Matching Items (32)

128958-Thumbnail Image.png

Statistical Methods for Analyzing Immunosignatures

Description

Background: Immunosignaturing is a new peptide microarray based technology for profiling of humoral immune responses. Despite new challenges, immunosignaturing gives us the opportunity to explore new and fundamentally different research questions. In addition to classifying samples based on disease status, the

Background: Immunosignaturing is a new peptide microarray based technology for profiling of humoral immune responses. Despite new challenges, immunosignaturing gives us the opportunity to explore new and fundamentally different research questions. In addition to classifying samples based on disease status, the complex patterns and latent factors underlying immunosignatures, which we attempt to model, may have a diverse range of applications.

Methods: We investigate the utility of a number of statistical methods to determine model performance and address challenges inherent in analyzing immunosignatures. Some of these methods include exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, classical significance testing, structural equation and mixture modeling.

Results: We demonstrate an ability to classify samples based on disease status and show that immunosignaturing is a very promising technology for screening and presymptomatic screening of disease. In addition, we are able to model complex patterns and latent factors underlying immunosignatures. These latent factors may serve as biomarkers for disease and may play a key role in a bioinformatic method for antibody discovery.

Conclusion: Based on this research, we lay out an analytic framework illustrating how immunosignatures may be useful as a general method for screening and presymptomatic screening of disease as well as antibody discovery.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011-08-19

129066-Thumbnail Image.png

Differential Expression of MicroRNAs as Predictors of Glioblastoma Phenotypes

Description

Background: Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary central nervous tumor and carries a very poor prognosis. Invasion precludes effective treatment and virtually assures tumor recurrence. In the current study, we applied analytical and bioinformatics approaches to identify a set of microRNAs

Background: Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary central nervous tumor and carries a very poor prognosis. Invasion precludes effective treatment and virtually assures tumor recurrence. In the current study, we applied analytical and bioinformatics approaches to identify a set of microRNAs (miRs) from several different human glioblastoma cell lines that exhibit significant differential expression between migratory (edge) and migration-restricted (core) cell populations. The hypothesis of the study is that differential expression of miRs provides an epigenetic mechanism to drive cell migration and invasion.

Results: Our research data comprise gene expression values for a set of 805 human miRs collected from matched pairs of migratory and migration-restricted cell populations from seven different glioblastoma cell lines. We identified 62 down-regulated and 2 up-regulated miRs that exhibit significant differential expression in the migratory (edge) cell population compared to matched migration-restricted (core) cells. We then conducted target prediction and pathway enrichment analysis with these miRs to investigate potential associated gene and pathway targets. Several miRs in the list appear to directly target apoptosis related genes. The analysis identifies a set of genes that are predicted by 3 different algorithms, further emphasizing the potential validity of these miRs to promote glioblastoma.

Conclusions: The results of this study identify a set of miRs with potential for decreased expression in invasive glioblastoma cells. The verification of these miRs and their associated targeted proteins provides new insights for further investigation into therapeutic interventions. The methodological approaches employed here could be applied to the study of other diseases to provide biomedical researchers and clinicians with increased opportunities for therapeutic interventions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014-01-18

129068-Thumbnail Image.png

Data Mining of High Density Genomic Variant Data for Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease Risk

Description

Background: The discovery of genetic associations is an important factor in the understanding of human illness to derive disease pathways. Identifying multiple interacting genetic mutations associated with disease remains challenging in studying the etiology of complex diseases. And although recently new

Background: The discovery of genetic associations is an important factor in the understanding of human illness to derive disease pathways. Identifying multiple interacting genetic mutations associated with disease remains challenging in studying the etiology of complex diseases. And although recently new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at genes implicated in immune response, cholesterol/lipid metabolism, and cell membrane processes have been confirmed by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to be associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), a percentage of AD heritability continues to be unexplained. We try to find other genetic variants that may influence LOAD risk utilizing data mining methods.

Methods: Two different approaches were devised to select SNPs associated with LOAD in a publicly available GWAS data set consisting of three cohorts. In both approaches, single-locus analysis (logistic regression) was conducted to filter the data with a less conservative p-value than the Bonferroni threshold; this resulted in a subset of SNPs used next in multi-locus analysis (random forest (RF)). In the second approach, we took into account prior biological knowledge, and performed sample stratification and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in addition to logistic regression analysis to preselect loci to input into the RF classifier construction step.

Results: The first approach gave 199 SNPs mostly associated with genes in calcium signaling, cell adhesion, endocytosis, immune response, and synaptic function. These SNPs together with APOE and GAB2 SNPs formed a predictive subset for LOAD status with an average error of 9.8% using 10-fold cross validation (CV) in RF modeling. Nineteen variants in LD with ST5, TRPC1, ATG10, ANO3, NDUFA12, and NISCH respectively, genes linked directly or indirectly with neurobiology, were identified with the second approach. These variants were part of a model that included APOE and GAB2 SNPs to predict LOAD risk which produced a 10-fold CV average error of 17.5% in the classification modeling.

Conclusions: With the two proposed approaches, we identified a large subset of SNPs in genes mostly clustered around specific pathways/functions and a smaller set of SNPs, within or in proximity to five genes not previously reported, that may be relevant for the prediction/understanding of AD.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2012-01-25

128639-Thumbnail Image.png

BitTorious: Global Controlled Genomics Data Publication, Research, and Archiving Via BitTorrent Extensions

Description

Background: Centralized silos of genomic data are architecturally easier to initially design, develop and deploy than distributed models. However, as interoperability pains in EHR/EMR, HIE and other collaboration-centric life sciences domains have taught us, the core challenge of networking genomics systems

Background: Centralized silos of genomic data are architecturally easier to initially design, develop and deploy than distributed models. However, as interoperability pains in EHR/EMR, HIE and other collaboration-centric life sciences domains have taught us, the core challenge of networking genomics systems is not in the construction of individual silos, but the interoperability of those deployments in a manner embracing the heterogeneous needs, terms and infrastructure of collaborating parties. This article demonstrates the adaptation of BitTorrent to private collaboration networks in an authenticated, authorized and encrypted manner while retaining the same characteristics of standard BitTorrent.

Results: The BitTorious portal was sucessfully used to manage many concurrent domestic Bittorrent clients across the United States: exchanging genomics data payloads in excess of 500GiB using the uTorrent client software on Linux, OSX and Windows platforms. Individual nodes were sporadically interrupted to verify the resilience of the system to outages of a single client node as well as recovery of nodes resuming operation on intermittent Internet connections.

Conclusions: The authorization-based extension of Bittorrent and accompanying BitTorious reference tracker and user management web portal provide a free, standards-based, general purpose and extensible data distribution system for large ‘omics collaborations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014-12-21

128640-Thumbnail Image.png

BitTorious Volunteer: Server-Side Extensions for Centrally-Managed Volunteer Storage in BitTorrent Swarms

Description

Background: Our publication of the BitTorious portal [1] demonstrated the ability to create a privatized distributed data warehouse of sufficient magnitude for real-world bioinformatics studies using minimal changes to the standard BitTorrent tracker protocol. In this second phase, we release a

Background: Our publication of the BitTorious portal [1] demonstrated the ability to create a privatized distributed data warehouse of sufficient magnitude for real-world bioinformatics studies using minimal changes to the standard BitTorrent tracker protocol. In this second phase, we release a new server-side specification to accept anonymous philantropic storage donations by the general public, wherein a small portion of each user’s local disk may be used for archival of scientific data. We have implementated the server-side announcement and control portions of this BitTorrent extension into v3.0.0 of the BitTorious portal, upon which compatible clients may be built.

Results: Automated test cases for the BitTorious Volunteer extensions have been added to the portal’s v3.0.0 release, supporting validation of the “peer affinity” concept and announcement protocol introduced by this specification. Additionally, a separate reference implementation of affinity calculation has been provided in C++ for informaticians wishing to integrate into libtorrent-based projects.

Conclusions: The BitTorrent “affinity” extensions as provided in the BitTorious portal reference implementation allow data publishers to crowdsource the extreme storage prerequisites for research in “big data” fields. With sufficient awareness and adoption of BitTorious Volunteer-based clients by the general public, the BitTorious portal may be able to provide peta-scale storage resources to the scientific community at relatively insignificant financial cost.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015-11-04

128932-Thumbnail Image.png

Association of SNPs in EGR3 and ARC With Schizophrenia Supports a Biological Pathway for Schizophrenia Risk

Description

We have previously hypothesized a biological pathway of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity proteins that addresses the dual genetic and environmental contributions to schizophrenia. Accordingly, variations in the immediate early gene EGR3, and its target ARC, should influence schizophrenia susceptibility. We used

We have previously hypothesized a biological pathway of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity proteins that addresses the dual genetic and environmental contributions to schizophrenia. Accordingly, variations in the immediate early gene EGR3, and its target ARC, should influence schizophrenia susceptibility. We used a pooled Next-Generation Sequencing approach to identify variants across these genes in U.S. populations of European (EU) and African (AA) descent. Three EGR3 and one ARC SNP were selected and genotyped for validation, and three SNPs were tested for association in a replication cohort. In the EU group of 386 schizophrenia cases and 150 controls EGR3 SNP rs1877670 and ARC SNP rs35900184 showed significant associations (p = 0.0078 and p = 0.0275, respectively). In the AA group of 185 cases and 50 controls, only the ARC SNP revealed significant association (p = 0.0448). The ARC SNP did not show association in the Han Chinese (CH) population. However, combining the EU, AA, and CH groups revealed a highly significant association of ARC SNP rs35900184 (p = 2.353 x 10-7; OR [95% CI] = 1.54 [1.310–1.820]). These findings support previously reported associations between EGR3 and schizophrenia. Moreover, this is the first report associating an ARC SNP with schizophrenia and supports recent large-scale GWAS findings implicating the ARC complex in schizophrenia risk. These results support the need for further investigation of the proposed pathway of environmentally responsive, synaptic plasticity-related, schizophrenia genes.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2015-10-16

128995-Thumbnail Image.png

Next-Generation Sequencing Methylation Profiling of Subjects With Obesity Identifies Novel Gene Changes

Description

Background: Obesity is a metabolic disease caused by environmental and genetic factors. However, the epigenetic mechanisms of obesity are incompletely understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of skeletal muscle DNA methylation in combination with transcriptomic changes

Background: Obesity is a metabolic disease caused by environmental and genetic factors. However, the epigenetic mechanisms of obesity are incompletely understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of skeletal muscle DNA methylation in combination with transcriptomic changes in obesity.

Results: Muscle biopsies were obtained basally from lean (n = 12; BMI = 23.4 ± 0.7 kg/m[superscript 2]) and obese (n = 10; BMI = 32.9 ± 0.7 kg/m[superscript 2]) participants in combination with euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps to assess insulin sensitivity. We performed reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) next-generation methylation and microarray analyses on DNA and RNA isolated from vastus lateralis muscle biopsies. There were 13,130 differentially methylated cytosines (DMC; uncorrected P < 0.05) that were altered in the promoter and untranslated (5' and 3'UTR) regions in the obese versus lean analysis. Microarray analysis revealed 99 probes that were significantly (corrected P < 0.05) altered. Of these, 12 genes (encompassing 22 methylation sites) demonstrated a negative relationship between gene expression and DNA methylation. Specifically, sorbin and SH3 domain containing 3 (SORBS3) which codes for the adapter protein vinexin was significantly decreased in gene expression (fold change −1.9) and had nine DMCs that were significantly increased in methylation in obesity (methylation differences ranged from 5.0 to 24.4 %). Moreover, differentially methylated region (DMR) analysis identified a region in the 5'UTR (Chr.8:22,423,530–22,423,569) of SORBS3 that was increased in methylation by 11.2 % in the obese group. The negative relationship observed between DNA methylation and gene expression for SORBS3 was validated by a site-specific sequencing approach, pyrosequencing, and qRT-PCR. Additionally, we performed transcription factor binding analysis and identified a number of transcription factors whose binding to the differentially methylated sites or region may contribute to obesity.

Conclusions: These results demonstrate that obesity alters the epigenome through DNA methylation and highlights novel transcriptomic changes in SORBS3 in skeletal muscle.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2016-07-18

137400-Thumbnail Image.png

Next-Generation Sequencing for DNA Methylation Profiling in Blood and Skeletal Muscle

Description

DNA methylation, a subset of epigenetics, has been found to be a significant marker associated with variations in gene expression and activity across the entire human genome. As of now, however, there is little to no information about how DNA

DNA methylation, a subset of epigenetics, has been found to be a significant marker associated with variations in gene expression and activity across the entire human genome. As of now, however, there is little to no information about how DNA methylation varies between different tissues inside a singular person's body. By using research data from a preliminary study of lean and obese clinical subjects, this study attempts to put together a profile of the differences in DNA methylation that can be observed between two particular body tissues from this subject group: blood and skeletal muscle. This study allows us to start describing the changes that occur at the epigenetic level that influence how differently these two tissues operate, along with seeing how these tissues change between individuals of different weight classes, especially in the context of the development of symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013-12

150708-Thumbnail Image.png

An informatics approach to establishing a sustainable public health community

Description

This work involved the analysis of a public health system, and the design, development and deployment of enterprise informatics architecture, and sustainable community methods to address problems with the current public health system. Specifically, assessment of the Nationally Notifiable Disease

This work involved the analysis of a public health system, and the design, development and deployment of enterprise informatics architecture, and sustainable community methods to address problems with the current public health system. Specifically, assessment of the Nationally Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) was instrumental in forming the design of the current implementation at the Southern Nevada Health District (SNHD). The result of the system deployment at SNHD was considered as a basis for projecting the practical application and benefits of an enterprise architecture. This approach has resulted in a sustainable platform to enhance the practice of public health by improving the quality and timeliness of data, effectiveness of an investigation, and reporting across the continuum.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

151020-Thumbnail Image.png

Understanding adaptive behaviors in complex clinical environments

Description

Critical care environments are complex in nature. Fluctuating team dynamics and the plethora of technology and equipment create unforeseen demands on clinicians. Such environments become chaotic very quickly due to the chronic exposure to unpredictable clusters of events. In order

Critical care environments are complex in nature. Fluctuating team dynamics and the plethora of technology and equipment create unforeseen demands on clinicians. Such environments become chaotic very quickly due to the chronic exposure to unpredictable clusters of events. In order to cope with this complexity, clinicians tend to develop ad-hoc adaptations to function in an effective manner. It is these adaptations or "deviations" from expected behaviors that provide insight into the processes that shape the overall behavior of the complex system. The research described in this manuscript examines the cognitive basis of clinicians' adaptive mechanisms and presents a methodology for studying the same. Examining interactions in complex systems is difficult due to the disassociation between the nature of the environment and the tools available to analyze underlying processes. In this work, the use of a mixed methodology framework to study trauma critical care, a complex environment, is presented. The hybrid framework supplements existing methods of data collection (qualitative observations) with quantitative methods (use of electronic tags) to capture activities in the complex system. Quantitative models of activities (using Hidden Markov Modeling) and theoretical models of deviations were developed to support this mixed methodology framework. The quantitative activity models developed were tested with a set of fifteen simulated activities that represent workflow in trauma care. A mean recognition rate of 87.5% was obtained in automatically recognizing activities. Theoretical models, on the other hand, were developed using field observations of 30 trauma cases. The analysis of the classification schema (with substantial inter-rater reliability) and 161 deviations identified shows that expertise and role played by the clinician in the trauma team influences the nature of deviations made (p<0.01). The results shows that while expert clinicians deviate to innovate, deviations of novices often result in errors. Experts' flexibility and adaptiveness allow their deviations to generate innovative ideas, in particular when dynamic adjustments are required in complex situations. The findings suggest that while adherence to protocols and standards is important for novice practitioners to reduce medical errors and ensure patient safety, there is strong need for training novices in coping with complex situations as well.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2012