Matching Items (73)

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Can You Mix It? An Analysis of Bitcoin Mixers

Description

Third-party mixers are used to heighten the anonymity of Bitcoin users. The mixing techniques implemented by these tools are often untraceable on the blockchain, making them appealing to money launderers. This research aims to analyze mixers currently available on the

Third-party mixers are used to heighten the anonymity of Bitcoin users. The mixing techniques implemented by these tools are often untraceable on the blockchain, making them appealing to money launderers. This research aims to analyze mixers currently available on the deep web. In addition, an in-depth case study is done on an open-source bitcoin mixer known as Penguin Mixer. A local version of Penguin Mixer was used to visualize mixer behavior under specific scenarios. This study could lead to the identification of vulnerabilities in mixing tools and detection of these tools on the blockchain.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-12

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The Security of Smart Cars: Toward Fingerprinting Vehicles

Description

Smart cars are defined by the European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA) as systems providing connected, added-value features in order to enhance car users' experience or improve car safety. Because of their extra features, smart cars utilize

Smart cars are defined by the European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA) as systems providing connected, added-value features in order to enhance car users' experience or improve car safety. Because of their extra features, smart cars utilize sophisticated computer systems. These systems, particularly the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus and protocol, have been shown to provide information that can be used to accurately identify individual Electronic Control Units (ECUs) within a car and the driver that is operating a car. I expand upon this work to consider how information from in-vehicle computer systems can be used to identify individual vehicles. I consider fingerprinting vehicles as a means of aiding in stolen car recovery, thwarting VIN forgery, and supporting an intrusion detection system for networks of smart and autonomous vehicles in the near future. I provide an overview of in-vehicle computer systems and detail my work toward building an ECU testbed and fingerprinting vehicles.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-05

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SolPatch: Toward Automatic Vulnerability Mitigation For Ethereum Smart Contracts

Description

Ethereum smart contracts are susceptible not only to those vulnerabilities common to all software development domains, but also to those arising from the peculiar execution model of the Ethereum Virtual Machine. One of these vulnerabilities, a susceptibility to re-entrancy attacks,

Ethereum smart contracts are susceptible not only to those vulnerabilities common to all software development domains, but also to those arising from the peculiar execution model of the Ethereum Virtual Machine. One of these vulnerabilities, a susceptibility to re-entrancy attacks, has been at the center of several high-profile contract exploits. Currently, there exist many tools to detect these vulnerabilties, as well as languages which preempt the creation of contracts exhibiting these issues, but no mechanism to address them in an automated fashion. One possible approach to filling this gap is direct patching of source files. The process of applying these patches to contracts written in Solidity, the primary Ethereum contract language, is discussed. Toward this end, a survey of deployed contracts is conducted, focusing on prevalence of language features and compiler versions. A heuristic approach to mitigating a particular class of re-entrancy vulnerability is developed, implemented as the SolPatch tool, and examined with respect to its limitations. As a proof of concept and illustrative example, a simplified version of the contract featured in a high-profile exploit is patched in this manner.

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Created

Date Created
2018-12

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Who Killed the Canary: An Exploration into Native Android Security Protections

Description

Despite the more tightly controlled permissions and Java framework used by most programs in the Android operating system, an attacker can use the same classic vulnerabilities that exist for traditional Linux binaries on the programs in the Android operating system.

Despite the more tightly controlled permissions and Java framework used by most programs in the Android operating system, an attacker can use the same classic vulnerabilities that exist for traditional Linux binaries on the programs in the Android operating system. Some classic vulnerabilities include stack overows, string formats, and heap meta-information corruption. Through the exploitation of these vulnerabilities an attacker can hijack the execution ow of an application. After hijacking the execution ow, an attacker can then violate the con_dentiality, integrity, or availability of the operating system. Over the years, the operating systems and compliers have implemented a number of protections to prevent the exploitation of vulnerable programs. The most widely implemented protections include Non-eXecutable stack (NX Stack), Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR), and Stack Canaries (Canaries). NX Stack protections prevent the injection and execution of arbitrary code through the use of a permissions framework within a program. Whereas, ASLR and Canaries rely on obfuscation techniques to protect control ow, which requires su_cient entropy between each execution. Early in the implementation of these protections in Linux, researchers discovered that without su_cient entropy between executions, ASLR and Canaries were easily bypassed. For example, the obfuscation techniques were useless in programs that ran continuously because the programs did not change the canaries or re-randomize the address space. Similarly, aws in the implementation of ASLR and Canaries in Android only re-randomizes the values after rebooting, which means the address space locations and canary values remain constant across the executions of an Android program. As a result, an attacker can hijack the control ow Android binaries that contain control ow vulnerabilities. The purpose of this paper is to expose these aws and the methodology used to verify their existence in Android versions 4.1 (Jelly Bean) through 8.0 (Oreo).

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-12

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Rule-Based Home Automation

Description

Apple’s HomeKit framework centralizes control of smart home devices and allows users to create home automations based on predefined rules. For example, a user can add a rule to turn off all the lights in their house whenever they leave.

Apple’s HomeKit framework centralizes control of smart home devices and allows users to create home automations based on predefined rules. For example, a user can add a rule to turn off all the lights in their house whenever they leave. Currently, these rules must be added through a graphical user interface provided by Apple or a third-party app on iOS. This thesis describes how a text-based language provides users with a more expressive means of creating complex home automations and successfully implements such a language. Rules created using this text-based format are parsed and interpreted into rules that can be added directly into HomeKit. This thesis also explores how security features should be implemented with this text-based approach. Since automations are run by the system without user interaction, it is important to consider how the system itself can provide functionality to address the unintended consequences that may result from running an automation. This is especially important for the text-based approach since its increase in expressiveness makes it easier for a user to make a mistake in programming that leads to a security concern. The proposed method for preventing unintended side effects is using a simulation to run every automation prior to actually running the automation on real-world devices. This approach allows users to code some conditions that must be satisfied in order for the automation to run on devices in the home. This thesis describes the creation of such a program that successfully simulates every device in the home. There were limitations, however, with Apple's HomeKit framework, which made it impractical to match the state of simulated devices to real devices in the home. Without being able to match the current state of the home to the current state of the simulation, this method cannot satisfy the goal of ensuring that certain adverse effects will not occur as a result of automations. Other smart home control platforms that provide more extensibility could be used to create this simulation-based security approach. Perhaps as Apple continues to open up their HomeKit platform to developers, this approach may be feasible within Apple's ecosystem at some point in the future.

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Created

Date Created
2020-05

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Toward Inductive Reverse Engineering of Web Applications

Description

In the area of hardware, reverse engineering was traditionally focused on developing clones—duplicated components that performed the same functionality of the original component. While reverse engineering techniques have been applied to software, these techniques have instead focused on understanding high-level

In the area of hardware, reverse engineering was traditionally focused on developing clones—duplicated components that performed the same functionality of the original component. While reverse engineering techniques have been applied to software, these techniques have instead focused on understanding high-level software designs to ease the software maintenance burden. This approach works well for traditional applications that contain source code, however, there are circumstances, particularly regarding web applications, where it would be very beneficial to clone a web application and no source code is present, e.g., for security testing of the application or for offline mock testing of a third-party web service. We call this the web application cloning problem.
This thesis presents a possible solution to the problem of web application cloning. Our approach is a novel application of inductive programming, which we call inductive reverse engineering. The goal of inductive reverse engineering is to automatically reverse engineer an abstraction of the web application’s code in a completely black-box manner. We build this approach using recent advances in inductive programming, and we solve several technical challenges to scale the inductive programming techniques to realistic-sized web applications. We target the initial version of our inductive reverse engineering tool to a subset of web applications, i.e., those that do not store state and those that do not have loops. We introduce an evaluation methodology for web application cloning techniques and evaluate our approach on several real-world web applications. The results indicate that inductive reverse engineering can effectively reverse engineer specific types of web applications. In the future, we hope to extend the power of inductive reverse engineering to web applications with state and to learn loops, while still maintaining tractability.

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Created

Date Created
2017-05

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TSCAN: Toward a Static and Customizable Analysis for Node.js

Description

Node.js is an extremely popular development framework for web applications. The appeal of its event-driven, asynchronous flow and the convenience of JavaScript as its programming language have driven its rapid growth, and it is currently deployed by leading companies in

Node.js is an extremely popular development framework for web applications. The appeal of its event-driven, asynchronous flow and the convenience of JavaScript as its programming language have driven its rapid growth, and it is currently deployed by leading companies in retail, finance, and other important sectors. However, the tools currently available for Node.js developers to secure their applications against malicious attackers are notably scarce. While there has been a substantial amount of security tools created for web applications in many other languages such as PHP and Java, very little exists for Node.js applications. This could compromise private information belonging to companies such as PayPal and WalMart. We propose a tool to statically analyze Node.js web applications for five popular vulnerabilites: cross-site scripting, SQL injection, server-side request forgery, command injection, and code injection. We base our tool off of JSAI, a platform created to parse client-side JavaScript for security risks. JSAI is novel because of its configuration capabilities, which allow a user to choose between various analysis options at runtime in order to select the most thorough analysis with the least amount of processing time. We contribute to the development of our tool by rigorously analyzing and documenting vulnerable functions and objects in Node.js that are relevant to the vulnerabilities we have selected. We intend to use this documentation to build a robust Node.js static analysis tool and we hope that other developers will also incorporate this analysis into their Node.js security projects.

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Created

Date Created
2017-05

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Data Driven Game Theoretic Cyber Threat Mitigation

Description

Penetration testing is regarded as the gold-standard for understanding how well an organization can withstand sophisticated cyber-attacks. However, the recent prevalence of markets specializing in zero-day exploits on the darknet make exploits widely available to potential attackers. The cost associated

Penetration testing is regarded as the gold-standard for understanding how well an organization can withstand sophisticated cyber-attacks. However, the recent prevalence of markets specializing in zero-day exploits on the darknet make exploits widely available to potential attackers. The cost associated with these sophisticated kits generally precludes penetration testers from simply obtaining such exploits – so an alternative approach is needed to understand what exploits an attacker will most likely purchase and how to defend against them. In this paper, we introduce a data-driven security game framework to model an attacker and provide policy recommendations to the defender. In addition to providing a formal framework and algorithms to develop strategies, we present experimental results from applying our framework, for various system configurations, on real-world exploit market data actively mined from the darknet.

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Created

Date Created
2016-05

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A SURVEY OF SPOOFING ATTACKS AND CURRENT WELL KNOWN DEFENSES

Description

Defending against spoofing is an important part of security throughout the internet. With- out the ability to authenticate, within a certain confidence, that a person is in fact who they say are, can allow attackers to go unrecognized after performing

Defending against spoofing is an important part of security throughout the internet. With- out the ability to authenticate, within a certain confidence, that a person is in fact who they say are, can allow attackers to go unrecognized after performing an attack. It is much too easy for attackers today to hide their identity or pretend to be someone else through the means of spoof- ing. Researchers must focus their efforts on defenses that are scalable and effective in counter- ing spoofing. This thesis focuses on surveying different types of spoofing as well as attacks that lever- age spoofing with the hopes to hide the attacker's identity or leverage identity theft to perform an attack. It also looks at current defenses that hope to counter attacks that leverage spoofing and evaluates how realistic is to implement the defenses in terms of scalability and effective- ness. By surveying different attacks and defenses, researchers will be able to better focus their efforts on more effective and scalable defenses to spoofing and attacks that leverage spoofing.

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Date Created
2015-05

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The Voices Behind Robocalls in the Telephone Spam Ecosystem

Description

The rampant occurrence of spam telephone calls shows a clear weakness of authentication and security in our telephone systems. The onset of cheap and effective voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology is a major factor in this as our existing

The rampant occurrence of spam telephone calls shows a clear weakness of authentication and security in our telephone systems. The onset of cheap and effective voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology is a major factor in this as our existing telephone ecosystem is virtually defenseless by many features of this technology. Our telephone systems have also suffered tremendously from a lack of a proper Caller ID verification system. Phone call spammers are able to mask their identities with relative ease by quickly editing their Caller ID. It will take a combination of unique innovations in implementing new authentication mechanisms in the telephone ecosystem, novel government regulation, and understanding how the people behind the spam phone calls themselves operate.<br/><br/>This study dives into the robocall ecosystem to find more about the humans behind spam telephone calls and the economic models they use. Understanding how the people behind robocalls work within their environments will allow for more insight into how the ecosystem works. The study looks at the human component of robocalls: what ways they benefit from conducting spam phone calls, patterns in how they identify which phone number to call, and how these people interact with each other within the telephone spam ecosystem. This information will be pivotal to educate consumers on how they should mitigate spam as well as for creating defensive systems. In this qualitative study, we have conducted numerous interviews with call center employees, have had participants fill out surveys, and garnered data through our CallFire integrated voice broadcast system. While the research is still ongoing, initial conclusions in my pilot study interview data point to promising transparency in how the voices behind these calls operate on both a small and large scale.

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Date Created
2021-05