Matching Items (22)

128596-Thumbnail Image.png

Efficacy of a Student-Led, Community-Based, Multifactorial Fall Prevention Program: Stay in Balance

Description

Background: Falls are a major public health concern in older adults. Recent fall prevention guidelines recommend the use of multifactorial fall prevention programs (FPPs) that include exercise for community-dwelling older

Background: Falls are a major public health concern in older adults. Recent fall prevention guidelines recommend the use of multifactorial fall prevention programs (FPPs) that include exercise for community-dwelling older adults; however, the availability of sustainable, community-based FPPs is limited.
Methods: We conducted a 24-week quasi-experimental study to evaluate the efficacy of a community-based, multifactorial FPP [Stay in Balance (SIB)] on dynamic and functional balance and muscular strength. The SIB program was delivered by allied health students and included a health education program focused on fall risk factors and a progressive exercise program emphasizing lower-extremity strength and balance. All participants initially received the 12-week SIB program, and participants were non-randomly assigned at baseline to either continue the SIB exercise program at home or as a center-based program for an additional 12 weeks. Adults aged 60 and older (n = 69) who were at-risk of falling (fall history or 2+ fall risk factors) were recruited to participate. Mixed effects repeated measures using Statistical Application Software Proc Mixed were used to examine group, time, and group-by-time effects on dynamic balance (8-Foot Up and Go), functional balance (Berg Balance Scale), and muscular strength (30 s chair stands and 30 s arm curls). Non-normally distributed outcome variables were log-transformed.
Results: After adjusting for age, gender, and body mass index, 8-Foot Up and Go scores, improved significantly over time [F[subscript (2,173)] = 8.92, p = 0.0; T0 − T2 diff = 1.2 (1.0)]. Berg Balance Scores [F[subscript (2,173)] = 29.0, p < 0.0001; T0 − T2 diff = 4.96 (0.72)], chair stands [F[subscript (2,171)] = 10.17, p < 0.0001; T0 − T2 diff = 3.1 (0.7)], and arm curls [F[subscript (2,171)] = 12.7, p < 0.02; T0 − T2 diff = 2.7 (0.6)] also all improved significantly over time. There were no significant group-by-time effects observed for any of the outcomes.
Conclusion: The SIB program improved dynamic and functional balance and muscular strength in older adults at-risk for falling. Our findings indicate continuing home-based strength and balance exercises at home after completion of a center-based FPP program may be an effective and feasible way to maintain improvements in balance and strength parameters.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-02-27

135862-Thumbnail Image.png

Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) Improves Mobility in Adults with Down Syndrome

Description

The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on the lower body strength and aerobic capacity in adults with Down syndrome (DS). Six

The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on the lower body strength and aerobic capacity in adults with Down syndrome (DS). Six participants randomly completed one of two exercise interventions: 1) Voluntary Cycling (VC), where participants cycled at their self-selected pedaling rate and 2) Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT), where the participants' voluntary pedaling rates were augmented by 35% with a motor. In each intervention, the participant completed three, 30-minute cycling sessions each week for a total of eight weeks. The Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) was used to evaluate the distance each participant was able to complete in six minutes before and after the intervention. There was a significant increase in the distance and velocity of the participants after the intervention with a greater mean improvement for participants in the ACT group than VC when analyzing total score and t-score. Future research will include a greater sample size and control group to reach significant results as well as try and reveal the mechanisms involved in these physical health improvements found after an acute bout of assisted cycling in adults with DS.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12

137681-Thumbnail Image.png

Physical Activity and its Relation to Physical Fitness and Motor Skill Performance in Women Ages 45 - 65 Years

Description

This study examined the relationships between the amount of physical activity engagement and two sets of health-related tests: measures of physical fitness (abdominal curl-ups, push-ups, handgrip strength, hip flexibility, and

This study examined the relationships between the amount of physical activity engagement and two sets of health-related tests: measures of physical fitness (abdominal curl-ups, push-ups, handgrip strength, hip flexibility, and cardiorespiratory fitness) as well as measures of motor skill performance (kicking, throwing, jumping, hopping, running, and standing from a supine position) in mid-life women (ages 45-65). Physical activity engagement was assessed using 7-day accelerometer readings and the Stanford Brief Activity Survey. Motor skill performance was assessed using scores of maximum kicking, throwing, jumping, hopping, and running speeds and maximum jumping distance. Physical fitness was assessed using scores of maximum abdominal curl-ups, push-ups, handgrip strength, hip flexibility, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results suggest that regular participation in moderate lifestyle, walking, and vigorous physical activity are related to better performances in curl-ups, push-ups, cardiorespiratory fitness on a submaximal treadmill test, kicking, throwing, and transitioning from a supine position to standing. These data represent the feasibility of selected motor skills and physical fitness tests for mid-life women and suggest that a relationship may be present between selected motor skills and health-related physical fitness measures and physical activity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

130371-Thumbnail Image.png

“ASUKI Step” Pedometer Intervention in University Staff: Rationale and Design

Description

Background:
We describe the study design and methods used in a 9-month pedometer-based worksite intervention called “ASUKI Step” conducted at the Karolinska Institutet (KI) in Stockholm, Sweden and Arizona State

Background:
We describe the study design and methods used in a 9-month pedometer-based worksite intervention called “ASUKI Step” conducted at the Karolinska Institutet (KI) in Stockholm, Sweden and Arizona State University (ASU) in the greater Phoenix area, Arizona.

Methods/Design:
“ASUKI Step” was based on the theory of social support and a quasi-experimental design was used for evaluation. Participants included 2,118 faculty, staff, and graduate students from ASU (n = 712) and KI (n = 1,406) who participated in teams of 3–4 persons. The intervention required participants to accumulate 10,000 steps each day for six months, with a 3-month follow-up period. Steps were recorded onto a study-specific website. Participants completed a website-delivered questionnaire four times to identify socio-demographic, health, psychosocial and environmental correlates of study participation. One person from each team at each university location was randomly selected to complete physical fitness testing to determine their anthropometric and cardiovascular health and to wear an accelerometer for one week. Study aims were: 1) to have a minimum of 400 employee participants from each university site reach a level of 10, 000 steps per day on at least 100 days (3.5 months) during the trial period; 2) to have 70% of the employee participants from each university site maintain two or fewer inactive days per week, defined as a level of less than 3,000 steps per day; 3) to describe the socio-demographic, psychosocial, environmental and health-related determinants of success in the intervention; and 4) to evaluate the effects of a pedometer-based walking intervention in a university setting on changes in self-perceived health and stress level, sleep patterns, anthropometric measures and fitness. Incentives were given for compliance to the study protocol that included weekly raffles for participation prizes and a grand finale trip to Arizona or Sweden for teams with most days over 10,000 steps.

Discussion:
“ASUKI Step” is designed to increase the number of days employees walk 10,000 steps and to reduce the number of days employees spend being inactive. The study also evaluates the intra- and interpersonal determinants for success in the intervention and in a sub-sample of the study, changes in physical fitness and body composition during the study.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2012-08-15

151886-Thumbnail Image.png

Associations among self-compassion, stress, and eating behavior in college freshmen

Description

In the past decade, research has demonstrated the relationship between higher levels of self-compassion and lower levels of negative psychological outcomes. More recently, the concept of self-compassion has been explored

In the past decade, research has demonstrated the relationship between higher levels of self-compassion and lower levels of negative psychological outcomes. More recently, the concept of self-compassion has been explored within the context of various health behaviors. Very few studies have investigated the potential relationship between self-compassion and eating behaviors. Based on literature and the established relationship between negative self-evaluation and abnormal eating behaviors/eating disorders, the current study sought to examine correlations between self-compassion, eating behaviors, and stress in first time college freshmen. The study population consisted of 1478 participants; ages 18-22 years; females = 936 (63%), males = 541 (37%). Participants self-reported measures of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), and the Self Compassion Scale (SCS). PSS score, the overall score and individual subscale scores of SCS, and the three subscale scores of the TFEQ (restraint, disinhibiton, hunger) were examined with Pearson correlations. Results of this study indicate significant (p = < .05) differences between males and females in PSS and all three negative SCS subscales. There was a strong and consistent correlation between the eating behavior of disinhibition and all three negative constructs of self-compassion (self-judgment, r = .29; isolation, r = .23; over-identification, r = .28) in females. The eating behavior of restraint was similarly correlated with SCS self-judgment in females (r = .26). More research is needed to understand differences in stress, self-compassion, and eating behaviors between males and females and to better comprehend the weak associations between eating behaviors and the positive psychological constructs of self-compassion (self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness) for males and females. Additionally, future research should focus on the three subscales of disinhibition as they relate to the negative constructs of self-compassion. The preliminary results of this study suggest it would be beneficial, particularly to female college freshmen, to more fully understand the dynamics of the relationship between eating behaviors and self-compassion; this knowledge may help to better structure appropriate coping strategies for the prevention of disordered eating behaviors.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

149300-Thumbnail Image.png

An ecological approach to investigating the influences of obesity

Description

"Globesity," as defined by the World Health Organization, describes obesity as a pandemic affecting at least 400 million people worldwide. The prevalence of obesity is higher among women than men;

"Globesity," as defined by the World Health Organization, describes obesity as a pandemic affecting at least 400 million people worldwide. The prevalence of obesity is higher among women than men; and in non-Hispanic black and Hispanic populations. Obesity has been significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality, and mortality from cardiovascular disease, obesity-related cancers, diabetes and kidney disease. Current strategies to curb obesity rates often use an ecological approach, suggesting three main factors: biological, behavioral, and environmental. This approach was used to develop four studies of obesity. The first study assessed dietary quality, using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005, among premenopausal Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women, and found that Hispanic women had lower total HEI-2005 scores, and lower scores for total vegetables, dark green and orange vegetables and legumes, and sodium. Markers of obesity were negatively correlated with total HEI-2005 scores. The second study examined the relationship between reported screen time and markers of obesity among premenopausal women and found that total screen time, TV, and computer use were positively associated with markers of obesity. Waist/height ratio, fat mass index, and leptin concentrations were significantly lower among those who reported the lowest screen time versus the moderate and high screen time categories. The third study examined the relationship between screen time and dietary intake and found no significant differences in absolute dietary intake by screen time category. The fourth study was designed to test a brief face-to-face healthy shopping intervention to determine whether food purchases of participants who received the intervention differed from those in the control group; and whether purchases differed by socioeconomic position. Participants in the intervention group purchased more servings of fruit when compared to the control group. High-income participants purchased more servings of dark green/deep yellow vegetables compared to those in the low-income group. Among those who received the intervention, low-income participants purchased foods of lower energy density, and middle-income participants purchased food of higher fat density. The findings of these studies support policy changes to address increasing access and availability of fruits and vegetables, and support guidelines to limit screen time among adults.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010

152558-Thumbnail Image.png

Effect of a Wii Fit® intervention on balance, muscular fitness, and bone health in middle-aged women

Description

Sustaining a fall can be hazardous for those with low bone mass. Interventions exist to reduce fall-risk, but may not retain long-term interest. "Exergaming" has become popular in older adults

Sustaining a fall can be hazardous for those with low bone mass. Interventions exist to reduce fall-risk, but may not retain long-term interest. "Exergaming" has become popular in older adults as a therapy, but no research has been done on its preventative ability in non-clinical populations. The purpose was to determine the impact of 12-weeks of interactive play with the Wii Fit® on balance, muscular fitness, and bone health in peri- menopausal women. METHODS: 24 peri-menopausal-women were randomized into study groups. Balance was assessed using the Berg/FICSIT-4 and a force plate. Muscular strength was measured using the isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/180°/240°/sec and endurance was assessed using 50 repetitions at 240°/sec. Bone health was tracked using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the hip/lumbar spine and qualitative ultrasound (QUS) of the heel. Serum osteocalcin was assessed by enzyme immunoassay. Physical activity was quantified using the Women's Health Initiative Physical Activity Questionnaire and dietary patterns were measured using the Nurses' Health Food Frequency Questionnaire. All measures were repeated at weeks 6 and 12, except for the DXA, which was completed pre-post. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in diet and PA between groups. Wii Fit® training did not improve scores on the Berg/FICSIT-4, but improved center of pressure on the force plate for Tandem Step, Eyes Closed (p-values: 0.001-0.051). There were no significant improvements for muscular fitness at any of the angular velocities. DXA BMD of the left femoral neck improved in the intervention group (+1.15%) and decreased in the control (-1.13%), but no other sites had significant changes. Osteocalcin indicated no differences in bone turnover between groups at baseline, but the intervention group showed increased bone turnover between weeks 6 and 12. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that WiiFit® training may improve balance by preserving center of pressure. QUS, DXA and osteocalcin data confirm that those in the intervention group were experiencing more bone turnover and bone formation than the control group. In summary, twelve weeks of strength /balance training with the Wii Fit® shows promise as a preventative intervention to reduce fall and fracture risk in non-clinical middle aged women who are at risk.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

149593-Thumbnail Image.png

Physical activity counseling knowledge, attitudes, and practices among nurse practitioners and physician assistants

Description

Health care providers (HCPs) are an important source of physical activity (PA) information. Two studies were conducted to qualitatively and quantitatively examine nurse practitioners'(NPs) and physician assistants' current PA counseling

Health care providers (HCPs) are an important source of physical activity (PA) information. Two studies were conducted to qualitatively and quantitatively examine nurse practitioners'(NPs) and physician assistants' current PA counseling practices, knowledge and confidence to provide PA counseling and providers' perceptions about their current PA counseling practices. The specific aims for these two studies included quantitatively and qualitatively identifying the prevalence of PA counseling, perceived counseling knowledge and confidence, and educational training related to counseling. In study 1, survey respondents were currently practicing NPs and physician assistants. Participants completed a modified version of the Promotion of Physical Activity by Nurse Practitioners Questionnaire either online or in person during a population specific conference. The majority of both NP and physician assistant respondents reported routinely counseling patients about PA. There were no differences in perceived knowledge or confidence to provide PA counseling between the two populations. Approximately half of all respondents reported receiving training to provide PA counseling as part of their educational preparation for becoming a health practitioner. Nearly three-quarters of respondents reported interest in receiving additional PA counseling training. In study 2, five focus groups (FGs), stratified by practice type, were conducted with NPs and physician assistants. Both NPs and physician assistants reported discussing PA with their patients, particularly those with chronic illness. Participants reported that discussing lifestyle modifications with patients was the most common type of PA counseling provided. Increased confidence to counsel was associated with having PA knowledge and providing simple counseling, such as lifestyle modifications. Barriers to counseling included having more important things to discuss, lack of time during appointments, the current healthcare system, lack of reimbursement and perceived patient financial barriers. PA recommendation knowledge was highly variable, with few participants reporting specific guidelines. FG participants, while not familiar with the American College of Sports Medicines' "Exercise is Medicine" initiative indicated interest in its use and learning more about it. The findings of these two studies indicate that while NPs and physician assistants are knowledgeable, confident and currently providing some amount of PA counseling to patients, additional training in PA counseling is needed and desired.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

149587-Thumbnail Image.png

Application of methods in physical activity measurement

Description

It is broadly accepted that physical activity provides substantial health benefits. Despite strong evidence, approximately 60% to 95% of US adults are insufficiently active to obtain these health benefits. This

It is broadly accepted that physical activity provides substantial health benefits. Despite strong evidence, approximately 60% to 95% of US adults are insufficiently active to obtain these health benefits. This dissertation explored five projects that examined the measurement properties and methodology for a variety of physical activity assessment methods. Project one identified validity evidence for the new MyWellness Key accelerometer in sixteen adults. The MyWellness Key demonstrated acceptable validity evidence when compared to a criterion accelerometer during graded treadmill walking and in free-living settings. This supports the use of the MyWellness Key accelerometer to measure physical activity. Project two evaluated validity (study 1) and test-retest reliability evidence (study 2) of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a two part study. The GPAQ was compared to direct and indirect criterion measures including object and subjective physical activity instruments. These data provided preliminary validity and reliability evidence for the GPAQ that support its use to assess physical activity. Project three investigated the optimal h.d-1 of accelerometer wear time needed to assess daily physical activity. Using a semi-simulation approach, data from 124 participants were used to compare 10-13 h.d-1 to the criterion 14 h.d-1. This study suggested that a minimum accelerometer wear time of 13 h.d-1 is needed to provide a valid measure of daily physical activity. Project four evaluated validity and reliability evidence of a novel method (Movement and Activity in Physical Space [MAPS] score) that combines accelerometer and GPS data to assess person-environment interactions. Seventy-five healthy adults wore an accelerometer and GPS receiver for three days to provide MAPS scores. This study provided evidence for use of a MAPS score for future research and clinical use. Project five used accelerometer data from 1,000 participants from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Study. A semi-simulation approach was used to assess the effect of accelerometer wear time (10-14 h.d-1) on physical activity data. These data showed wearing for 12 h.d-1 or less may underestimate time spent in various intensities of physical activity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

156348-Thumbnail Image.png

An investigation of the relationship between education, credentials and knowledge of personal trainers and client retention

Description

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was two-fold. In Specific Aim One, we examined the associations between education level, personal trainer credentials and characteristics, and knowledge of exercise science and personal

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was two-fold. In Specific Aim One, we examined the associations between education level, personal trainer credentials and characteristics, and knowledge of exercise science and personal training principles. In Specific Aim Two we examined associations between education, personal trainer credentials and knowledge of personal trainers with client retention. This study utilized a cross-sectional research design. An anonymous electronic survey was used to collect the data. Eligible participants (N=226) were individuals who were providing one-on-one personal training services for at least one client. All data were assessed for normality prior to data analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate sample characteristics. Mean and standard deviations, median and interquartile range [IQR] or frequency and percentages were reported for the sample characteristics. Bivariate associations were examined with dependent t-tests and one-way ANOVAs for normally distributed data. Mann- Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for non-normally distributed variables. The median knowledge score for the sample was 6.0 [3.00] points, out of a possible 24, with 92.5% of the sample scoring 10 or lower. Sex (Male/Female), education level, having a degree in the field, certification status (yes
o) and number of certifications were not associated with knowledge scores (p > 0.05). Years of experience in personal training was positively associated with mean knowledge scores (H(3) = 9.280, p = 0.026). Sex of the personal trainer, having a degree in the field (yes
o), the number of personal trainer certifications, the cost of training, the type of facility, the type of employment of the personal trainer and knowledge scores were not associated with client retention (p > 0.05). Education level (F3,87 = 8.176, p < 0.001), personal training certification (yes
o) (t38 = 2.277, p = 0.029), years of experience (F3, 87 = 3.169, p = 0.028), facility size (F4,84 = 8.049, p < 0.001), and exercise science degree type (F3,48 = 6.008, p = 0.001) were all associated with client retention. This study provides insight on knowledge retention of active personal trainers on subject matter deemed foundational by four certifying organizations. The findings should influence both the preparatory learning and well as continuing education approaches of both certifying organizations and institutions of higher learning.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018