Matching Items (3)

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Serial crystallography at synchrotrons and X-ray lasers

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Recently we have seen rapid progress in the serial crystallography (SC) method at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). Injection of thousands of protein microcrystals into the ∼10[superscript 12] photons of few-femtosecond

Recently we have seen rapid progress in the serial crystallography (SC) method at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). Injection of thousands of protein microcrystals into the ∼10[superscript 12] photons of few-femtosecond XFEL pulses has allowed the structure determination of crystals grown in vivo, or of submicron size, and from challenging targets such as membrane proteins. For time-resolved studies, the small crystal size allows for rapid diffusive saturation in mix-and-inject analysis of biochemical reactions, and full optical saturation of the sample by a pump laser in studies of light-driven proteins. The ability to outrun most radiation damage avoids the need for sample cooling and its artifacts, allowing studies of molecular machines at work in their correct room-temperature thermal bath or a controlled chemical environment.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-03

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Lipidic cubic phase injector is a viable crystal delivery system for time-resolved serial crystallography

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Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron laser sources is an emerging method with considerable potential for time-resolved pump-probe experiments. Here we present a lipidic cubic phase SFX structure of

Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron laser sources is an emerging method with considerable potential for time-resolved pump-probe experiments. Here we present a lipidic cubic phase SFX structure of the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR) to 2.3 Å resolution and a method to investigate protein dynamics with modest sample requirement. Time-resolved SFX (TR-SFX) with a pump-probe delay of 1 ms yields difference Fourier maps compatible with the dark to M state transition of bR. Importantly, the method is very sample efficient and reduces sample consumption to about 1 mg per collected time point. Accumulation of M intermediate within the crystal lattice is confirmed by time-resolved visible absorption spectroscopy. This study provides an important step towards characterizing the complete photocycle dynamics of retinal proteins and demonstrates the feasibility of a sample efficient viscous medium jet for TR-SFX.

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Date Created
  • 2016-08-22

Serial Time-Resolved Crystallography of Photosystem II Using a Femtosecond X-Ray Laser

Description

Photosynthesis, a process catalysed by plants, algae and cyanobacteria converts sunlight to energy thus sustaining all higher life on Earth. Two large membrane protein complexes, photosystem I and II (PSI

Photosynthesis, a process catalysed by plants, algae and cyanobacteria converts sunlight to energy thus sustaining all higher life on Earth. Two large membrane protein complexes, photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII), act in series to catalyse the light-driven reactions in photosynthesis. PSII catalyses the light-driven water splitting process, which maintains the Earth’s oxygenic atmosphere. In this process, the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII cycles through five states, S0 to S4, in which four electrons are sequentially extracted from the OEC in four light-driven charge-separation events. Here we describe time resolved experiments on PSII nano/microcrystals from Thermosynechococcus elongatus performed with the recently developed technique of serial femtosecond crystallography. Structures have been determined from PSII in the dark S1 state and after double laser excitation (putative S3 state) at 5 and 5.5 Å resolution, respectively. The results provide evidence that PSII undergoes significant conformational changes at the electron acceptor side and at the Mn4CaO5 core of the OEC. These include an elongation of the metal cluster, accompanied by changes in the protein environment, which could allow for binding of the second substrate water molecule between the more distant protruding Mn (referred to as the ‘dangler’ Mn) and the Mn3CaOx cubane in the S2 to S3 transition, as predicted by spectroscopic and computational studies. This work shows the great potential for time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography for investigation of catalytic processes in biomolecules.

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Date Created
  • 2014-09-11