Climate change is one of the biggest challenges facing today's society.Since the late 19th century, the global average temperature has been rising. In order to minimize the temperature increase of the earth, it is necessary to develop alternative energy technologies that do not depend on fossil fuels. Solar fuels are one potential energy source for the future. Solar fuel technologies use catalysts to convert low energy molecules into fuels via artificial photosynthesis. TiO2, or titania, is an important model photocatalyst for studying these reactions. It is also important to use remaining fossil fuel resources efficiently and with the lowest possible greenhouse gas emissions. Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that aim to accomplish this goal and CeO2, or ceria, is an important material used in these devices. One way to observe the atomic structure of a material is with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). A traditional transmission electron microscope employs a beam of fast electrons to form atomic resolution images of a material. While imaging gives information about the positions of the atoms in the material, spectroscopy gives information about the composition and bonding of the material. A type of spectroscopy that can be performed inside the transmission electron microscope is electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), which provides a fundamental understanding of the electronic structure of a material. The energy loss spectrum also contains information on the chemical bonding in the material, and theoretical calculations that model the spectra are essential to correctly interpreting this bonding information. FEFF is a software that performs EELS calculations. Calculations of the oxygen K edges of TiO2 and CeO2 were made using FEFF in order to understand the changes that occur in the spectrum when oxygen vacancies are introduced as well as the changes near a grain boundary.