the ethics of maintaining big cats in zoos. Due to many of the big cat species listed as endangered species on the IUCN redlist, the species-centered approach to zoo ethics is becoming the common viewpoint, and, as a result, zoos are deemed ethical because of their contribution to ex situ conservation practices. Further, the ethical arguments against zoos are minimized when the zoos provide suitable and appropriate enclosures for their large felids. Of course, not all zoos are created equal; the ethics of zoos need to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, but in general, it is ethical to maintain big cats in zoos.

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Agent

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Date Created
2014-05

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Perception of Phase 1 Cancer Clinical Trials

Description

Mr. Green has stage 4 prostate cancer which has spread to the bones and liver and has become resistant to radiation and standard chemotherapy treatment. After 3 rounds of chemotherapy, his primary oncologist recommends that he participate in a clinical

Mr. Green has stage 4 prostate cancer which has spread to the bones and liver and has become resistant to radiation and standard chemotherapy treatment. After 3 rounds of chemotherapy, his primary oncologist recommends that he participate in a clinical trial. He went to Dr. Red at the Saguaro Clinic after reading on the internet about a new Phase 1 clinical trial that the clinic is hosting, which is designed to target a specific receptor called AB-111 that may be present in malignant prostate, cervical, ovarian, and breast cells. After signing consent and completing the blood screens in the morning at the clinic, Mr. Green is told his liver enzymes are too high and the ranges specified in the protocol prohibit him from enrolling. Mr. Green is noticeably affected and distressed at this news, and Dr. Red recommends end-of-life care. Behind the scenes, this event is noted on official medical documents and trial study rosters as a "screen fail." This narrative, while fictional, is realistic because similar events occur in cancer clinical trial sites on a regular basis. I look at the inner "world" and mental journey of possible clinical trial candidates as they seek out information about clinical trials and gain understanding of their function \u2014 specifically in the context of Phase 1 cancer clinical trials. To whom is the language of the term "screen failure" useful? How does excluding individuals from clinical trials protect their health and does the integrity of the trial data supersede the person's curative goals? What is the message that cancer patients (potential research subjects) receive regarding clinical trials from sources outside their oncologists?

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2013-12

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Examination of the Ethical Responsibility of Veterinarians Regarding Cases of Animal Abuse and Neglect

Description

Attitudes toward animal welfare have been evolving in our society as we have developed from early agricultural roots to an increasingly urban and technologically advanced community. However, despite the growing societal appreciation and care for animals in our homes and

Attitudes toward animal welfare have been evolving in our society as we have developed from early agricultural roots to an increasingly urban and technologically advanced community. However, despite the growing societal appreciation and care for animals in our homes and backyards, veterinarians are still faced with cases of abuse and neglect. Although it may seem obvious for veterinarians, as animal welfare advocates, to confront this dilemma each time they are faced with it, that is not always the case. In order to assess the responsibilities of veterinarians in regard to neglect and abuse, an extensive literature review and analysis was performed and practicing veterinarians were interviewed to determine their attitudes regarding the responsibility to report suspected cases of animal neglect and abuse. Specifically, these interviews focused on such topics as the educational background of the practitioners, how empathy impacts their perception of animal welfare, their relationship with law enforcement agencies, and related questions. The study demonstrated that the most prominent factor in a veterinarian's understanding of violations of animal welfare stems from their educational background. Therefore, it is recommended that veterinary medicine programs alter their curricula to emphasize animal welfare training and the obligation of veterinarians to report suspected cases of neglect and abuse.

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Date Created
2013-12