Matching Items (6)

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Effect of Gamma-Rays on Morphology and Tensile Properties of Polypropylene Fiber for Cement Composites.

Description

Concrete is relatively brittle, and its tensile strength is typically only about one-tenth of its compressive strength. Regular concrete is therefore normally uses reinforcement steel bars to increase the tensile

Concrete is relatively brittle, and its tensile strength is typically only about one-tenth of its compressive strength. Regular concrete is therefore normally uses reinforcement steel bars to increase the tensile strength. It is becoming increasingly popular to use random distributed fibers as reinforcement and polymeric fibers is once such kind. In the case of polymeric fibers, due to hydrophobicity and lack of any chemical bond between the fiber and matrix, the weak interface zone limits the ability of the fibers to effectively carry the load that is on the matrix phase. Depending on the fiber’s surface asperity, shape, chemical nature, and mechanical bond characteristic of the load transfer between matrix and fiber can be altered so that the final composite can be improved. These modifications can be carried out by means of thermal treatment, mechanical surface modifications, or chemical changes The objective of this study is to measure and document the effect of gamma ray irradiation on the mechanical properties of macro polymeric fibers. The objective is to determine the mechanical properties of macro-synthetic fibers and develop guidelines for treatment and characterization that allow for potential positive changes due to exposure to irradiation. Fibers are exposed to various levels of ionizing radiation and the tensile, interface and performance in a mortar matrix are documented. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed on irradiated fibers to study fiber strength and failure pattern. SEM tests were carried out in order to study the surface characteristic and effect of different radiation dose on polymeric fiber. The interaction of the irradiated fiber with the cement composite was studied by a series of quasi-static pullout test for a specific embedded length. As a final task, flexural tests were carried out for different irradiated fibers to sum up the investigation. An average increase of 13% in the stiffness of the fiber was observed for 5 kGy of radiation. Flexural tests showed an average increase of 181% in the Req3 value and 102 % in the toughness of the sample was observed for 5 kGy of dose.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Creep of Cracked Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Description

The concept of Creep is a term used to define the tendency of stressed materials to develop an increasing strain through time under a sustained load, thus having an increase

The concept of Creep is a term used to define the tendency of stressed materials to develop an increasing strain through time under a sustained load, thus having an increase in deflection or having an elongation with time in relation to the short term strain. While the subject of compression creep of concrete is well developed, use of concrete under tension loads has been limited at best due to brittleness of concrete. However with the advent of using fiber reinforced concrete, more and more applications where concrete is expected to carry tensile loads due to incorporation of fibers is gaining popularity. While the creep behavior of concrete in tension is important, the main case of the study is what happened when the concrete that is cracked in service is subjected to sustained loads causing creep. The relationship of opening cracks under these conditions are of utmost importance especially when the serviceability criteria is addressed. Little work has been reported in literature on the long-term behavior of FRC under sustained flexural loadings. The main objective of this study is to investigate the Long Term Flexural Behavior of Pre-Cracked Fiber Reinforced Beams under Sustained Loads. The experimental reports document the effect of loading and temperature on the creep characteristics of concrete. A variety of study has been carried out for the different responses generated by the creep tests based on factors like effect of temperature and humidity, effect of fiber content, effect of fiber type, and effect of different loading levels.

The Creep Testing Experimental Methodology is divided into three main parts which includes: (1) The Pre-cracking Partial Fracture Test; (2) Creep Test; (3) Post Creep Full Fracture Test. The magnitude of load applied to a specific specimen during creep testing was based on the results of average residual strength (ARS) tests, determined using EN14651. Specimens of the synthetic FRC mixture were creep tested at loads nominally equivalent to 30% and 50% of the FR1 value. The creep tests are usually continued until a steady Time versus CMOD response was obtained for the specimen signifying its presence in the secondary stage of creep. The creep recovery response is generated after unloading the specimen from the creep set up and later a full fracture test is carried out to obtain the complete post creep response of the beam under flexure.

The behavior of the Creep Coefficient versus Time response has been studied using various existing models like the ACI 209-R 92 Model and the CEB-FIP Model. Basic and hybrid rheological viscoelastic models have also been used in order to generate the material behavior response. A study has been developed in order to understand the applicability of various viscoelastic models for obtaining the material response of real materials. An analytical model for predicting the Flexural Behavior of FRC under sustained creep loads is presented at the end. This model helps generate the stress strain and Moment Curvature response of FRC beams when subjected to creep loads post initial cracking

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Effect of Fiber Morphology on Tensile Properties of Polypropylene Cement Composites

Description

The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of polypropylene fiber morphology on the tensile response of cementitious composites. Two proprietary polypropylene fibers manufactured by BASF –

The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of polypropylene fiber morphology on the tensile response of cementitious composites. Two proprietary polypropylene fibers manufactured by BASF – MAC 2200CB, a crimped monofilament macro fiber and MF40, a bundled multi filament polypropylene made up of 500 filaments,40-micron diameter each were compared. The stiff structure and crimped geometry of MAC 2200 CB was studied in comparison with the multifilament MF40, which provide a higher surface area and a bundled fiber effect. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed on individual fibers to study fiber strength and failure pattern at three different gage lengths. The interaction of these 2 fibers with cement matrix was studied under varying strain rate, embedded fiber length and matrix mixes by a series of quassi - static fiber pullout tests. Unidirectional filament wound composite laminates were manufactures with the two fibers and only MF40 woven textiles were used to manufacture MF40 textile reinforced composites. The mechanical behavior of polypropylene fiber and textile reinforced cementitious composites subjected to static tensile loading with the effects of fiber type and dosage, textile weave and dosage, matrix formulations, processing techniques etc. is studied. Evolution of distributed cracking mechanism and local strain fields was documented using digital image correlation (DIC) and correlated with the tensile response and stiffness degradation. VIC 3D-7, commercial software developed by Correlated Solutions, Inc. was used to run the DIC analysis for the tensile tests on laminates. The DIC technique was further used for automated determination of crack density, crack spacing, and characterizing damage evolution.

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  • 2017

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Early-age drying and cracking properties of wollastonite-textile reinforced cement paste composites

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The main objective of this study is to investigate drying properties and plastic shrinkage cracking resistance of fresh cement-based pastes reinforced with fibers and textiles. Naturally occurring mineral wollastonite has

The main objective of this study is to investigate drying properties and plastic shrinkage cracking resistance of fresh cement-based pastes reinforced with fibers and textiles. Naturally occurring mineral wollastonite has been studied independently as well as in combination with AR-glass textile. A series of blended mixes with Portland cement and wollastonite nano-fibers were developed and tested under low vacuum conditions to simulate severe evaporation conditions and expedite the drying process causing plastic shrinkage cracks. Cumulative moisture loss, evaporation rates, and diffusivity were analyzed by means of a 2-stage diffusion simulation approach, developed previously in Arizona State University. Effect of fiber-matrix interaction on the transport properties of the composite were evaluated using the existing approach. Morphology of the cracked surface was investigated by the means of image analysis wherein length, width, area and density of the cracks were computed to help characterize the contribution of fiber and textile in the cracking phenomenon. Additionally, correlation between cumulative moisture loss and crack propagation was attempted. The testing procedures and associated analytical methods were applied to evaluate effectiveness of four wollastonite fiber sizes and also a hybrid reinforcement system with alkali-resistant glass (ARG) textile in improving shrinkage cracking related parameters. Furthermore, the experimental and analytical approach was extended to magnified version of the existing shrinkage testing set-up to study the size effect of these composites when subjected to matching drying conditions. Different restraining mechanisms were used to study the simulation of the cracking phenomena on a larger specimen. Paste and mortar formulations were developed to investigate size effect on shrinkage resistance of cementitious composites.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Design procedures for strain hardening cement composites (SHCC) and measurement of their shear properties by mechanical and 2-D digital image correlation (DIC) method

Description

The main objective of this study is to investigate the behaviour and applications of strain hardening cement composites (SHCC). Application of SHCC for use in slabs of common configurations was

The main objective of this study is to investigate the behaviour and applications of strain hardening cement composites (SHCC). Application of SHCC for use in slabs of common configurations was studied and design procedures are prepared by employing yield line theory and integrating it with simplified tri-linear model developed in Arizona State University by Dr. Barzin Mobasher and Dr. Chote Soranakom. Intrinsic material property of moment-curvature response for SHCC was used to derive the relationship between applied load and deflection in a two-step process involving the limit state analysis and kinematically admissible displacements. For application of SHCC in structures such as shear walls, tensile and shear properties are necessary for design. Lot of research has already been done to study the tensile properties and therefore shear property study was undertaken to prepare a design guide. Shear response of textile reinforced concrete was investigated based on picture frame shear test method. The effects of orientation, volume of cement paste per layer, planar cross-section and volume fraction of textiles were investigated. Pultrusion was used for the production of textile reinforced concrete. It is an automated set-up with low equipment cost which provides uniform production and smooth final surface of the TRC. A 3-D optical non-contacting deformation measurement technique of digital image correlation (DIC) was used to conduct the image analysis on the shear samples by means of tracking the displacement field through comparison between the reference image and deformed images. DIC successfully obtained full-field strain distribution, displacement and strain versus time responses, demonstrated the bonding mechanism from perspective of strain field, and gave a relation between shear angle and shear strain.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Numerical simulations of electrically induced chloride ion transport and moisture permeability through cracked concrete

Description

The main objective of this study is to numerically investigate: (i) the ionic transport, especially chloride ion penetration into cementitious materials under imposed electric fields, and (ii) moisture transport through

The main objective of this study is to numerically investigate: (i) the ionic transport, especially chloride ion penetration into cementitious materials under imposed electric fields, and (ii) moisture transport through cracked concretes as a function of the crack geometry. Numerical methods were implemented to simulate the ionic transport process, based on coupling the Nernst-Planck equation and Poisson's equation to account for transport dominated by electromigration. This mathematical model was also modified to account for the chloride binding mechanism (physical and chemical trapping of chlorides by the cement hydrates) and the concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient of each ion in the transport process. To validate the numerical model, experimental data from a companion work was used in this study. The non-steady state migration test, which is one of the common accelerated chloride ion transport test, is numerically simulated. The simulation provides a linear relationship between ionic concentration and ionic flux, which indicates that the diffusion part is negligible under a strong external voltage environment. The numerical models along with adjustments for the concentration-dependent diffusion coefficients, a pore structure factor (from electrical measurements) and chloride binding considerations are found to be successful in predicting the chloride penetration depth into plain and modified concretes under imposed electrical potentials. Moisture transport through cracked concrete was examined in the second part of this thesis. To better understand the crack's influence on the permeability, modified Louis' equation was chosen to relate the permeability with crack characteristics. 3D concrete crack models were developed using a MATLAB program with distinct crack tortuosities, roughnesses and sizes. As a comparison, Navier-Stokes equation and the Lattice Boltzmann method were also applied on the 3D model of the cracked concrete to evaluate their permeability. The methodology developed here is expected to be useful in understanding the influence of cracking on moisture transport, and when properly coupled with an ionic transport model that will be further developed, helps comprehensively understand the coupling effects of moisture and ionic transport on deterioration in concrete structures.

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Date Created
  • 2014