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Victor Hugo crafted a relationship with architecture that demonstrated his nuanced experience of the "harmony" of historical monuments, as exemplified in the novel Notre-Dame de Paris. In the first chapter, I will introduce the largest aspect of Notre-Dame de Paris' contradictory nature: its role as both historian and revolutionary. The Gothic's rise to prominence is traceable in Notre-Dame, and Hugo presented the edifice as proof of France's enduring cultural significance. Notre-Dame was just as influential in its revolutionary capacity: Hugo believed that the cathedral acted as an invigorating force to the medieval public and was a vital component of revolutions that took place in the sixteenth century. The second chapter deals with the juxtaposition between the cathedral's identity as a victim of human society and as a figure who engages in its own strategic defense. Hugo categorized several kinds of damage inflicted upon Notre-Dame, with the severity of each category depending upon its source: time, revolution, and shifting taste, which was by far the most egregious. Notre-Dame proves itself to be a formidable opponent in the novel, however, by confronting a violent mob with blows of its own; it also demonstrates the ability to psychically wound its enemies through the infernal hallucinations of Claude Frollo. The final contradiction explored in the third chapter is the nature of the cathedral's spirit. In the novel, Hugo personifies Notre-Dame, giving the structure individual relationships with human characters and the ability to nurture and influence Quasimodo in particular. The bell ringer is presented to the reader as a man reared by a cathedral, and Hugo's exploration of the particulars of their relationship composes a significant part of this chapter. Quasimodo experiences Notre-Dame as an ageless, self-perpetuating universe, and Hugo's juxtaposition of this relationship with that of Frollo emphasizes the author's reverent attitude towards the edifice and its ultimate transcendence of the culture that created it.
This thesis explores the emergence and evolution of the term ‘binge-watching’ and considers how this practice of television consumption became a widespread cultural phenomenon. For the purposes of this project, binge-watching will be defined as watching several episodes of a television series in a row, without stopping (trips to the bathroom and kitchen excluded). This type of television consumption has become increasingly popular due to the rise in digital streaming content available on sites such as Netflix, Hulu, and Amazon Video. This paper focuses on Netflix, the foremost streaming service used in the United States, because of its implementation of features that allow for easier binge-watching, such as its autoplay countdown feature and its personalized rating system which recommends new content to users based on their preferences. Not only has binge-watching become a popular form of television consumption, the term itself is prevalent in advertisement, critical media discourse, and casual conversation amongst spectators, prompting questions about its etymology. Very little research has yet been published on the topic of binge-watching and what those who consume television this way are doing to their bodies and minds – essentially placing consumers in the midst of an uncontrolled experiment. Future research should be pursued to address these gaps in literature and understanding of this phenomenon. This paper sought to piece together the conflicted responses to the practice of binge-watching, with both producers and viewers lauding how technology enables viewers to have a sense of agency and control over their viewing practices, while also admitting that such practices may have a detrimental impact on the industry and spectators’ physical and mental well-beings.
This study examines Glamour magazine to determine the messages the publication sends to its readers and to evaluate if such messages align with modern feminist goals. The articles of Glamour's 12 issues from the year of 2016 are analyzed using a framework adapted from previous research on women's magazines. Articles are coded as either positive (feminist, anti-traditional, promotes equality) or negative (anti-feminist, traditional, promotes inequality). Distinct content themes (appearance, dating, home, self-development, career development, politics/world issues, and entertainment) are also examined individually. After the presentation of data, I examine my findings through a feminist lens to determine the nature of the messages being sent to women through the magazine's editorial content, followed by an assessment of the value of women's magazines and how they could potentially shape the beliefs and roles of a 2017 woman. It is found that about half of the articles in Glamour could be considered as having feminist messages, with strong themes of personal choice, individual empowerment, and political involvement or activism in these articles and throughout the magazine. The content also has many blatantly feminist messages, including consistent use of the word itself. Another 40% of the articles are found to be neutral (no clear message to reader), and the remaining are negative. The sexism inherent in these negative articles is critically examined. Finally, the main takeaways of the findings and their ramifications are discussed from both a media consumer and a media producer perspective, with arguments for why it is important to be critical of a magazine's editorial content.
This honors thesis project combines the research of regional marketing trends in international film posters and game packaging designs with a creative application of that research. The thesis consists of 4 main sections. The first section includes background research on film poster marketing design approaches and summary of international guidelines for game packaging standards. The second part contains an analysis of selected global film posters from all genres leading up to Disney/Pixar movies, and also a few popular video game packaging designs. The research is then be applied to 3 designs based on regional trends in the largest hubs of digital design in Asia, Europe and the Americas. Lastly, a survey will be conducted with international contacts to identify if the trends were correctly identified and which designs they personally preferred. The background research on video games includes 3 interviews. Diane Fornasier the current Vice President of Marketing at Immersive Play, and former VP of Marketing at Maximum Games, Sony and Sega talks about the evolution of packaging and packaging trends. Tom Kalinske, the former CEO of Mattel, Sega and Leapfrog details the emergence of the ESRB board in America and of the rating boards and guidelines from Asia, Europe. Al Nilsen, the former Director of Global Marketing at Sega explains international marketing and the character development of Sonic the Hedgehog. The case studies examine some film posters of all genres and some of the most successful international Pixar film posters to compare and contrast the different design elements in different regions, along with any outlying observations that cannot necessarily be allocated to a specific trend. The findings from the case studies are applied towards creating three film poster designs based on the most remarkable trends in the Americas, Europe and Asia that were observed. All of the film posters exhibit successful methods of engaging and appealing to their audiences based on cultural norms and values. Finding Dory, a film with a strong global appeal that showcases different regional design elements was a suitable option for the design concept. This will not only help understand the basic rules of international marketing when it comes to digital art, but it will also help us identify cultural norms and values that most of us might not be aware of when it comes to what can be publicized or not and what appeals to different target audiences.
This project explores the promise and peril of networked self-portraits, focusing on comparisons between artists Andy Warhol and Cindy Sherman, celebrity and reality star Kim Kardashian, Democratic presidential candidate and former first lady Hillary Clinton, and artists Rafia Santana and Alexandra Marzella. I defined selfies as networked self-portraits using a front-facing camera. My introduction is more or less a literature review of photographic theory and art history texts, but all the significant themes brought up in that are relevant to the rest of my arguments. The arguments draw from feminist visual theory including Laura Mulvey, art history texts, as well as critical race theorists like Franz Fanon. While I chose four artists in my examination, I used them as a jumping off point to talk about how identity can be networked and what it means for small slices of life to be photographed and spread via social media. I decided to include feminist visual theory to inform my exploration of female bodies, especially how mediation sets up normative behaviors and representations. I used race theory to talk about visibility of people of color, especially in contrast to the white artists I talked about in my thesis. By way of Kardashian and Clinton, I explored the idea of celebrity and visual culture, as well as motherhood and what femininity could look like in the 21st century. I tend not to make any sweeping conclusions about the best way to network femininity using selfies, but rather explore the different challenges that women face when they place historically-policed bodies into what could be a digital utopia online.
This project is a feminist exploration of the muse as a cultural icon, and of the relationship dynamic between artists and their muses, using specific twentieth century photographers and their models as examples. The pairs discussed are Lee Miller and Man Ray, Georgia O'Keeffe and Alfred Stieglitz, and Charis Wilson and Edward Weston.
The following study is an attempt to analyze the idea of the abject through the grotesque representation of the female body in contemporary visual art. The focus of the paper will remain within the scheme of the modern Western ideology of physical female beauty, social affirmations, and restraints. My hypothesis is that the grotesque imagery of the female body in modern art redefines beauty and liberates the female subject by turning the gaze upon itself. The proposition of this study emerges from Julia Kristeva’s theory of the abject as it applies to the viewer and the viewed. There is a distinct relationship between grotesque ideas and the female body as it is viewed in the late 20th and 21st centuries. Visual imagery has become increasingly bold in its presentation for good or for bad. I chose the selected artists because they present dark, often socially ‘ugly’ depictions of the female body in honest, straightforward ways. I question why the grotesque is not popularly recognized on the ‘beauty scale’, yet our society craves this kind of imagery. The purpose of this study is to identify and explain abjection within depictions of the grotesque. This exploration of the female figure and its portrayal through the eyes of modern sculptors, painters, and designers aims to highlight that 20th and 21st century aesthetics have moved towards themes of grotesqueness in beauty, amidst cultural objectification and materialization. These themes perhaps present Western culture’s underlying physical insecurities and self-loathing.
Abstract Retrograde presents questions about the creation and value of art through a graphic novel. Materials used to create the work were illustration paper, ink, brushes, and printed screen tones. The piece was created in four stages: first, each panel was sketched into the first draft; second, the sketch was researched and fully developed into a complete drawing; third, the sketch was completely traced with ink and texture was added; finally, the drawing tones were added with ink and screen tones. The plot of Retrograde revolves around the protagonist, Vera, as she attempts to find a place for her art in an artistic community that rejects her for her lack of commercial success and for the advantages she got through connections. When Vera appears to have succeeded, a sudden plot twist reveals a conspiracy which undermines her success. By following Vera, the novel illustrates a corrupt artistic society in which the value of art is established by a small amount of artistic elites. The written portion of the project expounds on the various ideas that drove the novel, including how art forms like graphic novels come to be situated low in artistic hierarchies and how interpretations can be negatively guided by already established institutions. Among some of the theorists referenced within the paper are Walter Benjamin, Clement Greenberg, and Susan Sontag. In conclusion, the project illustrates an inclination to judge art by potential commercial value and by already established hierarchies, limiting the possibilities of new interpretations and shifts in those same hierarchies. Keywords: art, art theory, graphic novels
Several different queer feminist zines, along with the author's experiences in queer feminist zine making, are examined using the lens of J. Jack Halberstam's The Queer Art of Failure. Particular attention is paid to zines' unique composition from a variety of unexpected sources, and their subsequent ability to act as counterhegemonic documents. Queer feminist zine makers' critical engagement with the concept of community is also discussed.
Prince Shendi is a novella set in the semi-fictional continent of Great Africa, specifically in a proud and prosperous region called Serengeti. Our story follows the thrilling adventure of Serengeti's king-to-be, the young and naive Shendi. When Kovalu, the mighty king of Serengeti and Shendi's father, passes away due to old age, Shendi is thrust into the gauntlet of responsibility in an early and unprepared state. After a short foray as the amateur king heavily assisted by the tenured members of Serengeti's Plain Council, Shendi encounters disaster that results in the death of an important council representative and the young king's temporary exile from Serengeti. The journey produced by his one hundred day exile takes Shendi through an arid wasteland, a teeming jungles, a mystic desert, and every terrain in between before his return. Along the way, Shendi unravels the details of a prophecy that means the end of the peaceful and prosperous life his lion kin and other Serengeti dwellers had known for centuries. This prophecy held him at the center of it as the catalyst and ultimately it would be up to Shendi and his actions to stop the ancient evil at work from killing all the lions of his pride and plunging all of Serengeti into a desolate and dismal state. Will Shendi overcome the primal evil looking to dominate the land of Great Africa forevermore? And if so, what will become of him afterwards? Prince Shendi was written over the course of 2015 and early 2016 by Lucas Revelle, a student at Arizona State University studying Exercise and Wellness as well as a student of Barrett, the Honors College. The story was directed, advised, and edited by Honors Fellow Dr. Aviva Dove-Viebahn along with help from the project's 2nd reader, Rebecca Viles.