Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA) have emerged as a powerful and innovative technology for the screening of biomarkers and the study of protein-protein interactions, among others possible applications. The principal advantages are the high specificity and sensitivity that this platform offers. Moreover, compared to conventional protein microarrays, NAPPA technology avoids the necessity of protein purification, which is expensive and time-consuming, by substituting expression in situ with an in vitro transcription/translation kit. In summary, NAPPA arrays have been broadly employed in different studies improving knowledge about diseases and responses to treatments. Here, we review the principal advances and applications performed using this platform during the last years.