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Automatic Water Shutoff Web Server Infrastructure and Smart Home Integration

Description

This thesis covers the continued development of an automatic water shutoff product developed as a capstone project by students in the college of engineering. The continued development covers the process of setting up a publicly accessible web server along

This thesis covers the continued development of an automatic water shutoff product developed as a capstone project by students in the college of engineering. The continued development covers the process of setting up a publicly accessible web server along with required server components and creating an Alexa skill for smart home integration.

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Date Created
2020-12

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Integrated Breast Biopsy Bioimpedance Sensor

Description

Breast microcalcifications are a potential indicator of cancerous tumors. Current visualization methods are either uncomfortable or impractical. Impedance measurement studies have been performed, but not in a clinical setting due to a low sensitivity and specificity. We are hoping to

Breast microcalcifications are a potential indicator of cancerous tumors. Current visualization methods are either uncomfortable or impractical. Impedance measurement studies have been performed, but not in a clinical setting due to a low sensitivity and specificity. We are hoping to overcome this challenge with the development of a highly accurate impedance probe on a biopsy needle. With this technique, microcalcifications and the surrounding tissue could be differentiated in an efficient and comfortable manner than current techniques for biopsy procedures. We have developed and tested a functioning prototype for a biopsy needle using bioimpedance sensors to detect microcalcifications in the human body. In the final prototype a waveform generator sends a sin wave at a relatively low frequency(<1KHz) into the pre-amplifier, which both stabilizes and amplifies the signal. A modified howland bridge is then used to achieve a steady AC current through the electrodes. The voltage difference across the electrodes is then used to calculate the impedance being experienced between the electrodes. In our testing, the microcalcifications we are looking for have a noticeably higher impedance than the surrounding breast tissue, this spike in impedance is used to signal the presence of the calcifications, which are then sampled for examination by radiology.

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Date Created
2018-05

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An Algorithm for the Automatic Detection of Vocal Flutter

Description

Detecting early signs of neurodegeneration is vital for measuring the efficacy of pharmaceuticals and planning treatments for neurological diseases. This is especially true for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) where differences in symptom onset can be indicative of the prognosis. Because

Detecting early signs of neurodegeneration is vital for measuring the efficacy of pharmaceuticals and planning treatments for neurological diseases. This is especially true for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) where differences in symptom onset can be indicative of the prognosis. Because it can be measured noninvasively, changes in speech production have been proposed as a promising indicator of neurological decline. However, speech changes are typically measured subjectively by a clinician. These perceptual ratings can vary widely between clinicians and within the same clinician on different patient visits, making clinical ratings less sensitive to subtle early indicators. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for the objective measurement of flutter, a quasi-sinusoidal modulation of fundamental frequency that manifests in the speech of some ALS patients. The algorithm detailed in this paper employs long-term average spectral analysis on the residual F0 track of a sustained phonation to detect the presence of flutter and is robust to longitudinal drifts in F0. The algorithm is evaluated on a longitudinal speech dataset of ALS patients at varying stages in their prognosis. Benchmarking with two stages of perceptual ratings provided by an expert speech pathologist indicate that the algorithm follows perceptual ratings with moderate accuracy and can objectively detect flutter in instances where the variability of the perceptual rating causes uncertainty.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Food Sustainability: an Agricultural, Ethical, and Millennial Perspective through Film

Description

This documentary shows how what we eat affects our planet. Meat and dairy consumption is the number one pollutant to the environment and yet it is often not discussed among environmentalists. There is so much devastation taking place on our

This documentary shows how what we eat affects our planet. Meat and dairy consumption is the number one pollutant to the environment and yet it is often not discussed among environmentalists. There is so much devastation taking place on our planet due the animal agriculture industry: air pollution, and water contamination, destruction of the the Amazon rainforests. Natural resources, such as water - it takes one thousand gallons of water to produce one gallon of milk - are being over consumed. Land is being cleared of trees at a massive scale in the Amazon to make more room for land to raise livestock and grow its feed. Following the stories and experiences of several ASU students and other community members, the documentary highlights this connection between food and its effects on the environment and what people can do to make a difference.

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2018-05

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Analog-to-Digital Converter Reliability Testing in Hostile Environments

Description

Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) are a critical component in modern circuit applications. ADCs are used in virtually every application in which a digital circuit is interacting with data from the real world, ranging from commercial applications to crucial military

Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) are a critical component in modern circuit applications. ADCs are used in virtually every application in which a digital circuit is interacting with data from the real world, ranging from commercial applications to crucial military and aerospace applications, and are especially important when interacting with sensors that observe environmental factors. Due to the critical nature of these converters, as well as the vast range of environments in which they are used, it is important that they accurately sample data regardless of environmental factors. These environmental factors range from input noise and power supply variations to temperature and radiation, and it is important to know how each may affect the accuracy of the resulting data when designing circuits that depend upon the data from these ADCs. These environmental factors are considered hostile environments, as they each generally have a negative effect on the operation of an ADC. This thesis seeks to investigate the effects of several of these hostile environmental variables on the performance of analog to digital converters. Three different analog to digital converters with similar specifications were selected and analyzed under common hostile environments. Data was collected on multiple copies of an ADC and averaged together to analyze the results using multiple characteristics of converter performance. Performance metrics were obtained across a range of frequencies, input noise, input signal offsets, power supply voltages, and temperatures. The obtained results showed a clear decrease in performance farther from a room temperature environment, but the results for several other environmental variables showed either no significant correlation or resulted in inconclusive data.

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Date Created
2019-05

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Frequency–Modulated Continuous–Wave Millimeter–Band Radar for Volcanic Ash Detection

Description

The use of conventional weather radar in vulcanology leads to two problems: the radars often use wavelengths which are too long to detect the fine ash particles, and they cannot be field–adjusted to fit the wide variety of eruptions. Thus,

The use of conventional weather radar in vulcanology leads to two problems: the radars often use wavelengths which are too long to detect the fine ash particles, and they cannot be field–adjusted to fit the wide variety of eruptions. Thus, to better study these geologic processes, a new radar must be developed that is easily reconfigurable to allow for flexibility and can operate at sufficiently short wavelengths.

This thesis investigates how to design a radar using a field–programmable gate array board to generate the radar signal, and process the returned signal to determine the distance and concentration of objects (in this case, ash). The purpose of using such a board lies in its reconfigurability—a design can (relatively easily) be adjusted, recompiled, and reuploaded to the hardware with none of the cost or time overhead required of a standard weather radar.

The design operates on the principle of frequency–modulated continuous–waves, in which the output signal frequency changes as a function of time. The difference in transmit and echo frequencies determines the distance of an object, while the magnitude of a particular difference frequency corresponds to concentration. Thus, by viewing a spectrum of frequency differences, one is able to see both the concentration and distances of ash from the radar.

The transmit signal data was created in MATLAB®, while the radar was designed with MATLAB® Simulink® using hardware IP blocks and implemented on the ROACH2 signal processing hardware, which utilizes a Xilinx® Virtex®–6 chip. The output is read from a computer linked to the hardware through Ethernet, using a Python™ script. Testing revealed minor flaws due to the usage of lower–grade components in the prototype. However, the functionality of the proposed radar design was proven, making this approach to radar a promising path for modern vulcanology.

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Created

Date Created
2019-05

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Frequency–Modulated Continuous–Wave Millimeter–Band Radar for Volcanic Ash Detection

Description

The use of conventional weather radar in vulcanology leads to two problems: the radars often use wavelengths which are too long to detect the fine ash particles, and they cannot be field–adjusted to fit the wide variety of eruptions. Thus,

The use of conventional weather radar in vulcanology leads to two problems: the radars often use wavelengths which are too long to detect the fine ash particles, and they cannot be field–adjusted to fit the wide variety of eruptions. Thus, to better study these geologic processes, a new radar must be developed that is easily reconfigurable to allow for flexibility and can operate at sufficiently short wavelengths.

This thesis investigates how to design a radar using a field–programmable gate array board to generate the radar signal, and process the returned signal to determine the distance and concentration of objects (in this case, ash). The purpose of using such a board lies in its reconfigurability—a design can (relatively easily) be adjusted, recompiled, and reuploaded to the hardware with none of the cost or time overhead required of a standard weather radar.

The design operates on the principle of frequency–modulated continuous–waves, in which the output signal frequency changes as a function of time. The difference in transmit and echo frequencies determines the distance of an object, while the magnitude of a particular difference frequency corresponds to concentration. Thus, by viewing a spectrum of frequency differences, one is able to see both the concentration and distances of ash from the radar.

The transmit signal data was created in MATLAB®, while the radar was designed with MATLAB® Simulink® using hardware IP blocks and implemented on the ROACH2 signal processing hardware, which utilizes a Xilinx® Virtex®–6 chip. The output is read from a computer linked to the hardware through Ethernet, using a Python™ script. Testing revealed minor flaws due to the usage of lower–grade components in the prototype. However, the functionality of the proposed radar design was proven, making this approach to radar a promising path for modern vulcanology.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019-05

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Around the Corner Imaging: Developing a Graphical User Interface

Description

This Creative Project was carried out in coordination with the capstone project, Around the Corner Imaging with Terahertz Waves. This capstone project deals with a system designed to implement Around the Corner, or Non Line-of-Sight (NLoS) Imaging. This document discusses

This Creative Project was carried out in coordination with the capstone project, Around the Corner Imaging with Terahertz Waves. This capstone project deals with a system designed to implement Around the Corner, or Non Line-of-Sight (NLoS) Imaging. This document discusses the creation of a GUI using MATLAB to control the Terahertz Imaging system. The GUI was developed in response to a need for synchronization, ease of operation, easy parameter modification, and data management. Along the way, many design decisions were made ranging from choosing a software platform to determining how variables should be passed. These decisions and considerations are discussed in this document. The resulting GUI has measured up to the design criteria and will be able to be used by anyone wishing to use the Terahertz Imaging System for further research in the field of Around the Corner or NLoS Imaging.

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Created

Date Created
2019-05

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Optical Characterization of Silver-Doped Germanium-Chalcogenide Thin Films

Description

The purpose of this research is to optically characterize germanium-based chalcogenide thin films and evaluate how their properties change when the composition is altered. The composition changes based on if the chalcogenide contains selenium or sulfur, if the film is

The purpose of this research is to optically characterize germanium-based chalcogenide thin films and evaluate how their properties change when the composition is altered. The composition changes based on if the chalcogenide contains selenium or sulfur, if the film is 60 nanometers or 200 nanometers, and if the film is doped with silver (ranging from 0 nanometers to 30 nanometers). These amorphous germanium-chalcogenide thin films exhibit interesting properties when doped with silver, such as transporting ions within the film in addition to electron transport. Using optical characterization techniques such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, profilometry, and ellipsometry, parameters that describe the optical characteristics are found, including the absorption coefficient, refractive index, optical band gap energy, and information on the density of states. This research concludes that as silver content within the film increases, the optical bandgap energy decreases—this is a consistent trend in existing literature. Having a better understanding of the materials’ physical properties will be useful to aid in the creation of microsystems based on these materials by selecting optimal composition and growth conditions. Important applications using these materials are currently being researched, including variable capacitor devices relying on the ionic conductor behavior these materials display. The optical properties like the absorption coefficient and the optical bandgap energy are invaluable in designing these applications effectively.

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Date Created
2019-05

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Investigation and Analysis of Music Genre Identification via Machine Learning

Description

Modern audio datasets and machine learning software tools have given researchers a deep understanding into Music Information Retrieval (MIR) applications. In this paper, we investigate the accuracy and viability of using a machine learning based approach to perform music

Modern audio datasets and machine learning software tools have given researchers a deep understanding into Music Information Retrieval (MIR) applications. In this paper, we investigate the accuracy and viability of using a machine learning based approach to perform music genre recognition using the Free Music Archive (FMA) dataset. We compare the classification accuracy of popular machine learning models, implement various tuning techniques including principal components analysis (PCA), as well as provide an analysis of the effect of feature space noise on classification accuracy.

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Date Created
2019-05