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A Thematic Analysis of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi

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The Mabinogion is a collection of ancient tales compiled by medieval Welsh authors between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries. These legends are written in Middle Welsh and are preserved in two medieval manuscripts, the Llyfr Gwyn Rhydderch (the White Book

The Mabinogion is a collection of ancient tales compiled by medieval Welsh authors between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries. These legends are written in Middle Welsh and are preserved in two medieval manuscripts, the Llyfr Gwyn Rhydderch (the White Book of Rhydderch) and the Llyfr Goch Hergest (the Red Book of Hergest), each appropriately named for the color of its cover. The stories contained in The Mabinogion stem from the much more ancient oral tradition of the Celtic people, who relied on their priestly caste of Druids for their cultural memory. Since the Celts essentially did not have a written language, the Druids served as healers, scholars, and most notably for the purpose of this thesis, as bards. The importance of the storyteller was immeasurably important in ancient culture, and the legends which comprise The Mabinogion have contributed markedly to the ancient folkloric themes of the Celts as well as some of the earliest mythological lore of Great Britain. This thesis seeks to explore The Mabinogion, more specifically the Four Branches of the Mabinogi, and how these legends reflect the Celtic themes of honor, magic and the supernatural, and morality as evidenced by the medieval scribe's preservation of oral tradition and lore.

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2017-05

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The Challenges of Telemedicine and Pathways to Success

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Telemedicine is a multipurpose tool that allows medical professionals to use technology as a means to evaluate, diagnose, and treat patients remotely. This paper focuses on the challenges that developing telemedicine programs face, specifically discussing target population, user experience, and

Telemedicine is a multipurpose tool that allows medical professionals to use technology as a means to evaluate, diagnose, and treat patients remotely. This paper focuses on the challenges that developing telemedicine programs face, specifically discussing target population, user experience, and physician adoption. Various users of telemedicine share their experiences overcoming such challenges with the greater goal of this paper being to facilitate the growth of telemedicine programs.

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2016-12

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Dogs and Cognitive Dysfunction

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Alzheimer's disease affects a large number of Americans every year, and research on the causes and possible prevention continues to increase. Alzheimer's disease is a form of dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking, and behavior and is thought to

Alzheimer's disease affects a large number of Americans every year, and research on the causes and possible prevention continues to increase. Alzheimer's disease is a form of dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking, and behavior and is thought to be caused by beta-amyloid plaques that form in the brain. In recent years, dogs have been used more and more as an animal model looking at Alzheimer's disease and cognitive dysfunction. Dogs serve as a reliable animal model because effected dogs naturally form the same beta-amyloid plaques that affected humans do as they age. Previous research has shown that older dogs perform worse on various memory tasks than do younger dogs, however researchers have struggled to find a test for dog cognitive dysfunction that is brief and can be performed in the home. The current study aimed to find a brief memory task that requires few materials, but is still reliable. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that older dogs would perform worse than younger dogs if tested to find a treat with varying time delays of 15, 30, and 45 seconds. The results of this experiment showed a main effect of age (F = 8.40, d.f. 1, 19, p < 0.01) and delay (F = 15.14, d.f. 2, 30, p < 0.01), but age-delay interaction was not significant (F = 2.53, d.f. 2, 30, p = 0.09). Future studies should be performed using a larger sample size and this same protocol to attempt to raise the participation level of the dogs.

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2016-12

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Alone and Everywhere: Influences on Pamela Colman Smith in her Illustrations of the Rider-Waite Tarot Deck

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The Rider-Waite Tarot deck is arguably the most popular divinatory Tarot deck in use today. This is the deck most new readers learn with, myself included. I began reading the Tarot in late 2015 in an academic setting. I learned

The Rider-Waite Tarot deck is arguably the most popular divinatory Tarot deck in use today. This is the deck most new readers learn with, myself included. I began reading the Tarot in late 2015 in an academic setting. I learned on the Rider-Waite deck and have yet to find another deck I would rather read with. The artwork by Pamela Colman Smith is both simple and complex, continuously revealing deeper meanings the more I study it. This is why I decided to research Smith and uncover what influenced her when illustrating these cards. Every image is picked with a purpose, some more obscure than others, especially to someone not well versed in mystic beliefs and history. I was not knowledgeable in any occult beliefs or teachings when I first saw the deck, aside from some Greek imagery. Details such as the T.A.R.O. on the Wheel of Fortune card or the Egyptian creatures on the World card made no sense to me. At first I thought they had little meaning beyond a creative flair by the artist. But these minute details reveal the ties her cards have to world history and the mystic universe. Pamela Colman Smith was a well-known and esteemed artist in the early nineteen-hundreds. However, she is hardly seen or recognized in modern texts. Her biggest legacy, the Rider-Waite Tarot deck hardly gives her any credit. The only evidence of Smith's work is her initials in the bottom right corner of every card. This makes Pamela Colman Smith quite the mysterious woman. Even in life, her colleagues found her an enigma, or a mystic pixie. She worked sporadically, with paints littered about her apartment. Smith was chosen by Waite to work on his new Tarot deck mostly because she was in the right place at the right time. She was a good artist, but not actively sought after for big projects like this. What impacted Smith in illustrating the Rider-Waite deck? Pamela Colman Smith was influenced by her personal art style/life, the Tarot's history, the teachings of the Golden Dawn, and important people in her life when illustrating the Rider-Waite Tarot deck.

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2017-05

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Erasing the Stigma Around Seeking Mental Help- Creating a Digital Campaign

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This honors thesis project provides analysis on the barriers to treatment seeking regarding mental health. Research on treatment seeking barriers was done, and then used to create a digital campaign that was run via organic sharing and a boosted Facebook

This honors thesis project provides analysis on the barriers to treatment seeking regarding mental health. Research on treatment seeking barriers was done, and then used to create a digital campaign that was run via organic sharing and a boosted Facebook post using custom audiences. The research begins to examine the relationships between stigma and help-seeking regarding mental health. The leading barriers for seeking mental health treatment include both social and self stigma. Social stigma involves fearing judgment from others regarding mental health, and self stigma involves people's negative judgments about having mental health issues themselves. There is a negative cycle between self and social stigma as people's self perceptions often reflect into society, and society's general opinions often influence people's perceptions of themselves. In order to decrease mental health stigma efforts must be made to erase both self and social stigma. Research on consumer psychology showed the effectiveness of targeting people's need for belonging. In order to target people's need for belonging the campaign was designed to show mental health issues as a commonality between people that can be solved, rather than as a negative discrepancy. Research into digital marketing trends showed Facebook as one of the most powerful platforms for reach and audience targeting, so it was chosen as the ideal platform for this campaign. The analysis of barriers to treatment seeking, consumer psychology, and digital marketing culminated in the digital campaign, "Just because you can't see it...doesn't mean it's not there," promoting mental health awareness, which ran for 5 days reaching 9,874 people and getting 5,117 views.

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2017-05

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The Epidemiology of Female Hysteria and Its Modern Implications

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This paper analyzes the epidemiology of the disease 'hysteria', once thought to be a uniquely female disorder affecting a woman's physical and mental states. As early as Ancient Egypt, a woman's reproductive system was a topic of pointed interest, later

This paper analyzes the epidemiology of the disease 'hysteria', once thought to be a uniquely female disorder affecting a woman's physical and mental states. As early as Ancient Egypt, a woman's reproductive system was a topic of pointed interest, later leading to conclusions on how the womb may 'wander' and how the mental state of any woman with hysteria must be treated with care. The progression of its diagnosis builds upon collective opinion, culminating in modern stigmas and stereotypes. I will define the parameters that transformed female hysteria from Ancient Egyptian gynecology to the modern day taboos of female sexuality, all through the lens that a woman's biology is radically different and perhaps inferior to that of a man's. I will trace this tragic domino effect within Ancient Egyptian and Greek societies, introduce the sway of Christianity during the Middle Ages, extrapolate on the social expectations of the Victorian Era, and finally culminate with the lasting effects that this classification of hysteria had on both 20th and 21st century women. I will then include a discussion on how, due to historical assurances of the fragility of a woman, there is now an implicit assumption that women are subject to being overwhelmed by their emotions more so than men. I will mention social studies which analyze gender norms in modern Western society to provide context for the apparent struggles of women attempting to break glass ceilings in politics, science, the arts, literature, and the military and frequently failing due to the expectations of their sex. Following this, I will speak on how derogatory speech directed at women, through interpersonal communication and mass media, conditions future generations to generalize women as being nothing more than an inherently "delicate sex". I will then speak on an implicit association survey that I created and distributed to my peers to measure whether or not there is still a strong association between women and immaturity, childishness, and an emotionally unpredictable pattern of behavior. The stereotypic labeling of women as suffering from hysteria, or any offshoot of insanity, has stained the manner by which women as a sex are appraised. Consequently, it has forged a defensive need to "prove" self-worth in almost all professional arenas if women are to be taken seriously in male dominated fields. I believe that the classification and influence of hysteria played a critical role in shaping modern gender bias and normalizing demeaning treatment of women due to their allegedly inherent female traits. I will conclude through highlighting the efforts of female activist groups and the surge of women's marches in the fall of 2016 and early 2017. The response demanded by women's marches today preaches equality of the sexes and a chance to right the wrongs of their hysterical history.

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2016-12

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I Can't Handle Our Stress: "" Associations between Emotion Dysregulation and Couples' Experiences of Internal Stress from an Observational Study

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Prior research has found an association between individual's resports of emotion dysregulation and experiences of stress; however, little work has been done to examine these constructs in the context of romantic relationships. To address this gap in the literature, the

Prior research has found an association between individual's resports of emotion dysregulation and experiences of stress; however, little work has been done to examine these constructs in the context of romantic relationships. To address this gap in the literature, the present study investigated the proposed association between individual reports of emotion dysregulation and experiences of internal stress. Additionally, data taken from couples' real-time conversations examined how reports of emotion dysregulation were associated with feelings about one's partner following an internal stress conversation. Data from 44 heterosexual romantic couples was used at two time points, baseline and momentary interaction data. Results did not show support for an association between emotion dysregulation and internal stress, however some support was found for an association between emotion dysregulation and negative feelings felt due to one's partner after a stressful conversation. Implications for future research are discussed.

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2018-05

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Neuroinflammation Following Experimental Diffuse Brain Injury in Pre-pubertal and Peri-pubertal Rats

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Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and adolescents. Adolescence is a critical time in development where the body and brain undergoes puberty, which not only includes reproductive maturation, but also adult social and

Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and adolescents. Adolescence is a critical time in development where the body and brain undergoes puberty, which not only includes reproductive maturation, but also adult social and cognitive development. Brain-injury-induced disruptions can cause secondary inflammation processes and as a result, pediatric TBI can lead to significant life-long and debilitating morbidities that continue long after initial injury. In this study, neuroinflammation following diffuse brain injury was explored in prepubertal and peripubertal rats using an adapted method of midline fluid percussion injury (mFPI) for juvenile rats to further understand the relationship between pediatric TBI and puberty disruption due to endocrine dysfunction. We expect the adapted mFPI model to be effective in producing diffuse, moderate brain injury in juvenile rats and hypothesize that pre-pubertal rats (PND35) will have increased neuroinflammation compared to peri-pubertal rats (PND17) and shams because of the potential neuroprotective nature of sex steroids. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=90) were subjected to either a diffuse midline fluid percussion injury (mFPI) or sham injury at post-natal day (PND) 17 (pre-puberty) or PND35 (peri-puberty). Animals were sacrificed at different time points defined as days post injury (DPI) including 1DPI, 7DPI and 25DPI to represent both acute and chronic time points, allowing for comparisons within groups (injury vs. sham) and across groups (PND17 vs PND35). Body weight of the rats was measured postoperatively at various time points throughout the study to follow recovery. Tissue was collected and subjected to Heamatoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain to visualize histology and evaluate the application of diffuse mFPI to juvenile rats. In addition, tissue underwent immunohistochemical analysis using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) to stain for ionized calcium binding proteins (Iba1) in order to assess injury-related neuroinflammation in the form of microglia activation. Diffuse brain injury using the mFPI model did not affect rat body weight or cause overt cell death, suggesting adaption of the adult mFPI model for juvenile rats is representative of moderate diffuse brain injury. In addition, diffuse TBI lead to morphological changes in microglia suggesting there is an increased inflammatory response following initial insult, which may directly contribute to improper activation of pubertal timing and progression in adolescent children affected. Since there is little literature on the full effects of puberty dysfunction following TBI in the pediatric population, there is a significant need to further assess this area in order to develop improved interventions and potential therapies for this affected population.

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2018-05

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Medicine Before the Flexner Report: How Sects-y is too Sects-y?

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While the transition from sectarian to allopathic medicine was almost entirely beneficial due to our perceived value in the type of evidence and transparency that science provides, key values within sectarian practice were lost in this transition. Attention to these

While the transition from sectarian to allopathic medicine was almost entirely beneficial due to our perceived value in the type of evidence and transparency that science provides, key values within sectarian practice were lost in this transition. Attention to these values helps us better understand the role and treatment of patients in modern medicine. Modern scientific physicians have proven the inefficacy of sectarian treatments by scientific practices, but the efficacy of exact sectarian remedies may not have bearing on the importance of sectarian values. These values were: medical simplicity, harmlessness in treatment, independence from physicians and accessibility of treatment. A more in-depth analysis of sectarian values allows us to understand that while the values of allopathic medicine have become ubiquitous, it has not always been that way. It is time to consider the validity in the sectarian values we have abandoned; this analysis was one of many on medicine's imminent developmental horizon. This realization allows us to call into question the importance of our current practicing values, and the necessity that they continue to stand alone.

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2017-05

Brain Processes in Self-Regulation: An Electroencephalography (EEG) Study

Description

Temporal discounting refers to our tendency to discount the value of future rewards. At the extreme, temporal discounting can give rise to detrimental myopic decision-making. Most studies examining the neural basis of temporal discounting in people have been performed using

Temporal discounting refers to our tendency to discount the value of future rewards. At the extreme, temporal discounting can give rise to detrimental myopic decision-making. Most studies examining the neural basis of temporal discounting in people have been performed using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). However, fMRI has relatively poor temporal resolution compared with the speed at which people make choices, so understanding choice dynamics using fMRI is difficult. We address the issue utilizing electroencephalography (EEG) to study cortical processes related to temporal discounting. The fMRI literature has found that a network of fronto-parietal brain regions plays an important role during the decision-making process. We aim to explore activity in these regions during the decision process and determine how cortical activity relates to choice parameters. Based on prior fMRI studies, we hypothesized that dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) may act as a regulator of dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and there will be an increase in dlPFC activity for more difficult decisions. We also hypothesized that neural activity may be directly related to the temporal discount rate we estimate behaviorally. We utilized regression analysis to determine the relationship. The results found supported our hypotheses. This study may open the door to a better understanding of the dynamic of brain regions while performing a temporal discounting task.

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2017-05