Matching Items (7)

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Dynamic Responses in Brain Networks to Social Feedback: A Dual EEG Acquisition Study in Adolescent Couples

Description

Adolescence is a sensitive period for the development of romantic relationships. During this period the maturation of frontolimbic networks is particularly important for the capacity to regulate emotional experiences. In

Adolescence is a sensitive period for the development of romantic relationships. During this period the maturation of frontolimbic networks is particularly important for the capacity to regulate emotional experiences. In previous research, both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and dense array electroencephalography (dEEG) measures have suggested that responses in limbic regions are enhanced in adolescents experiencing social rejection. In the present research, we examined social acceptance and rejection from romantic partners as they engaged in a Chatroom Interact Task. Dual 128-channel dEEG systems were used to record neural responses to acceptance and rejection from both adolescent romantic partners and unfamiliar peers (N = 75). We employed a two-step temporal principal component analysis (PCA) and spatial independent component analysis (ICA) approach to statistically identify the neural components related to social feedback. Results revealed that the early (288 ms) discrimination between acceptance and rejection reflected by the P3a component was significant for the romantic partner but not the unfamiliar peer. In contrast, the later (364 ms) P3b component discriminated between acceptance and rejection for both partners and peers. The two-step approach (PCA then ICA) was better able than either PCA or ICA alone in separating these components of the brain's electrical activity that reflected both temporal and spatial phases of the brain's processing of social feedback.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05-31

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Reach for success: an initial evaluation of implementation quality in school settings

Description

Anxiety is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among children yet characterized by lower use of mental health services. Preventive efforts have demonstrated promise in the ability to reduce

Anxiety is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among children yet characterized by lower use of mental health services. Preventive efforts have demonstrated promise in the ability to reduce anxiety symptoms. However, as evidence-based interventions move into real-world settings, there is a need to systematically examine potential implementation factors that may affect program outcomes. The current study investigates the relations between different aspects of implementation and their effect on outcomes of a school-based preventive intervention targeting anxiety symptoms. Specifically, the study examines: (1) the measurement of quality of delivery, (2) specific relations among implementation components, (3) relations between these facets and anxiety program outcomes. Implementation data were collected from nine school-based mental health staff and observer ratings. Program outcomes (pretest and immediate posttest) were measured from 59 participants and their parents (mostly mothers) in the intervention condition. Implementation components included adherence, quality of delivery, time spent, participant responsiveness, and perceived usefulness of program materials. Program outcomes included child-reported emotional expressivity, physiological hyperarousal, negative cognitions, social skills, self-efficacy, and child and parent reported levels of child anxiety. Study findings indicated that quality of delivery was best captured as two facets: skillful presentation and positive engagement. Adherence and quality of delivery were associated with greater participant responsiveness, although time spent was not. Significant relations were found between some implementation components and some program outcomes. Further efforts can be used to optimize the translation of evidence-based programs into real-world settings.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Activative fathering, children's self-regulation, and social skills

Description

This study investigated father-child Activation Theory and the impact of activative fathering on children's dysregulation and social skills. The sample followed 145 families of typically developing children across ages 4

This study investigated father-child Activation Theory and the impact of activative fathering on children's dysregulation and social skills. The sample followed 145 families of typically developing children across ages 4 to 6. Fathering and mothering behaviors were coded via naturalistic observations at child age 4, children's dysregulation was coded during a laboratory puzzle task at age 5, and children's social skills were rated by parents and teachers at age 6. Results found support for a constellation of activative fathering behaviors unique to father-child interactions. Activative fathering, net of mothering behaviors, predicted decreased behavioral dysregulation one year later. Support was not found for moderation of the relation between activative fathering and children's dysregulation by paternal warmth, nor was support found for children's dysregulation as a mediator of the relation between activative fathering and children's social skills. These results suggest that parenting elements of father-child activation are unique to fathering and may be more broadly observable in naturalistic contexts not limited to play activities alone. Additionally, activative fathering appears to uniquely influence children's self-regulatory abilities above and beyond identical mothering behavior. In the present work, paternal warmth was not a necessary for activative fathering to positively contribute to children's regulatory abilities nor did children's dysregulation link activative fathering to social skills.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Examining the neurocognitive underpinnings of coercive conflict in young adult relationships: an actor partner model approach

Description

The goal of this study was to examine the correlation between the brain's preconscious processing of relationship events and direct observation of couples' behavior during a videotaped discussion task. Although

The goal of this study was to examine the correlation between the brain's preconscious processing of relationship events and direct observation of couples' behavior during a videotaped discussion task. Although we know about the interaction dynamics within romantic relationships that portend conflict and dissatisfaction, very little is known about how individuals read interpersonal events within their relationship. Romantic partners participated in a dyadic EEG (electroencephalogram) lab session in which they played a gambling task. The gambling task consisted of three conditions: 1) individual gambling 2) watching their partners gamble and 3) gambling with advice from their partners. Following the gambling tasks, partners were videotaped discussing relationship topics. Neurocognitive reactions to winning and losing a gamble in response to partner's advice were analyzed as an Evoked Response Potential (ERP). The ERP of interest was the P300, which is associated with the brain making sense of unexpected information. Using an actor partner framework, it was found that the females' P300 predicted observed coercive interaction patterns. This finding suggests that for females with an established coercive relationship with their male partners, positive feedback was unexpected compared to losing.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Does race/ethnicity moderate the relationship between substance use disorder diagnosis and the receipt of substance use disorder services for males in the juvenile justice system?

Description

Juvenile offenders suffer from substance use disorders at higher rates than adolescents in the general public. Substance use disorders also predict an increased risk for re-offending. Therefore, it is important

Juvenile offenders suffer from substance use disorders at higher rates than adolescents in the general public. Substance use disorders also predict an increased risk for re-offending. Therefore, it is important that these juveniles, in particular, receive the appropriate substance use disorder treatment. The present study used logistic regression to test whether race/ethnicity would moderate the match between substance use disorder diagnosis and the receipt of a substance use disorder related service in a sample of male, serious juvenile offenders. Results showed that among those with a substance use disorder diagnosis, there were no race/ethnicity differences in the receipt of the appropriate service. However, among those without a substance use disorder diagnosis, non-Hispanic Caucasians were more likely to receive substance use service than were Hispanics or African-Americans. Post-hoc analyses revealed that when using a broader definition of substance use problems, significant differences by race/ethnicity in the prediction of service receipt were only observed at low levels of substance use problems. These findings shed light on how race/ethnicity may play a role in the recommendation of substance use disorder services in the juvenile justice system.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Understanding the influence of romantic relationship seriousness on adolescent binge drinking and drinking consequences

Description

Although substantial research has examined individual, family, and peer factors that contribute to predicting adolescent alcohol use, limited attention has been devoted to the unique role of romantic partners and

Although substantial research has examined individual, family, and peer factors that contribute to predicting adolescent alcohol use, limited attention has been devoted to the unique role of romantic partners and little consideration has been given to the potential importance of romantic relationship seriousness. Data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used to assess the relation between romantic relationship seriousness and binge drinking and drinking consequences one year later among 14-18 year-olds (n= 928 adolescents; 54.1% female). Main effects of relationship seriousness and moderating effects of adolescent age, partner age, adolescent age by partner age, parental alcoholism, and gender were examined separately for each drinking outcome using zero-inflated Poisson regression (ZIP) models. Relationship seriousness and study covariate interactions were also examined. ZIP models estimate (a) a logistic regression that distinguishes between individuals whose values can only be zero on the outcome (i.e., a structural zero class) and individuals with count values ranging from zero to any other positive integer (i.e., a non-structural zero class), and (b) a Poisson regression predicting count values among the non-structural zero class. Results showed trends towards significance for relations between relationship seriousness and binge drinking and drinking consequences among non-structural zero classes. As hypothesized, increased relationship seriousness predicted less frequent binge drinking and fewer drinking consequences. The relation between relationship seriousness and binge drinking was moderated by peer alcohol use; the negative relation between relationship seriousness and binge drinking frequency was significant among adolescents who reported 0-2, but not 3, close friends who drink. The relation between relationship seriousness and number of drinking consequences was moderated by gender, adolescent delinquency (covariate), peer alcohol use (covariate), and Wave I drinking consequences (control variable). Specifically, a significant relation between relationship seriousness and number of drinking consequences was revealed only for females and only for adolescents who reported high consequences at Wave I, and was significant among adolescents who reported 0-2 close friends who drink and low delinquency. Results indicate that relationship seriousness can protect adolescents in terms of drinking outcomes, which could have implications for prevention efforts.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Investigating adverse effects of adolescent group interventions

Description

This study examined an adverse effect of an adolescent group intervention. Group interventions represent one of the most economical, convenient, and common solution to adolescent behavior problems, although prior findings

This study examined an adverse effect of an adolescent group intervention. Group interventions represent one of the most economical, convenient, and common solution to adolescent behavior problems, although prior findings from program evaluation studies have suggested that these groups can unexpectedly increase the externalizing behaviors that they were designed to reduce or prevent. The current study used data from a longitudinal, randomized controlled trial of the Bridges to High School / Puentes a La Secundaria Program, a multicomponent prevention program designed to reduce risk during the middle school transition, which has demonstrated positive effects across an array of outcomes. Data were collected at the beginning of 7th grade, with follow-up data collected at the end of the 7th, 8th, 9th, and 12th grade from a sample of Mexican American adolescents and their mothers. Analyses evaluated long-term effects on externalizing outcomes, trajectories of externalizing behaviors across adolescence, and potential mediators of observed effects. Results showed that the adverse effect that was originally observed based on adolescent self-report of externalizing symptoms at 1-year posttest among youth with high pretest externalizing symptoms was not maintained over time and was not reflected in changes in adolescents' trajectories of externalizing behaviors. Moreover, neither of the peer mediators that theory suggests would explain adverse effects were found to mediate the relationship between intervention status and externalizing symptoms at 1-year posttest. Finally, only beneficial effects were found on externalizing symptoms based on mother report. Together, these findings suggest that the Bridges intervention did not adversely affect adolescent problem behaviors and that future studies should use caution when interpreting unexpected adverse effects.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015