Matching Items (24)

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Efficacy of a Student-Led, Community-Based, Multifactorial Fall Prevention Program: Stay in Balance

Description

Background: Falls are a major public health concern in older adults. Recent fall prevention guidelines recommend the use of multifactorial fall prevention programs (FPPs) that include exercise for community-dwelling older

Background: Falls are a major public health concern in older adults. Recent fall prevention guidelines recommend the use of multifactorial fall prevention programs (FPPs) that include exercise for community-dwelling older adults; however, the availability of sustainable, community-based FPPs is limited.
Methods: We conducted a 24-week quasi-experimental study to evaluate the efficacy of a community-based, multifactorial FPP [Stay in Balance (SIB)] on dynamic and functional balance and muscular strength. The SIB program was delivered by allied health students and included a health education program focused on fall risk factors and a progressive exercise program emphasizing lower-extremity strength and balance. All participants initially received the 12-week SIB program, and participants were non-randomly assigned at baseline to either continue the SIB exercise program at home or as a center-based program for an additional 12 weeks. Adults aged 60 and older (n = 69) who were at-risk of falling (fall history or 2+ fall risk factors) were recruited to participate. Mixed effects repeated measures using Statistical Application Software Proc Mixed were used to examine group, time, and group-by-time effects on dynamic balance (8-Foot Up and Go), functional balance (Berg Balance Scale), and muscular strength (30 s chair stands and 30 s arm curls). Non-normally distributed outcome variables were log-transformed.
Results: After adjusting for age, gender, and body mass index, 8-Foot Up and Go scores, improved significantly over time [F[subscript (2,173)] = 8.92, p = 0.0; T0 − T2 diff = 1.2 (1.0)]. Berg Balance Scores [F[subscript (2,173)] = 29.0, p < 0.0001; T0 − T2 diff = 4.96 (0.72)], chair stands [F[subscript (2,171)] = 10.17, p < 0.0001; T0 − T2 diff = 3.1 (0.7)], and arm curls [F[subscript (2,171)] = 12.7, p < 0.02; T0 − T2 diff = 2.7 (0.6)] also all improved significantly over time. There were no significant group-by-time effects observed for any of the outcomes.
Conclusion: The SIB program improved dynamic and functional balance and muscular strength in older adults at-risk for falling. Our findings indicate continuing home-based strength and balance exercises at home after completion of a center-based FPP program may be an effective and feasible way to maintain improvements in balance and strength parameters.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-02-27

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Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) Improves Mobility in Adults with Down Syndrome

Description

The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on the lower body strength and aerobic capacity in adults with Down syndrome (DS). Six

The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on the lower body strength and aerobic capacity in adults with Down syndrome (DS). Six participants randomly completed one of two exercise interventions: 1) Voluntary Cycling (VC), where participants cycled at their self-selected pedaling rate and 2) Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT), where the participants' voluntary pedaling rates were augmented by 35% with a motor. In each intervention, the participant completed three, 30-minute cycling sessions each week for a total of eight weeks. The Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) was used to evaluate the distance each participant was able to complete in six minutes before and after the intervention. There was a significant increase in the distance and velocity of the participants after the intervention with a greater mean improvement for participants in the ACT group than VC when analyzing total score and t-score. Future research will include a greater sample size and control group to reach significant results as well as try and reveal the mechanisms involved in these physical health improvements found after an acute bout of assisted cycling in adults with DS.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Physical Activity and its Relation to Physical Fitness and Motor Skill Performance in Women Ages 45 - 65 Years

Description

This study examined the relationships between the amount of physical activity engagement and two sets of health-related tests: measures of physical fitness (abdominal curl-ups, push-ups, handgrip strength, hip flexibility, and

This study examined the relationships between the amount of physical activity engagement and two sets of health-related tests: measures of physical fitness (abdominal curl-ups, push-ups, handgrip strength, hip flexibility, and cardiorespiratory fitness) as well as measures of motor skill performance (kicking, throwing, jumping, hopping, running, and standing from a supine position) in mid-life women (ages 45-65). Physical activity engagement was assessed using 7-day accelerometer readings and the Stanford Brief Activity Survey. Motor skill performance was assessed using scores of maximum kicking, throwing, jumping, hopping, and running speeds and maximum jumping distance. Physical fitness was assessed using scores of maximum abdominal curl-ups, push-ups, handgrip strength, hip flexibility, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results suggest that regular participation in moderate lifestyle, walking, and vigorous physical activity are related to better performances in curl-ups, push-ups, cardiorespiratory fitness on a submaximal treadmill test, kicking, throwing, and transitioning from a supine position to standing. These data represent the feasibility of selected motor skills and physical fitness tests for mid-life women and suggest that a relationship may be present between selected motor skills and health-related physical fitness measures and physical activity.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Reallocating bouted sedentary time to non-bouted sedentary time, light activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity in adults with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes

Description

Aim
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential associations of reallocating 30 minutes sedentary time in long bouts (>60 min) to sedentary time in non-bouts, light intensity

Aim
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential associations of reallocating 30 minutes sedentary time in long bouts (>60 min) to sedentary time in non-bouts, light intensity physical activity (LPA) and moderate- to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk factors in a population diagnosed with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes.
Methods
Participants diagnosed with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (n = 124, 50% men, mean [SD] age = 63.8 [7.5] years) were recruited to the physical activity intervention Sophia Step Study. For this study baseline data was used with a cross-sectional design. Time spent in sedentary behaviors in bouts (>60 min) and non-bouts (accrued in <60 min bouts) and physical activity was measured using the ActiGraph GT1M. Associations of reallocating bouted sedentary time to non-bouted sedentary time, LPA and MVPA with cardiometabolic risk factors were examined using an isotemporal substitution framework with linear regression models.
Results
Reallocating 30 minutes sedentary time in bouts to MVPA was associated with lower waist circumference (b = -4.30 95% CI:-7.23, -1.38 cm), lower BMI (b = -1.46 95% CI:-2.60, -0.33 kg/m2) and higher HDL cholesterol levels (b = 0.11 95% CI: 0.02, 0.21 kg/m[superscript 2]. Similar associations were seen for reallocation of sedentary time in non-bouts to MVPA. Reallocating sedentary time in bouts to LPA was associated only with lower waist circumference.
Conclusion
Reallocation of sedentary time in bouts as well as non-bouts to MVPA, but not to LPA, was beneficially associated with waist circumference, BMI and HDL cholesterol in individuals with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. The results of this study confirm the importance of reallocation sedentary time to MVPA.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-07-28

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Physical activity promotion in the primary care setting in pre- and type 2 diabetes - the Sophia step study, an RCT

Description

Background
Physical activity prevents or delays progression of impaired glucose tolerance in high-risk individuals. Physical activity promotion should serve as a basis in diabetes care. It is necessary to develo

Background
Physical activity prevents or delays progression of impaired glucose tolerance in high-risk individuals. Physical activity promotion should serve as a basis in diabetes care. It is necessary to develop and evaluate health-promoting methods that are feasible as well as cost-effective within diabetes care. The aim of Sophia Step Study is to evaluate the impact of a multi-component and a single component physical activity intervention aiming at improving HbA[subscript 1c] (primary outcome) and other metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, physical activity levels and overall health in patients with pre- and type 2 diabetes.
Methods/design
Sophia Step Study is a randomized controlled trial and participants are randomly assigned to either a multi-component intervention group (A), a pedometer group (B) or a control group (C). In total, 310 patients will be included and followed for 24 months. Group A participants are offered pedometers and a website to register steps, physical activity on prescription with yearly follow-ups, motivational interviewing (10 occasions) and group consultations (including walks, 12 occasions). Group B participants are offered pedometers and a website to register steps. Group C are offered usual care. The theoretical framework underpinning the interventions is the Health Belief Model, the Stages of Change Model, and the Social Cognitive Theory. Both the multi-component intervention (group A) and the pedometer intervention (group B) are using several techniques for behavior change such as self-monitoring, goal setting, feedback and relapse prevention.
Measurements are made at week 0, 8, 12, 16, month 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24, including metabolic and cardiovascular biomarkers (HbA[subscript 1c] as primary health outcome), accelerometry and daily steps. Furthermore, questionnaires were used to evaluate dietary intake, physical activity, perceived ability to perform physical activity, perceived support for being active, quality of life, anxiety, depression, well-being, perceived treatment, perceived stress and diabetes self- efficacy.
Discussion
This study will show if a multi-component intervention using pedometers with group- and individual consultations is more effective than a single- component intervention using pedometers alone, in increasing physical activity and improving HbA[subscript 1c], other metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, physical activity levels and overall health in patients with pre- and type 2 diabetes.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-07-12

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“ASUKI Step” Pedometer Intervention in University Staff: Rationale and Design

Description

Background:
We describe the study design and methods used in a 9-month pedometer-based worksite intervention called “ASUKI Step” conducted at the Karolinska Institutet (KI) in Stockholm, Sweden and Arizona State

Background:
We describe the study design and methods used in a 9-month pedometer-based worksite intervention called “ASUKI Step” conducted at the Karolinska Institutet (KI) in Stockholm, Sweden and Arizona State University (ASU) in the greater Phoenix area, Arizona.

Methods/Design:
“ASUKI Step” was based on the theory of social support and a quasi-experimental design was used for evaluation. Participants included 2,118 faculty, staff, and graduate students from ASU (n = 712) and KI (n = 1,406) who participated in teams of 3–4 persons. The intervention required participants to accumulate 10,000 steps each day for six months, with a 3-month follow-up period. Steps were recorded onto a study-specific website. Participants completed a website-delivered questionnaire four times to identify socio-demographic, health, psychosocial and environmental correlates of study participation. One person from each team at each university location was randomly selected to complete physical fitness testing to determine their anthropometric and cardiovascular health and to wear an accelerometer for one week. Study aims were: 1) to have a minimum of 400 employee participants from each university site reach a level of 10, 000 steps per day on at least 100 days (3.5 months) during the trial period; 2) to have 70% of the employee participants from each university site maintain two or fewer inactive days per week, defined as a level of less than 3,000 steps per day; 3) to describe the socio-demographic, psychosocial, environmental and health-related determinants of success in the intervention; and 4) to evaluate the effects of a pedometer-based walking intervention in a university setting on changes in self-perceived health and stress level, sleep patterns, anthropometric measures and fitness. Incentives were given for compliance to the study protocol that included weekly raffles for participation prizes and a grand finale trip to Arizona or Sweden for teams with most days over 10,000 steps.

Discussion:
“ASUKI Step” is designed to increase the number of days employees walk 10,000 steps and to reduce the number of days employees spend being inactive. The study also evaluates the intra- and interpersonal determinants for success in the intervention and in a sub-sample of the study, changes in physical fitness and body composition during the study.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2012-08-15

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Association of objectively measured physical activity with cognitive function in black and white older adults: Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study

Description

Background and purpose: Regular physical activity (PA) provides benefits for cognitive health and helps to improve or maintain quality of life among older adults. Objective PA measures have been increasingly

Background and purpose: Regular physical activity (PA) provides benefits for cognitive health and helps to improve or maintain quality of life among older adults. Objective PA measures have been increasingly used to overcome limitations of self-report measures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of objectively measured PA and sedentary time with cognitive function among older adults.

Methods: Participants were recruited from the parent REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study. ActicalTM accelerometers provided estimates of PA variables, including moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), high light PA (HLPA), low light PA (LLPA) and sedentary time, for 4-7 consecutive days. Prevalence and incidence of cognitive impairment were defined by the Six-Item Screener. Letter fluency, animal fluency, word list learning and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (orientation and recall) were conducted to assess executive function and memory.

Results: Of the 7,339 participants who provided accelerometer wear data > 4 days (70.1 ± 8.6 yr, 54.2% women, 31.7% African American), 320 participants exhibited impaired cognition. In cross-sectional analysis, participants in the highest MVPA% quartile had 39% lower odds of cognitive impairment than those in the lowest quartile (OR: 0.61, 95% C.I.: 0.39-0.95) after full adjustment. Further analysis shows most quartiles of MVPA% and HLPA% were significantly associated with executive function and memory (P<0.01). During 2.7 ± 0.5 years of follow-up, 3,385 participants were included in the longitudinal analysis, with 157 incident cases of cognitive impairment. After adjustments, participants in the highest MVPA% quartile had 51% lower hazards of cognitive impairment (HR: 0.49, 95% C.I.: 0.28-0.86). Additionally, MVPA% was inversely associated with change in memory z-scores (P<0.01), while the highest quartile of HLPA% was inversely associated with change in executive function and memory z-scores (P<0.01).

Conclusion: Higher levels of objectively measured MVPA% were independently associated with lower prevalence and incidence of cognitive impairment, and better memory and executive function in older adults. Higher levels of HLPA% were also independently associated with better memory and executive function. The amount of MVPA associated with lower risk of cognitive impairment (259 min/week) is >70% higher than the minimal amount of MVPA recommended by PA guidelines.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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The differences in correlates of physical activity between a sample of non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites with arthritis

Description

Purpose: To examine: (1) whether Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB) and Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) with diagnosed arthritis differed in self-reported physical activity (PA) levels, (2) if NHB and NHW with arthritis differed

Purpose: To examine: (1) whether Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB) and Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) with diagnosed arthritis differed in self-reported physical activity (PA) levels, (2) if NHB and NHW with arthritis differed on potential correlates of PA based on the Social Ecological Model (Mcleroy et al., 1988), and (3) if PA participation varied by race/ethnicity after controlling for age, gender, education, and BMI. Methods: This study was a secondary data analysis of data collected from 2006-2008 in Chicago, IL as part of the Midwest Roybal Center for Health Promotion. Bivariate analyses were used to assess potential differences between race in meeting either ACR or ACSM PA guidelines. Comparisons by race between potential socio-demographic correlates and meeting physical activity guidelines were assessed using Chi-squares. Potential differences by race in psychosocial, arthritis, and health-related and environmental correlates were assessed using T-tests. Finally, logistic regression analyses were used to examine if race was still associated with PA after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Results: A greater proportion of NHW (68.1% and 35.3%) than NHB (46.5% and 20.9%) met both the arthritis-specific and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommendations for physical activity, respectively. NHB had significantly lower self-efficacy for exercise and reported greater impairments in physical function compared to NHW. Likewise, NHB reported more crime and less aesthetics within their neighborhood. NHW were 2.56 times more likely to meet arthritis-specific PA guidelines than NHB after controlling for age, gender, education, marital status, and BMI. In contrast, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, age and gender were the only significant predictors of meeting ACSM PA guidelines. Discussion: There were significant differences between NHB and NHW individuals with arthritis in meeting PA guidelines. After controlling for age, gender, education, and BMI non-Hispanic White individuals were still significantly more likely to meet PA guidelines. Interventions aimed at promoting higher levels of physical activity among individuals with arthritis need to consider neighborhood aesthetics and crime when designing programs. More arthritis-specific programs are needed in close proximity to neighborhoods in an effort to promote physical activity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Implementing the Exercise is MedicineTM solution: a process evaluation conducted in a university-based healthcare system

Description

Background: Exercise is Medicine (EIM) is a health promotion strategy for addressing physical inactivity in healthcare. However, it is unknown how to successfully implement the processes.

Purpose: The purpose of

Background: Exercise is Medicine (EIM) is a health promotion strategy for addressing physical inactivity in healthcare. However, it is unknown how to successfully implement the processes.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to understand how implementing EIM influenced provider behaviors in a university-based healthcare system, using a process evaluation.

Methods: A multiple baseline, time series design was used. Providers were allocated to three groups. Group 1 (n=11) was exposed to an electronic medical record (EMR) systems change, EIM-related resources, and EIM training session. Group 2 (n=5) received the EMR change and resources but no training. Group 3 (n=6) was only exposed to the systems change. The study was conducted across three phases. Outcomes included asking about patient physical activity (PA) as a vital sign (PAVS), prescribing PA (ExRx), and providing PA resources or referrals. Patient surveys and EMR data were examined. Time series analysis, chi-square, and logistic regression were used.

Results: Patient survey data revealed the systems change increased patient reports of being asked about PA, χ2(4) = 95.47, p < .001 for all groups. There was a significant effect of training and resource dissemination on patients receiving PA advice, χ2(4) = 36.25, p < .001. Patients receiving PA advice was greater during phase 2 (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.0-11.0) and phase 3 (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.2-7.4). Increases were also observed in EMR data for PAVS, χ2(2) = 29.27, p <. 001 during implementation for all groups. Increases in PA advice χ2(2) = 140.90, p < .001 occurred among trained providers only. No statistically significant change was observed for ExRx, PA resources or PA referrals. However, visual analysis showed an upwards trend among trained providers.

Conclusions: An EMR systems change is effective for increasing the collection of the PAVS. Training and resources may influence provider behavior but training alone increased provider documentation. The low levels of documented outcomes for PA advice, ExRx, resources, or referrals may be due to the limitations of the EMR system. This approach was effective for examining the EIM Solution and scaled-up, longer trials may yield more robust results.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Novel approaches to increasing stair use in a university population

Description

Research indicates that adults are not acquiring enough physical activity. Increasing the use of stairs is an accessible way to weave high intensity physical activity into the daily routine. The

Research indicates that adults are not acquiring enough physical activity. Increasing the use of stairs is an accessible way to weave high intensity physical activity into the daily routine. The purpose of this study is to test the effect of four environmental changes on ascending stair use in a mixed population of college students, faulty, and staff on a southwest college campus. The study design included a 10-week time series design with alternating baseline and intervention phases, including a directional cue represented by footprints on the ground, a positive prompt, a deterrent prompt and a combination phase. Data was collected with both an in-person tally and a video recording device. The study included 6,140 observations and coded variables included stair use, sex, number of bags carried, temperature, and volume. Rater reliability ranged from .81 to 1.0. Multivariate logistic regression was used to perform the statistic analysis. Stair use increased significantly from Washout 1 and the positive prompting phase with a 7% absolute increase and an odds ratio of 1.35 (95% CI 1.080-1.696). Stair use during the footprint phase, deterrent phase and combination phase did not increase significantly compared to the previous baseline or washout phases. Day of the week (Monday=reference, Tuesday CI=1.626, 95% CI 1.298-2.011, Wednesday OR=0.457, 95% CI 0.248-0.841, Thursday OR=1.434, 95% CI 1.164-1.766), sex (OR=1.376, 95% CI 1.173-1.613) and volume (OR=1.007, 95% CI 1.005-1.008) were significantly correlated to stair use. Women used the stairs more than men and higher volume situations were related to increased stair use. Temperature and baggage number were not related to stair use. The results of this study indicate that positive prompting with an environmental message theme is an effective method to increase stair use in a university setting.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015