Matching Items (36)

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A Prediction of Academic Achievement from Child Emotionality and School Quality: A Case for Differential Susceptibility

Description

Early academic adjustment has been found to be predictive of later academic success. This study sought to determine how child emotionality at school, specifically positive and negative emotions, as well

Early academic adjustment has been found to be predictive of later academic success. This study sought to determine how child emotionality at school, specifically positive and negative emotions, as well as the quality of the school, might affect child's academic achievement. Further, the possibility that emotionality and school quality interact was tested. Two hundred and twenty eight second grade children's expressions of positive and negative emotions were observed in the school setting. Teachers also submitted questionnaires on the children's positive emotionality. Academic adjustment was measured by standardized tests and teacher reports. School quality scores were based on multiple indicators obtained from online public information data. Regression analyses and multi-level modeling (when necessary) were used to predict academic performance from children's emotions, school quality, and their interaction. Results demonstrated that school quality was at least marginally positively related to all aspects of children's academic competence. Further, teacher-reported positive emotion positively predicted all scores of academic competence, and teacher-reported dispositional positive emotion positively predicted Woodcock Johnson III applied problems subtest scores. Further, interaction effects showed that teacher-reported positive emotion and school quality significantly predicted teacher-reported academic competence and Woodcock Johnson III applied problems subtest scores. Using both statistical strategies (MLM & regressions), observer-reported positive emotion and school quality marginally significantly predicted Woodcock Jonson III applied problems subtest scores. The results indicate that children's emotional behaviors at school, as well as school quality, play a role in the development of children's academic achievement.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Predicting Sympathy and Prosocial Behavior From Young Children's Dispositional Sadness

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The purpose of this study was to examine whether dispositional sadness predicted children's prosocial behavior and if sympathy mediated this relation. Constructs were measured when children (n = 256 at time

The purpose of this study was to examine whether dispositional sadness predicted children's prosocial behavior and if sympathy mediated this relation. Constructs were measured when children (n = 256 at time 1) were 18, 30, and 42 months old. Mothers and non-parental caregivers rated children's sadness; mothers, caregivers, and fathers rated children's prosocial behavior; sympathy (concern and hypothesis testing) and prosocial behavior (indirect and direct, as well as verbal at older ages) were assessed with a task in which the experimenter feigned injury. In a panel path analysis, 30-month dispositional sadness predicted marginally higher 42-month sympathy; in addition, 30-month sympathy predicted 42-month sadness. Moreover, when controlling for prior levels of prosocial behavior, 30-month sympathy significantly predicted reported and observed prosocial behavior at 42 months. Sympathy did not mediate the relation between sadness and prosocial behavior (either reported or observed).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-01-01

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Relations of Empathy to Anger, Gender, and Intrusive Maternal Parenting in Toddlers

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This longitudinal study examines the relations of anger, gender, and intrusive maternal parenting to empathy in toddlers. Participants (247 toddlers at the initial assessment) were assessed in a laboratory at

This longitudinal study examines the relations of anger, gender, and intrusive maternal parenting to empathy in toddlers. Participants (247 toddlers at the initial assessment) were assessed in a laboratory at approximately 18 (T1, N = 247), 30 (T2, N = 216), and 42 (T3, N = 192) months of age. Toddlers' observed anger was measured during a toy removal task and maternal intrusiveness was observed during free play between mother and toddler. Reported empathy was measured using questionnaires completed by mothers and fathers. At 18 months, a positive relation between observed anger and reported empathy was found for boys, but not for girls. At 30 months, maternal intrusiveness positively predicted empathy in boys, but it negatively predicted empathy in girls. These findings provide insight about sex differences in the development of empathy and concern for others in early childhood.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Parent-Adolescent Conflict as Sequences of Reciprocal Negative Emotion: Links with Conflict Resolution and Adolescents' Behavior Problems

Description

Although conflict is a normative part of parent–adolescent relationships, conflicts that are long or highly negative are likely to be detrimental to these relationships and to youths’ development. In the

Although conflict is a normative part of parent–adolescent relationships, conflicts that are long or highly negative are likely to be detrimental to these relationships and to youths’ development. In the present article, sequential analyses of data from 138 parent–adolescent dyads (adolescents’ mean age was 13.44, SD = 1.16; 52 % girls, 79 % non-Hispanic White) were used to define conflicts as reciprocal exchanges of negative emotion observed while parents and adolescents were discussing “hot,” conflictual issues. Dynamic components of these exchanges, including who started the conflicts, who ended them, and how long they lasted, were identified. Mediation analyses revealed that a high proportion of conflicts ended by adolescents was associated with longer conflicts, which in turn predicted perceptions of the “hot” issue as unresolved and adolescent behavior problems. The findings illustrate advantages of using sequential analysis to identify patterns of interactions and, with some certainty, obtain an estimate of the contingent relationship between a pattern of behavior and child and parental outcomes. These interaction patterns are discussed in terms of the roles that parents and children play when in conflict with each other, and the processes through which these roles affect conflict resolution and adolescents’ behavior problems.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-08-01

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Interactions among catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype, parenting, and sex predict children's internalizing symptoms and inhibitory control: Evidence for differential susceptibility

Description

We used sex, observed parenting quality at 18 months, and three variants of the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (Val[superscript 158]Met [rs4680], intron1 [rs737865], and 3′-untranslated region [rs165599]) to predict mothers' reports of

We used sex, observed parenting quality at 18 months, and three variants of the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (Val[superscript 158]Met [rs4680], intron1 [rs737865], and 3′-untranslated region [rs165599]) to predict mothers' reports of inhibitory and attentional control (assessed at 42, 54, 72, and 84 months) and internalizing symptoms (assessed at 24, 30, 42, 48, and 54 months) in a sample of 146 children (79 male). Although the pattern for all three variants was very similar, Val[superscript 158]Met explained more variance in both outcomes than did intron1, the 3′-untranslated region, or a haplotype that combined all three catechol-O-methyltransferase variants. In separate models, there were significant three-way interactions among each of the variants, parenting, and sex, predicting the intercepts of inhibitory control and internalizing symptoms. Results suggested that Val[superscript 158]Met indexes plasticity, although this effect was moderated by sex. Parenting was positively associated with inhibitory control for methionine–methionine boys and for valine–valine/valine–methionine girls, and was negatively associated with internalizing symptoms for methionine–methionine boys. Using the “regions of significance” technique, genetic differences in inhibitory control were found for children exposed to high-quality parenting, whereas genetic differences in internalizing were found for children exposed to low-quality parenting. These findings provide evidence in support of testing for differential susceptibility across multiple outcomes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-08-01

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On the Factor Structure of the Rosenberg (1965) General Self-Esteem Scale

Description

Since its introduction, the Rosenberg General Self-Esteem Scale (RGSE, Rosenberg, 1965) has been 1 of the most widely used measures of global self-esteem. We conducted 4 studies to investigate (a)

Since its introduction, the Rosenberg General Self-Esteem Scale (RGSE, Rosenberg, 1965) has been 1 of the most widely used measures of global self-esteem. We conducted 4 studies to investigate (a) the goodness-of-fit of a bifactor model positing a general self-esteem (GSE) factor and 2 specific factors grouping positive (MFP) and negative items (MFN) and (b) different kinds of validity of the GSE, MFN, and MFP factors of the RSGE. In the first study (n = 11,028), the fit of the bifactor model was compared with those of 9 alternative models proposed in literature for the RGSE. In Study 2 (n = 357), the external validities of GSE, MFP, and MFN were evaluated using objective grade point average data and multimethod measures of prosociality, aggression, and depression. In Study 3 (n = 565), the across-rater robustness of the bifactor model was evaluated. In Study 4, measurement invariance of the RGSE was further supported across samples in 3 European countries, Serbia (n = 1,010), Poland (n = 699), and Italy (n = 707), and in the United States (n = 1,192). All in all, psychometric findings corroborate the value and the robustness of the bifactor structure and its substantive interpretation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-06-01

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Children’s Quantification with Every Over Time

Description

This article looks closely at two types of errors children have been shown to make with universal quantification—Exhaustive Pairing (EP) errors and Underexhaustive errors—and asks whether they reflect the same

This article looks closely at two types of errors children have been shown to make with universal quantification—Exhaustive Pairing (EP) errors and Underexhaustive errors—and asks whether they reflect the same underlying phenomenon. In a large-scale, longitudinal study, 140 children were tested 4 times from ages 4 to 7 on sentences involving the universal quantifier every. We find an interesting inverse relationship between EP errors and Underexhaustive errors over development: the point at which children stop making Underexhaustive errors is also when they begin making EP errors. Underexhaustive errors, common at early stages in our study, may be indicative of a non-adult, non-exhaustive semantics for every. EP errors, which emerge later, and remain frequent even at age 7, are progressive in nature and were also found with adults in a control study. Following recent developmental work (Drozd and van Loosbroek 2006; Smits 2010), we suggest that these errors do not signal lack of knowledge, but may stem from independent difficulties appropriately restricting the quantifier domain in the presence of a salient, but irrelevant, extra object.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05-09

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Serotonin functioning and adolescents' alcohol use: a genetically informed study examining mechanisms of risk

Description

The current study utilized data from two longitudinal samples to test mechanisms in the relation between a polygenic risk score indexing serotonin functioning and alcohol use in adolescence. Specifically, this

The current study utilized data from two longitudinal samples to test mechanisms in the relation between a polygenic risk score indexing serotonin functioning and alcohol use in adolescence. Specifically, this study tested whether individuals with lower levels of serotonin functioning as indexed by a polygenic risk score were vulnerable to poorer self-regulation, and whether poorer self-regulation subsequently predicted the divergent outcomes of depressive symptoms and aggressive/antisocial behaviors. This study then examined whether depressive symptoms and aggressive/antisocial behaviors conferred risk for later alcohol use in adolescence, and whether polygenic risk and effortful control had direct effects on alcohol use that were not mediated through problem behaviors. Finally, the study examined the potential moderating role of gender in these pathways to alcohol use.

Structural equation modeling was used to test hypotheses. Results from an independent genome-wide association study of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid were used to create serotonin (5-HT) polygenic risk scores, wherein higher scores reflected lower levels of 5-HT functioning. Data from three time points were drawn from each sample, and all paths were prospective. Findings suggested that 5-HT polygenic risk did not predict self-regulatory constructs. However, 5-HT polygenic risk did predict the divergent outcomes of depression and aggression/antisociality, such that higher levels of 5-HT polygenic risk predicted greater levels of depression and aggression/antisociality. Results most clearly supported adolescents’ aggression/antisociality as a mechanism in the relation between 5-HT polygenic risk and later alcohol use. Deficits in self-regulation also predicted depression and aggression/antisociality, and indirectly predicted alcohol use through aggression/antisociality. These pathways to alcohol use might be the most salient for boys with low levels of socioeconomic status.

Results are novel contributions to the literature. The previously observed association between serotonin functioning and alcohol use might be due, in part, to the fact that individuals with lower levels of serotonin functioning are predisposed towards developing earlier aggression/antisociality. Results did not support the hypothesis that serotonin functioning predisposes individuals to deficits in self-regulatory abilities. Findings extend previous research by suggesting that serotonin functioning and self-regulation might be transdiagnostic risk factors for many types of psychopathology.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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The Social Behavior Competencies of Self-Identified Bullies as Assessed by Students Themselves Plus Parents and Teachers

Description

This two-study investigation examined the social behavior competencies of a sample of students ages 8 to 18 who identified themselves as either bullies or non-bullies based on ratings of items

This two-study investigation examined the social behavior competencies of a sample of students ages 8 to 18 who identified themselves as either bullies or non-bullies based on ratings of items on a comprehensive behavior rating scale. Specifically, the purpose of Study 1 was to establish criteria using the Social Skills Improvement System – Student Rating Scale (SSIS-S) to identify students from a nationally representative standardization sample who displayed high frequencies of bullying behaviors. The social behavior ratings for these self-identified bullies were then compared with all other students in the national sample and analyzed to determine differences among various domains of social skills and problem behaviors. In Study 2, the same students’ social behaviors were rated by adult informants to determine if there was added value in including parents and teachers in the assessment of the self-identified bullies. Finally, the extent of concurrent agreement was examined for all students among the teachers, parents, and students’ ratings of social skills and problem behavior domains. Study 1 revealed that self-identified bullies are not a homogeneous group. The main findings from Study 2 showed parents and teachers may add to the overall predictive validity of the student self-report assessment, but not the accuracy of classifying the students as bullies. Study 2 showed differences and similarities exist across the ratings provided by each rater. The relative value of including adult reports in the self-assessment likely lies in the reported differences from each rater, as they provide a more complete social behavior profile for each student. These findings are discussed in terms of existing research and theories regarding children and youths’ bullying behavior. Limitations and recommendations for future research conclude the report.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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The relations of household chaos to children's language development: the mediating roles of children's effortful control and parenting

Description

This study drew upon a bioecological framework to empirically investigate the relations between environmental chaos and preschoolers' language across time, including the potentially mediating roles of children's effortful control and

This study drew upon a bioecological framework to empirically investigate the relations between environmental chaos and preschoolers' language across time, including the potentially mediating roles of children's effortful control and parenting. Child sex also was examined as a moderator of these relations. For this study, the following data were collected at 30, 42, and 54 months of age. Household chaos and (at 30 months) socioeconomic status (SES) were reported by mothers. Children's effortful control (EC) was rated by mothers and nonparental caregivers, and was observed during a number of laboratory tasks. Maternal vocalizations were assessed during free play sessions with their children (at 30 and 42 months), and supportive and unsupportive parenting behaviors and affect were observed during free play and teaching tasks at each age. Mothers also reported on their own reactions to children's negative emotions. Finally, (at 54 months) children's expressive and receptive language was measured with a standard assessment. Structural equation modeling and path analyses indicated that SES at 30 months and greater levels of household chaos at 42 months predicted not only poorer language skills, but also deficits in children's EC and less supportive parenting in low-income mothers at 54 months, even when controlling for stability in these constructs. Children's effortful control at 42 months, but not parenting, positively predicted later language, suggesting that EC may play a mediating role in the relations between household chaos, as well as SES, and preschoolers' language abilities. Child sex did not moderate the pattern of relations. Post-hoc analyses also indicated that the negative relation between chaos and language was significant only for children who had low EC at 42 months. This study represents a much-needed addition to the currently limited longitudinal research examining environmental chaos and children's developmental outcomes. Importantly, findings from this study elucidate an important process underlying the links between chaos and children's language development, which can inform interventions and policies designed to support families and children living in chaotic home environments.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012