Matching Items (11)

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Examining multiple sleep behaviors and diurnal patterns of salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase: within- and between-person associations

Description

Sleep is essential for physical and psychological health. Sleep has also been linked to the daily patterns of key stress-responsive physiological systems, specifically the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous

Sleep is essential for physical and psychological health. Sleep has also been linked to the daily patterns of key stress-responsive physiological systems, specifically the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS). Extant research examining sleep and diurnal patterns of cortisol, the primary end product of the HPA axis, is inconsistent. Moreover, it is not clear how specific aspects of sleep behavior (e.g., sleep duration, sleep quality, sleep variability) are related to specific components of diurnal cortisol rhythms. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been recognized as a surrogate marker of ANS activity, but limited research has explored relations between sleep and sAA diurnal rhythms. The current study utilized a modified ecological momentary assessment protocol to examine within- and between-person relations between multiple facets of sleep behavior using multiple methods (e.g., subjective report, actigraphy) and salivary cortisol and sAA. First year college students (N = 76) provided saliva samples and diary entries five times per day over the course of three days. Sleep was assessed via questionnaire, through daily diaries, and monitored objectively using actigraphy over a four day period. Between-person results revealed that shorter average sleep duration and greater sleep variability was related to lower levels of waking cortisol and flatter diurnal slopes across the day. Within-person results revealed that on nights when individuals slept for shorter durations than usual they also had lower levels of waking cortisol the next day. Sleep was not related to the cortisol awakening response (CAR) or diurnal patterns of sAA, in either between-person or within-person analyses. However, typical sleep behaviors measured via questionnaire were related to waking levels of sAA. Overall, this study provides a greater understanding of how multiple components of sleep, measured in naturalistic environments, is related to cortisol and sAA diurnal rhythms, and how day-to-day, within-person changes in sleep duration contribute to daily variations in cortisol.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) American youth reports of their parenting experiences: associations with mental and physical health

Description

Scant research examines the associations between parenting behaviors and the psychological health of Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) American youth. Developmental research consistently demonstrates that an authoritarian parenting style

Scant research examines the associations between parenting behaviors and the psychological health of Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) American youth. Developmental research consistently demonstrates that an authoritarian parenting style (often characterized by rejecting and controlling behaviors, and a common style among MENA parents) is maladaptive for offspring health; however, no study has empirically tested the associations of these behaviors from mothers and fathers with the health of MENA American youth. Using survey data from 314 MENA American young adults (Mage = 20 years, range 18 – 25 years, 56% female), the current study tested the associations between commonly studied parenting behaviors - acceptance, rejection, harsh parenting, and control - with the mental (stress, depression, and anxiety) and physical health (general health perceptions, pain, and somatization) of MENA American youth. Confirmatory factor analysis tested new items informed by preliminary focus groups with original items from the Child Report Parenting Behavior Inventory (CRPBI) to create culturally-informed parenting factors. Results indicated that youth-reported higher maternal acceptance was associated with fewer mental health symptoms, higher maternal harsh parenting with higher mental health symptoms, and higher maternal rejection with worse physical health; father rejection was associated with higher mental health symptoms and worse physical health. Further, the associations between parenting and physical health were moderated by youth Arabic orientation, such that those with higher Arabic orientation showed the best physical health at higher levels of acceptance, and the worst physical health at higher levels of rejection, harsh parenting, and control. Associations between parenting and health did not differ by youth gender. The current findings suggest cross-cultural similarities in the beneficial functions of parental acceptance, and detrimental functions of parental rejection and harsh parenting, with MENA American youth. The associations between parenting and health were exacerbated, for better or for worse, for more Arabic-oriented youth, suggesting these youth may be more greatly impacted by perceptions of their parents’ behaviors. Findings have implications for family interventions working with MENA populations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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The Role of Social Media Use in Adolescent Alcohol Use Accounting for Peer Alcohol Use

Description

This study aimed to advance understanding of the relation between social media and adolescent alcohol use while accounting for offline peer alcohol use, exploring offline peer alcohol use separately as

This study aimed to advance understanding of the relation between social media and adolescent alcohol use while accounting for offline peer alcohol use, exploring offline peer alcohol use separately as a covariate and as a moderator, with an additional exploratory analysis of the relation between social media and alcohol use without offline peer alcohol use in the model. A total of 868 students (55% female) in grade 7 (n = 468) and grade 8 (n = 400) at wave 1, self-reported on alcohol use, binge drinking, and social media use as well as nominated friends from their school and grade. Data from nominated peers who also completed the questionnaires were used for peer-report of alcohol use. Data were collected annually from students at grades 8, 9, 10, and 11 were used in analyses. Final structural models consisted of a cross-lagged panel design with saved factor scores for social media and peer alcohol use predicting a categorical alcohol use variable or a binary binge drinking variable. With offline peer alcohol use as a covariate in the model, social media did not prospectively relate to subsequent grade alcohol use or binge drinking. However, without offline peer alcohol use, the path from social media use to subsequent grade alcohol use was significant but not the path to binge drinking. Offline peer alcohol use did not significantly moderate the relation between social media and subsequent grade alcohol use or binge drinking.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Are subjective effects more extreme with higher-potency cannabis?: a within-person comparison of the subjective effects of marijuana and butane hash oil

Description

Background: Hash oil, a cannabis preparation that contains ultra-high concentrations of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is quickly gaining popularity in the United States. Some evidence suggests that hash oil might produce greater

Background: Hash oil, a cannabis preparation that contains ultra-high concentrations of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is quickly gaining popularity in the United States. Some evidence suggests that hash oil might produce greater intoxication and more severe negative effects than marijuana. This study examined whether the subjective effects of hash oil are more extreme than the subjective effects of marijuana and whether frequency of hash oil use is associated with the subjective effects of marijuana and hash oil. Method: Past-year cannabis users (n = 1,268) were recruited online to complete a questionnaire about the subjective effects of cannabis. Participants who reported past-year use of both hash oil and marijuana (n = 574) rated subjective effects of each type of cannabis in the following positive and negative domains: positive affect, cognitive enhancement, negative affect, cognitive impairment, physiological effects, reduced consciousness, and psychotic-like experiences. Results: Results of within-person comparisons showed that hash oil was rated as producing lesser positive effects (Hash oil: M = 4.53, Marijuana: M = 5.55, t = 14.67, p < .001) than marijuana. Negative effects of hash oil were minimal for the full sample (n = 574) and for both frequent and infrequent hash oil users. In general, the frequency of hash oil use was not associated with the subjective effects of marijuana but more frequent hash oil use was associated with rating hash oil as producing greater positive effects ( = 0.28, t = 6.86, p < .001) and lesser negative effects ( = -0.16, t = -3.83, p < .001). Findings were unchanged after controlling for sex, medical cannabis use, and frequency of marijuana use.

Conclusions: Hash oil produced lesser positive effects than marijuana. Negative effects of hash oil were minimal, suggesting that extreme negative effects may be unlikely for experienced cannabis users.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Crossing classes: a test of the social class bicultural identity integration model on academic performance for first-generation college students

Description

While more first-generation college (FGC) students are enrolling in college than ever before, these students still have poorer performance and higher rates of dropout than continuing-generation college (CGC) students. While

While more first-generation college (FGC) students are enrolling in college than ever before, these students still have poorer performance and higher rates of dropout than continuing-generation college (CGC) students. While many theories have predicted the academic performance of FGC students, few have taken into account the cultural transition to the university context. Similar to ethnic biculturals, FGC students must adjust to the middle-class culture of the university, and face challenges negotiating different cultural identities. I propose that FGC students who perceive their working- and middle-class identities as harmonious and compatible should have improved performance, compared to those that perceive their identities as incompatible. In three preliminary studies, I demonstrate that first-generation college students identify as social class bicultural, that integrated social class identities are positively related to well-being, health, and performance, that the effects of integrated identities on health and well-being are mediated by reduced acculturative stress. The current studies explore whether these effects persist across time and whether exposure to middle-class norms before college predict social class bicultural identity integration for FGC students. Results demonstrate that the effects of social class bicultural identity integration on depression and academic performance persist across time and that exposure to college graduates before college

predicts social class bicultural identity integration.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Genetic and environmental influences on parenting, sibling conflict, and childhood sleep in five-year-old twins

Description

Understanding how interpersonal relationships, such as parenting and sibling relationships, may contribute to early sleep development is important, as early sleep dysregulation has been shown to impact later sleep behavior

Understanding how interpersonal relationships, such as parenting and sibling relationships, may contribute to early sleep development is important, as early sleep dysregulation has been shown to impact later sleep behavior (Sadeh & Anders, 1993), as well as cognitive and behavioral functioning (Gregory et al., 2006; Soffer-Dudek et al., 2011). In addition, twin studies provide an optimal opportunity to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to parenting, sibling relationships and child sleep, as they are influenced by both genetic and contextual factors. As such, the current thesis examined whether parental punitive discipline and sibling conflict were associated with child sleep duration, dysregulation and daytime sleepiness at 12 months, 30 months, and five years in a longitudinal sample of young twins recruited through birth records (Lemery-Chalfant et al., 2013). Mixed model regression analyses and quantitative behavioral genetic models (univariate and bivariate) were conducted to explore bidirectional relations and estimate genetic and environmental contributions to parental punitive punishment, sibling conflict and child sleep parameters. Sleep duration and dysregulation showed stability over time. Parental punitive discipline did not predict concurrent or future sleep parameters, nor were there bidirectional relations between punitive discipline and child sleep behaviors. Greater sibling conflict at five years was associated with shorter concurrent child sleep duration and greater daytime sleepiness, suggesting that sibling conflict may be a critical interpersonal stressor that negatively impacts child sleep. Shared environmental factors also accounted for the greatest proportion of the covariance between sibling conflict and sleep duration and daytime sleepiness at five years. These findings hold promise for sleep and sibling interaction interventions, including educating parents about fostering positive sibling relations and teaching caregivers to utilize specific parenting behaviors that may encourage better child sleep behaviors (e.g., establishing bedtime routines). Future studies should aim to understand the nuances of associations between family relationships (like punitive discipline and sibling conflict) and child sleep, as well as other explore person- and family-level factors, such as child negative emotions and parenting, that may influence associations between family relationships and child sleep.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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It's complicated: an examination of emotional complexity and the influence of stress

Description

Objective: The present study sought to 1) examine the measurement of emotional complexity (EC) by examining the associations among different indicators of EC (i.e., covariation between positive affect and negative

Objective: The present study sought to 1) examine the measurement of emotional complexity (EC) by examining the associations among different indicators of EC (i.e., covariation between positive affect and negative affect; overall, negative, and positive granularity; overall, negative, and positive differentiation) derived from the same data set and identifying a latent factor structure; and 2) evaluate the predictive ability of EC on psychological distress, emotional well-being, and physical functioning while accounting for stressful contexts. The utility of assessing emotion diversity (ED) as another aspect of EC was also explored.

Methods: 191 middle-aged adults from a community-based study on resilience were asked to complete 30 daily diaries assessing positive and negative affect. At least 6 months later, participants completed a phone interview that assessed distress (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms), well-being (i.e., WHO-5 well-being, vitality, social functioning), physical functioning, and perceived stress.

Results: A three-factor solution with latent factors representing overall, negative, and positive EC was identified. Overall EC significantly predicted enhanced physical functioning, but was not associated with distress or well-being. Contrary to study hypotheses, positive and negative EC were not associated with future distress, well-being, or physical functioning, though a trend toward improved physical functioning was noted for positive EC. In contrast, positive and negative ED were both associated with less distress, and better well-being and physical functioning. Overall ED was unexpectedly related to worse outcomes (i.e., more distress, less well-being, decreased physical functioning). Stress did not moderate the relationship between emotional complexity and the outcome variables.

Conclusions: Different indicators of EC represent distinct aspects of emotional experience. Partial support of the hypotheses found. Physical functioning was the only outcome influenced by EC. The inclusion of stress did not change the results. The discrepancy between the findings and those in the literature may be related to reliability of EC indicators and absence of contextual factors. Further exploration of ED revealed a potentially important construct of emotional experience that is deserving of further inquiry.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Cultural Factors and the HPA Axis Stress Response Among Latino Students Transitioning to College

Description

A record number of Latino students are enrolling in higher education in the U.S., but as a group Latinos are the least likely to complete a bachelor’s degree. Cultural factors

A record number of Latino students are enrolling in higher education in the U.S., but as a group Latinos are the least likely to complete a bachelor’s degree. Cultural factors theoretically contribute to Latino students’ success, including orientation toward ethnic heritage and mainstream cultures (i.e., dual cultural adaptation), feeling comfortable navigating two cultural contexts (i.e., biculturalism), and the degree of fit between students’ cultural backgrounds and the cultural landscapes of educational institutions (i.e., cultural congruity). In a two-part study, these cultural factors were examined in relation to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response (indexed by salivary cortisol), a physiological mechanism that may underlie how psychosocial stress influences academic achievement and health. First, Latino students’ cortisol responses to stress were estimated in their daily lives prior to college using ecological momentary assessment (N = 206; 64.6% female; Mage = 18.10). Results from three-level growth models indicated that cortisol levels were lower following greater perceived stress than usual for students endorsing greater Latino cultural values (e.g., familism), compared to students endorsing average or below-average levels of these values. Second, cortisol and subjective responses to a standard public speaking stress task were examined in a subsample of these same students in their first semester of college (N = 84; 63.1% female). In an experimental design, viewing a brief video prior to the stress task conveying the university’s commitment to cultural diversity and inclusion (compared to a generic campus tour) reduced cortisol reactivity and negative affect for students with greater Latino cultural values, and also reduced post-task cortisol levels for students with greater mainstream U.S. cultural values (e.g., competition). These findings join the growing science of culture and biology interplay, while also informing initiatives to support first-year Latino students and the universities that serve them.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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A longitudinal examination of anxiety across childhood and adolescence

Description

Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) was used to study the role of child individual, parental, and environmental predictors of anxiety across childhood

Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) was used to study the role of child individual, parental, and environmental predictors of anxiety across childhood and adolescence. Longitudinal growth modeling was used to examine the influence of behavioral inhibition, parental control, parental anxiety and stressful life events on the developmental progression of anxiety from 4 to 15 years of age. Based on these data, it appears that there are significant developmental differences between the role of child individual, parental and environmental risk factors. These results highlight the importance of considering developmental factors when assessing and targeting risk for anxiety.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Elucidating the link between parent and adolescent psychopathology: a test of transmission specificity and genetic and environmental liabilities

Description

The tendency for psychopathology to aggregate within families is well-documented, though little is known regarding the level of specificity at which familial transmission of symptomology occurs. The current study first

The tendency for psychopathology to aggregate within families is well-documented, though little is known regarding the level of specificity at which familial transmission of symptomology occurs. The current study first tested competing higher-order structures of psychopathology in adolescence, indexing general and more specific latent factors. Second, parent-offspring transmission was tested for broadband domain specificity versus transmission of a general liability for psychopathology. Lastly, genetic and environmental mechanisms underlying the familial aggregation of psychopathology were examined using nuclear twin-family models. The sample was comprised of five hundred adolescent twin pairs (mean age 13.24 years) and their parents drawn from the Wisconsin Twin Project. Twins and parents completed independent diagnostic interviews. For aim 1, correlated factors, bifactor, and general-factor models were tested using adolescent symptom count data. For aim 2, structural equation modeling was used to determine whether broadband domain-specific transmission effects were necessary to capture parent-offspring resemblance in psychopathology above and beyond a general transmission effect indexed by the latent correlation between a parental internalizing factor and offspring P-factor. For aim 3, general factor models were fitted in both generations, and factor scores were subsequently extracted and used in nuclear twin-family model testing. Results indicated that the bifactor model exhibited the best fit to the adolescent data. Familial aggregation of psychopathology was sufficiently accounted for by the transmission of a general liability. Lastly, the best fitting reduced nuclear twin-family model indicated that additive genetic, sibling-specific shared environmental, and nonshared environmental influences contributed to general psychopathology. Parent-offspring transmission was accounted for by shared genetics only, whereas co-twin aggregation was additionally explained by sibling-specific shared environmental factors. Results provide novel insight into the specificity and etiology of the familial aggregation of psychopathology.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019