Matching Items (10)

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Feasibility demonstration of a massively parallelizable optical near-field sensor for sub-wavelength defect detection and imaging

Description

To detect and resolve sub-wavelength features at optical frequencies, beyond the diffraction limit, requires sensors that interact with the electromagnetic near-field of those features. Most instruments operating in this modality

To detect and resolve sub-wavelength features at optical frequencies, beyond the diffraction limit, requires sensors that interact with the electromagnetic near-field of those features. Most instruments operating in this modality scan a single detector element across the surface under inspection because the scattered signals from a multiplicity of such elements would end up interfering with each other. However, an alternative massively parallelized configuration, capable of interrogating multiple adjacent areas of the surface at the same time, was proposed in 2002. Full physics simulations of the photonic antenna detector element that enables this instrument, show that using conventional red laser light (in the 600 nm range) the detector magnifies the signal from an 8 nm particle by up to 1.5 orders of magnitude. The antenna is a shaped slot element in a 60 nm silver film. The ability of this detector element to resolve λ/78 objects is confirmed experimentally at radio frequencies by fabricating an artificial material structure that mimics the optical permittivity of silver scaled to 2 GHz, and “cutting” into it the slot antenna. The experimental set-up is also used to demonstrate the imaging of a patterned surface in which the critical dimensions of the pattern are λ/22 in size.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05-17

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Phase Recovery and Unimodular Waveform Design

Description

In many systems, it is difficult or impossible to measure the phase of a signal. Direct recovery from magnitude is an ill-posed problem. Nevertheless, with a sufficiently large set of

In many systems, it is difficult or impossible to measure the phase of a signal. Direct recovery from magnitude is an ill-posed problem. Nevertheless, with a sufficiently large set of magnitude measurements, it is often possible to reconstruct the original signal using algorithms that implicitly impose regularization conditions on this ill-posed problem. Two such algorithms were examined: alternating projections, utilizing iterative Fourier transforms with manipulations performed in each domain on every iteration, and phase lifting, converting the problem to that of trace minimization, allowing for the use of convex optimization algorithms to perform the signal recovery. These recovery algorithms were compared on a basis of robustness as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. A second problem examined was that of unimodular polyphase radar waveform design. Under a finite signal energy constraint, the maximal energy return of a scene operator is obtained by transmitting the eigenvector of the scene Gramian associated with the largest eigenvalue. It is shown that if instead the problem is considered under a power constraint, a unimodular signal can be constructed starting from such an eigenvector that will have a greater return.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Pushing the limits of radiofrequency (RF) neuronal telemetry

Description

In a previous report it was shown that the channel capacity of an in vivo communication link using microscopic antennas at radiofrequency is severely limited by the requirement not to

In a previous report it was shown that the channel capacity of an in vivo communication link using microscopic antennas at radiofrequency is severely limited by the requirement not to damage the tissue surrounding the antennas. For dipole-like antennas the strong electric field dissipates too much power into body tissues. Loop-type antennas have a strong magnetic near field and so dissipate much less power into the surrounding tissues but they require such a large current that the antenna temperature is raised to the thermal damage threshold of the tissue. The only solution was increasing the antenna size into hundreds of microns, which makes reporting on an individual neuron impossible. However, recently demonstrated true magnetic antennas offer an alternative not covered in the previous report. The near field of these antennas is dominated by the magnetic field yet they don’t require large currents. Thus they combine the best characteristics of dipoles and loops. By calculating the coupling between identical magnetic antennas inside a model of the body medium we show an increase in the power transfer of up to 8 orders of magnitude higher than could be realized with the loops and dipoles, making the microscopic RF in-vivo transmitting antenna possible.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-06-02

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Fast numerical algorithms for 3-D scattering from PEC and dielectric random rough surfaces in microwave remote sensing

Description

We present fast and robust numerical algorithms for 3-D scattering from perfectly electrical conducting (PEC) and dielectric random rough surfaces in microwave remote sensing. The Coifman wavelets or Coiflets are

We present fast and robust numerical algorithms for 3-D scattering from perfectly electrical conducting (PEC) and dielectric random rough surfaces in microwave remote sensing. The Coifman wavelets or Coiflets are employed to implement Galerkin’s procedure in the method of moments (MoM). Due to the high-precision one-point quadrature, the Coiflets yield fast evaluations of the most off-diagonal entries, reducing the matrix fill effort from O(N^2) to O(N). The orthogonality and Riesz basis of the Coiflets generate well conditioned impedance matrix, with rapid convergence for the conjugate gradient solver. The resulting impedance matrix is further sparsified by the matrix-formed standard fast wavelet transform (SFWT). By properly selecting multiresolution levels of the total transformation matrix, the solution precision can be enhanced while matrix sparsity and memory consumption have not been noticeably sacrificed. The unified fast scattering algorithm for dielectric random rough surfaces can asymptotically reduce to the PEC case when the loss tangent grows extremely large. Numerical results demonstrate that the reduced PEC model does not suffer from ill-posed problems. Compared with previous publications and laboratory measurements, good agreement is observed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Fractal properties and applications of dendritic filaments in programmable metallization cells

Description

Programmable metallization cell (PMC) technology employs the mechanisms of metal ion transport in solid electrolytes (SE) and electrochemical redox reactions in order to form metallic electrodeposits. When a positive bias

Programmable metallization cell (PMC) technology employs the mechanisms of metal ion transport in solid electrolytes (SE) and electrochemical redox reactions in order to form metallic electrodeposits. When a positive bias is applied to an anode opposite to a cathode, atoms at the anode are oxidized to ions and dissolve into the SE. Under the influence of the electric field, the ions move to the cathode and become reduced to form the electrodeposits. These electrodeposits are filamentary in nature and persistent, and since they are metallic can alter the physical characteristics of the material on which they are formed. PMCs can be used as next generation memories, radio frequency (RF) switches and physical unclonable functions (PUFs).

The morphology of the filaments is impacted by the biasing conditions. Under a relatively high applied electric field, they form as dendritic elements with a low fractal dimension (FD), whereas a low electric field leads to high FD features. Ion depletion effects in the SE due to low ion diffusivity/mobility also influences the morphology by limiting the ion supply into the growing electrodeposit.

Ion transport in SE is due to hopping transitions driven by drift and diffusion force. A physical model of ion hopping with Brownian motion has been proposed, in which the ion transitions are random when time window is larger than characteristic time. The random growth process of filaments in PMC adds entropy to the electrodeposition, which leads to random features in the dendritic patterns. Such patterns has extremely high information capacity due to the fractal nature of the electrodeposits.

In this project, lateral-growth PMCs were fabricated, whose LRS resistance is less than 10Ω, which can be used as RF switches. Also, an array of radial-growth PMCs was fabricated, on which multiple dendrites, all with different shapes, could be grown simultaneously. Those patterns can be used as secure keys in PUFs and authentication can be performed by optical scanning.

A kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) model is developed to simulate the ion transportation in SE under electric field. The simulation results matched experimental data well that validated the ion hopping model.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Asymptotic and numerical algorithms in applied electromagnetism

Description

Asymptotic and Numerical methods are popular in applied electromagnetism. In this work, the two methods are applied for collimated antennas and calibration targets, respectively. As an asymptotic method, the diffracted

Asymptotic and Numerical methods are popular in applied electromagnetism. In this work, the two methods are applied for collimated antennas and calibration targets, respectively. As an asymptotic method, the diffracted Gaussian beam approach (DGBA) is developed for design and simulation of collimated multi-reflector antenna systems, based upon Huygens principle and independent Gaussian beam expansion, referred to as the frames. To simulate a reflector antenna in hundreds to thousands of wavelength, it requires 1E7 - 1E9 independent Gaussian beams. To this end, high performance parallel computing is implemented, based on Message Passing Interface (MPI). The second part of the dissertation includes the plane wave scattering from a target consisting of doubly periodic array of sharp conducting circular cones by the magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) via Coiflet based Galerkin's procedure in conjunction with the Floquet theorem. Owing to the orthogonally, compact support, continuity and smoothness of the Coiflets, well-conditioned impedance matrices are obtained. Majority of the matrix entries are obtained in the spectral domain by one-point quadrature with high precision. For the oscillatory entries, spatial domain computation is applied, bypassing the slow convergence of the spectral summation of the non-damping propagating modes. The simulation results are compared with the solutions from an RWG-MLFMA based commercial software, FEKO, and excellent agreement is observed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Wireless power transfer

Description

A new loop configuration capable of reducing power radiation magnitudes lower than conventional loops has been developed. This configuration is demonstrated for the case of two coaxial loops of 0.1

A new loop configuration capable of reducing power radiation magnitudes lower than conventional loops has been developed. This configuration is demonstrated for the case of two coaxial loops of 0.1 meter radius coupled via the magnetic reactive field. Utilizing electromagnetism theory, techniques from antenna design and a new near field design initiative, the ability to design a magnetic field has been investigated by using a full wave simulation tool. The method for realization is initiated from first order physics model, ADS and onto a full wave situation tool for the case of a non-radiating helical loop. The exploration into the design of a magnetic near field while mitigating radiation power is demonstrated using an real number of twists to form a helical wire loop while biasing the integer twisted loop in a non-conventional moebius termination. The helix loop setup as a moebius loop convention can also be expressed as a shorted antenna scheme. The 0.1 meter radius helix antenna is biased with a 1MHz frequency that categorized the antenna loop as electrically small. It is then demonstrated that helical configuration reduces the electric field and mitigates power radiation into the far field. In order to compare the radiated power reduction performance of the helical loop a shielded loop is used as a baseline for comparison. The shielded loop system of the same geometric size and frequency is shown to have power radiation expressed as -46.1 dBm. The power radiated mitigation method of the helix loop reduces the power radiated from the two loop system down to -98.72 dBm.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Photovoltaic characterization of porphyrin and porphyrin-fullerene electropolymers

Description

Wide spread adoption of photovoltaic technology is limited by cost. Developing photovoltaics based on low-cost materials and processing techniques is one strategy for reducing the cost of electricity generated by

Wide spread adoption of photovoltaic technology is limited by cost. Developing photovoltaics based on low-cost materials and processing techniques is one strategy for reducing the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaics. With this in mind, novel porphyrin and porphyrin-fullerene electropolymers have been developed here at Arizona State University. Porphyrins are attractive for inclusion in the light absorbing layer of photovoltaics due to their high absorption coefficients (on the order of 105 cm-1) and porphyrin-fullerene dyads are attractive for use in photovoltaics due to their ability to produce ultrafast photoinduced charge separation (on the order of 10-15 s). The focus of this thesis is the characterization of the photovoltaic properties of these electropolymer films. Films formed on transparent conductive oxide (TCO) substrates were contacted using a mercury drop electrode in order to measure photocurrent spectra and current-voltage curves. Surface treatment of both the TCO substrate and the mercury drop is shown to have a dramatic effect on the photovoltaic performance of the electropolymer films. Treating the TCO substrates with chlorotrimethylsilane and the mercury drop with hexanethiol was found to produce an optimal tradeoff between photocurrent and photovoltage. Incident photon to current efficiency spectra of the films show that the dominant photocurrent generation mechanism in this system is located at the polymer-mercury interface. The optical field intensity at this interface approaches zero due to interference from the light reflected by the mercury surface. Reliance upon photocurrent generation at this interface limits the performance of this system and suggests that these polymers may be useful in solar cells which have structures optimized to take advantage of their internal optical field distributions.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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DFT Solutions for Automated Test and Calibration of Forthcoming RF Integrated Transceivers

Description

As integrated technologies are scaling down, there is an increasing trend in the

process,voltage and temperature (PVT) variations of highly integrated RF systems.

Accounting for these variations during the design phase requires

As integrated technologies are scaling down, there is an increasing trend in the

process,voltage and temperature (PVT) variations of highly integrated RF systems.

Accounting for these variations during the design phase requires tremendous amount

of time for prediction of RF performance and optimizing it accordingly. Thus, there

is an increasing gap between the need to relax the RF performance requirements at

the design phase for rapid development and the need to provide high performance

and low cost RF circuits that function with PVT variations. No matter how care-

fully designed, RF integrated circuits (ICs) manufactured with advanced technology

nodes necessitate lengthy post-production calibration and test cycles with expensive

RF test instruments. Hence design-for-test (DFT) is proposed for low-cost and fast

measurement of performance parameters during both post-production and in-eld op-

eration. For example, built-in self-test (BIST) is a DFT solution for low-cost on-chip

measurement of RF performance parameters. In this dissertation, three aspects of

automated test and calibration, including DFT mathematical model, BIST hardware

and built-in calibration are covered for RF front-end blocks.

First, the theoretical foundation of a post-production test of RF integrated phased

array antennas is proposed by developing the mathematical model to measure gain

and phase mismatches between antenna elements without any electrical contact. The

proposed technique is fast, cost-efficient and uses near-field measurement of radiated

power from antennas hence, it requires single test setup, it has easy implementation

and it is short in time which makes it viable for industrialized high volume integrated

IC production test.

Second, a BIST model intended for the characterization of I/Q offset, gain and

phase mismatch of IQ transmitters without relying on external equipment is intro-

duced. The proposed BIST method is based on on-chip amplitude measurement as

in prior works however,here the variations in the BIST circuit do not affect the target

parameter estimation accuracy since measurements are designed to be relative. The

BIST circuit is implemented in 130nm technology and can be used for post-production

and in-field calibration.

Third, a programmable low noise amplifier (LNA) is proposed which is adaptable

to different application scenarios depending on the specification requirements. Its

performance is optimized with regards to required specifications e.g. distance, power

consumption, BER, data rate, etc.The statistical modeling is used to capture the

correlations among measured performance parameters and calibration modes for fast

adaptation. Machine learning technique is used to capture these non-linear correlations and build the probability distribution of a target parameter based on measurement results of the correlated parameters. The proposed concept is demonstrated by

embedding built-in tuning knobs in LNA design in 130nm technology. The tuning

knobs are carefully designed to provide independent combinations of important per-

formance parameters such as gain and linearity. Minimum number of switches are

used to provide the desired tuning range without a need for an external analog input.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Characterization of copper-doped silicon dioxide programmable metallization cells

Description

Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) is a resistance-switching device based on migration of nanoscale quantities of cations in a solid electrolyte and formation of a conducting electrodeposit by the reductions of

Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) is a resistance-switching device based on migration of nanoscale quantities of cations in a solid electrolyte and formation of a conducting electrodeposit by the reductions of these cations. This dissertation presents electrical characterization results on Cu-SiO2 based PMC devices, which due to the na- ture of materials can be easily integrated into the current Complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process line. Device structures representing individual mem- ory cells based on W bottom electrode and n-type Si bottom electrode were fabricated for characterization. For the W bottom electrode based devices, switching was ob- served for voltages in the range of 500mV and current value as low as 100 nA showing the electrochemical nature and low power potential. The ON state showed a direct de- pendence on the programming current, showing the possibility of multi-bit storage in a single cell. Room temperature retention was demonstrated in excess of 105 seconds and endurance to approximately 107 cycles. Switching was observed for microsecond duration 3 V amplitude pulses. Material characterization results from Raman, X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering and Secondary-ion mass spectroscopy analysis shows the influence of processing conditions on the Cu concentration within the film and also the presence of Cu as free atoms. The results seemed to indicate stress-induced void formation in the SiO2 matrix as the driving mechanism for Cu diffusion into the SiO2 film. Cu/SiO2
Si based PMC devices were characterized and were shown to have inherent isolation characteristics, proving the feasibility of such a structure for a passive array. The inherent isolation property simplifies fabrication by avoiding the need for a separate diode element in an array. The isolation characteristics were studied mainly in terms of the leakage current. The nature of the diode interface was further studied by extracting a barrier potential which shows it can be approximated to a Cu-nSi metal semiconductor Schottky diode.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011