Matching Items (44)

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The first in its class? The cognitive effects of the contraceptive hormone drospirenone when given with and without an estrogen

Description

Drospirenone (DRSP) is a novel, pharmacologically unique synthetic progestin with properties more similar to the endogenous progestogen, progesterone, than any other progestin currently on the market. While a significant amount

Drospirenone (DRSP) is a novel, pharmacologically unique synthetic progestin with properties more similar to the endogenous progestogen, progesterone, than any other progestin currently on the market. While a significant amount of research has been conducted on the risks associated with DRSP, the impact of DRSP on cognition, especially in reference to learning and memory, is not well understood. However, it is imperative to fully understand the cognitive effects of DRSP, both alone and in combination with EE (as taken in a combined oral contraceptive [COC]), so that women and their physicians can make a fully-informed decision when deciding to take a DRSP-containing COC. Study 1 examined the effects of three doses of DRSP in order to determine the optimal dose for combining with EE, and found that the medium dose of DRSP (30 µg/day) enhanced spatial working memory performance. In Study 2, the medium dose of DRSP from Study 1 was combined with low (0.125 µg/day) and high (0.3 µg/day) doses of EE to examine the effects of DRSP as taken with EE in a COC. The results from Study 2 indicated that when DRSP was combined with a low, but not high, dose of EE, spatial working memory impairments were seen at the highest working memory load. Anxiety-like behavior was evaluated using the OFT, and DRSP was shown to decrease measures of anxiety-like behavior. Additionally, while treatment with a high dose of EE decreased several measures of anxiety-like behavior, a low dose of EE did not, suggestive of a dose response. Taken together, the findings presented from both studies suggest that some of the cognitive effects of the combination of DRSP with EE are different than those of either hormone administered on its own. Further exploration in a preclinical, ovary-intact animal model is a next step to fully understand these effects in the translational context of a contraceptive, given that women taking an EE-DRSP combination are typically ovary-intact.

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  • 2017-05

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The Relationship between Biculturalism and Mental Health Outcomes among College-bound Latino Adolescents

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Cultural beliefs and behaviors can serve as both risk and protective processes for Latino adolescents, with some recent empirical work suggesting the important protective role of bicultural values (e.g., endorsing

Cultural beliefs and behaviors can serve as both risk and protective processes for Latino adolescents, with some recent empirical work suggesting the important protective role of bicultural values (e.g., endorsing high levels of both mainstream culture and culture of origin). We expanded on past research to explore whether bicultural values were associated with internalizing (depressive, anxiety, stress) symptoms and externalizing (alcohol use) symptoms among a sample of Latino adolescents preparing to begin college. We hypothesized biculturalism to protect against all negative outcomes. Our sample consisted of 209 college-bound Latino adolescents (65% female; 85.1% Mexican descent; 10.6% 1st generation, 62% 2nd generation) who were enrolled in university for the coming fall. All multivariate models included sex, ethnicity, parent education, and immigrant generation status as covariates. Correlations and multivariate analyses revealed that higher bicultural values were associated with lower depressive symptoms, lower anxiety symptoms, lower stress, and greater alcohol use. Gender was shown to moderate the relationship between biculturalism and alcohol use. Overall, findings suggested that greater bicultural values were associated with lower endorsement of internalizing symptoms for all participants, but higher endorsement of alcohol use over the last year for the highly bicultural females. Biculturalism may be particularly protective for Latino adolescents who are preparing to attend college given the need for them to transition into an environment with high acculturative demands. However, our results also highlight that these bicultural females may be at greater risk for alcohol use and related problems.

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  • 2017-12

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Interactive Effects of Broad Social Motives and Descriptive Norms on Drinking Behavior

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Individuals with strong broad social motives (BSM) place high personal value on social activities and are at increased risk for heavy drinking. Those with strong BSM who also perceive that

Individuals with strong broad social motives (BSM) place high personal value on social activities and are at increased risk for heavy drinking. Those with strong BSM who also perceive that college students are heavy drinkers (high descriptive norms) might be particularly susceptible to increases in alcohol use during the transition to college, and may be likely to drink for social facilitation (social drinking motives). To test these hypotheses, we examined a mediated moderation model testing interactive effects of BSM and descriptive norms (perceptions of drinking in college) on drinking behavior, mediated by social drinking motives. Data were from 426 incoming college students and analyses were based on a subsample of 218 who reported drinking behavior at either time point. Results indicated that BSM interacted with descriptive norms to predict increases in social drinking motives from high school to college and social drinking motives in turn predicted increases in alcohol use. Probing this interaction revealed that those with high BSM and high descriptive norms experienced greater increases in social drinking motives than those with low descriptive norms. Tests of moderated indirect effects indicated that effects of BSM on drinking behavior through social drinking motives were also stronger among those with high descriptive norms. These results identify a particularly high risk group for changes in alcohol use during an important developmental period. This may have important implications for prevention and intervention methods which can attenuate college alcohol use by targeting individuals with strong BSM who perceive heavy drinking among college peers.

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  • 2016-12

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The Influence of Extracurricular Activities on Self-Regulation in Childhood

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The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between extracurricular activities and self-regulation in 400 five year old twin children. Extracurricular activities were assessed using the Health and

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between extracurricular activities and self-regulation in 400 five year old twin children. Extracurricular activities were assessed using the Health and Behavior Questionnaire, and self-regulation was assessed using the Children's Behavior Questionnaire. While there initially was a significant correlation between extracurricular activities and self-regulation, that correlation became non-significant when controlling for SES and sex in a mixed model regression model. Nearly all of the children who did not participate in extracurricular activities came from lower SES families, leading to a lack of a "control group" for the high SES families. When only taking into account the lower SES half of the sample, the correlation between extracurricular activities and self-regulation became stronger and the correlation between SES and self-regulation became non-significant. Extracurricular activities do appear to promote self-regulation in children coming from low SES families, yet their effects on children coming from high SES families is still unknown.

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  • 2016-12

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Genetic and Environmental Influences on Children's Prosocial Behavior: The Role of Parenting

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The purpose of the current study was to determine the genetic and environmental contributions to the development of prosocial behavior in children using a population of 356 twins at 8

The purpose of the current study was to determine the genetic and environmental contributions to the development of prosocial behavior in children using a population of 356 twins at 8 years of age. The study also aimed to examine whether qualities of parenting (specifically authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles) were phenotypic predictors of prosocial behavior. Both parent-reports and objective ratings of global prosocial behavior were used. Results supported prosocial behavior as a genetically-influenced trait with heritability estimates of 44% and 68% for parent reported and observed prosocial behavior, respectively. Data also suggested prosocial behavior as an environmentally-influenced trait. As hypothesized, authoritative parenting was moderately correlated with parent-reported prosocial behavior and authoritarian parenting was found to be low-to-moderately negatively correlated with parent-reported prosocial behavior. Multi-variable regressions demonstrated that authoritative parenting was significantly predictive of increased parent-reported prosocial behavior but authoritarian parenting was not predictive of decreased parent reported prosocial behavior. However, observed prosocial behaviors were largely independent of both authoritative and authoritarian styles of parenting.

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  • 2017-12

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Ethnic Diversity in Middle Childhood: The Relationship between Academic Performance and Ethnic Diversity of Schools

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School racial/ethnic diversity has been linked to positive developmental outcomes for youth in early adolescence (Graham, 2018). The purpose of this study was to examine whether school diversity and co-ethnic

School racial/ethnic diversity has been linked to positive developmental outcomes for youth in early adolescence (Graham, 2018). The purpose of this study was to examine whether school diversity and co-ethnic representation was associated with academic outcomes of children in middle childhood. Given mixed findings in previous research, this study explored whether the effects of school diversity and co-ethnic representation on academic achievement were moderated by the ethnicity of the individual in a sample of twins in middle childhood (N=485; Mage= 8 8.36 years, SD = .62). Parent-report, teacher-report, and objective ratings of academic outcomes were used. Results indicated that school diversity was positively and significantly associated with teacher reported achievement (b = .80, p < .05) across the full sample. Moderation analyses suggest that greater school diversity was associated with lower parent-reported and objective academic scores for European American youth, but higher teacher-reported and objective academic outcomes for ethnic minority youth. Results indicated that, across the full sample, co-ethnic representation was significantly and negatively associated with one measure of objective academic outcomes (b = -7.99, p < .05). Contrary to hypotheses, greater co-ethnic representation was associated with better teacher-reported and objective academic outcomes for European American youth, but lower objective academic outcomes for ethnic minority children. Findings demonstrate that the ethnic composition of schools are associated with academic outcomes of children in middle childhood, but findings vary by measurement of diversity (i.e., diversity index vs. co-ethnic representation and by the child’s own race/ethnicity.

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  • 2020-05

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Does Sleep Predict Children's Academic Success?

Description

Academic success in childhood is crucial for later academic, occupational, and life success (Heckman, 2006; Kuncel, Hezlett, & Ones, 2004; Spengler, Brunner, Damian, Lüdtke, Martin, & Roberts, 2015). Recent research

Academic success in childhood is crucial for later academic, occupational, and life success (Heckman, 2006; Kuncel, Hezlett, & Ones, 2004; Spengler, Brunner, Damian, Lüdtke, Martin, & Roberts, 2015). Recent research suggests sleep is important for academic success but lacks objective measures of sleep (Buckhalt, El-Sheikh, Keller, & Kelly, 2009; Curcio, Ferrara, & De Gennaro, 2006; Dewald, Meijer, Oort, Kerkhof, & Bögels, 2010; Philbrook, Hinnant, Elmore-Staton, Buckhalt, & El-Sheikh, 2017). The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between sleep and academic success among children through objective measures of sleep in order to expand on the literature. Our sample consisted of 381 twins (50.4% male; 56% Caucasian; 36.5% same sex dizygotic) participating in an 8-year assessment from a longitudinal twin study. Actigraphy was used to assess sleep while various measures were used to assess academic success. A series of mixed model regressions were used to test the main predictions, with family entered as a random effect. Sex, age, Hispanic, SES, and zygosity were controlled for. Significant negative relations were revealed between sleep latency and reading and sleep latency and school liking. Additionally, SES was the most consistent significant positive predictor of our measures of academic success. These results suggest sleep and effects of SES should be considered when developing ways to help children’s school performance.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Associations Between Sleep and Cognitive Function in Middle Childhood: The Moderating Role of Early Life Socioeconomic Status

Description

The objective of the current study was to examine sleep and academic functioning during middle childhood. More specifically, the twin design was used to determine the heritability of academic competence

The objective of the current study was to examine sleep and academic functioning during middle childhood. More specifically, the twin design was used to determine the heritability of academic competence and sleep. Phenotypic analyses using multi-level mixed model regressions were performed to predict academic functioning from sleep. Lastly, socioeconomic status was tested as a moderator in the associations between sleep and academic functioning. Participants included twins (N = 191 families; Mage = 8.47 years) recruited from Arizona birth records at 12 months of age. Sleep duration, latency, onset, efficiency, variability, and sleep problems were assessed using actigraph watches and the Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Academic functioning was assessed using subtests of the Woodcock Johnson Cognitive Test of Achievement-IV (picture vocabulary, passage comprehension, and applied problems) and the MacArthur Health and Behavior Questionnaire. As determined by twin intraclass correlations, the heritability of academic competence ranged from 51-76%. Sleep heritability ranged from 14-80%. In addition, phenotypic analyses only showed a significant association between sleep latency and WJ picture vocabulary scores. More specifically, sleep latency was negatively associated with the picture vocabulary subtest. Additional models were run to examine if any interactive effects were present between early SES and the various sleep parameters. Several significant associations were observed with applied problems scores and parent-reported academic competence. Specifically, for children of low SES, a significant positive association was observed for sleep duration and WJ applied problems scores, as well as for sleep efficiency and WJ applied problems scores. No significant associations were observed for sleep efficiency and HBQ scores with children of any SES. Also, no significant relationships were observed with children of high SES for any of the academic measures.

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  • 2018-05

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The Relationship between Childhood Sleep and Problem Behaviors

Description

Sleep is an extremely important component of living a healthy life than can impact development and behavior starting in childhood. We expanded on past research regarding this topic to determine

Sleep is an extremely important component of living a healthy life than can impact development and behavior starting in childhood. We expanded on past research regarding this topic to determine the role of childhood sleep and the onset of problem behaviors (externalizing and internalizing behaviors) among a sample of school-aged children. We predicted that lower sleep duration, decreased sleep efficiency, and prolonged sleep latency along with negative sleep habits would be associated with problem behaviors. Our sample was made up of 381 school-aged children (M = 8.49 years old, 49.6% female, 56% Caucasian) who were recruited through the Arizona Twin Study when the children were 12 months old. Mixed-model regressions included sex, socioeconomic status, and zygosity as covariates. Correlations and mixed-model regressions showed a significant relationship between negative sleep habits and problem behaviors (both externalizing and internalizing). Our results revealed that those who experience higher amounts of parent-reported negative sleep habits also demonstrate externalizing behaviors (aggression) and internalizing behaviors (anxiety). The findings in the current study are consistent with past research on this topic and suggest that poor sleep impacts daytime functioning and behavior.

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  • 2018-05

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Associations between Coping Styles and Romantic Relationships in Adolescents Transitioning to College

Description

How adolescents cope with stress impacts all aspects of their lives and is particularly important during the transition to college, a time were adolescents are at risk for negative physical

How adolescents cope with stress impacts all aspects of their lives and is particularly important during the transition to college, a time were adolescents are at risk for negative physical and mental health outcomes. What has not yet been studied is how coping impacts the type of romantic relationship adolescents engage in. Data from a longitudinal study, which featured baseline measures as well as twice weekly diary assessments, was used to assess how coping style, commitment level, partner conflict, and sexual risk at baseline was associated with number of romantic partners and relationship duration over the transition to college. There was no significant association between coping and number of romantic partners or relationship duration. Increased partner conflict was associated with lower relationship duration, while higher levels of commitment were associated with higher relationship durations. Adolescents' sexual risk score was negatively correlated with number of romantic partners. Limitations as well as directions for future research are discussed.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05