Matching Items (141)

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Optical Response of a TiN Kinetic Inductance Detector (KID)

Description

This research compares shifts in a SuperSpec titanium nitride (TiN) kinetic inductance detector's (KID's) resonant frequency with accepted models for other KIDs. SuperSpec, which is being developed at the University of Colorado Boulder, is an on-chip spectrometer designed with a

This research compares shifts in a SuperSpec titanium nitride (TiN) kinetic inductance detector's (KID's) resonant frequency with accepted models for other KIDs. SuperSpec, which is being developed at the University of Colorado Boulder, is an on-chip spectrometer designed with a multiplexed readout with multiple KIDs that is set up for a broadband transmission of these measurements. It is useful for detecting radiation in the mm and sub mm wavelengths which is significant since absorption and reemission of photons by dust causes radiation from distant objects to reach us in infrared and far-infrared bands. In preparation for testing, our team installed stages designed previously by Paul Abers and his group into our cryostat and designed and installed other parts necessary for the cryostat to be able to test devices on the 250 mK stage. This work included the design and construction of additional parts, a new setup for the wiring in the cryostat, the assembly, testing, and installation of several stainless steel coaxial cables for the measurements through the devices, and other cryogenic and low pressure considerations. The SuperSpec KID was successfully tested on this 250 mK stage thus confirming that the new setup is functional. Our results are in agreement with existing models which suggest that the breaking of cooper pairs in the detector's superconductor which occurs in response to temperature, optical load, and readout power will decrease the resonant frequencies. A negative linear relationship in our results appears, as expected, since the parameters are varied only slightly so that a linear approximation is appropriate. We compared the rate at which the resonant frequency responded to temperature and found it to be close to the expected value.

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2018-05

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Production of Short-Lived Radionuclides in Asymmetric Supernovae

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Supernovae are vital to supplying necessary elements to forming bodies in our solar systems. This project studies the creation of a subset of these necessary elements, called short-lived radionuclides (SLRs). SLRs are isotopes with relatively short half-lives and can serve

Supernovae are vital to supplying necessary elements to forming bodies in our solar systems. This project studies the creation of a subset of these necessary elements, called short-lived radionuclides (SLRs). SLRs are isotopes with relatively short half-lives and can serve as heat sources for forming planetary bodies, and their traces can be used to date stellar events. Computational models of asymmetric supernovae provide opportunities to study the effect of explosion geometry on the SLR yields. We are most interested in the production of \iso{Al}{26}, \iso{Fe}{60}, and \iso{Ca}{41}, whose decayed products are found in our own solar system. To study the effect of explosion asymmetries in supernovae, we use TYCHO stellar evolution code, SNSHP smooth particle hydrodynamics code for 3D explosion simulations, Burn code for nucleosythesis post-processing, and Python code written to analyze the output of the post-processing code.

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2018-05

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Synthesis and Characterization of Laser Plasma that Produces Pseudocarbyne Using Laser Pulses

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Carbon allotropes are the basis for many exciting advancements in technology. While sp² and sp³ hybridizations are well understood, the sp¹ hybridized carbon has been elusive. However, with recent advances made using a pulsed laser ablation in liquid technique, sp¹

Carbon allotropes are the basis for many exciting advancements in technology. While sp² and sp³ hybridizations are well understood, the sp¹ hybridized carbon has been elusive. However, with recent advances made using a pulsed laser ablation in liquid technique, sp¹ hybridized carbon allotropes have been created. The fabricated carbon chain is composed of sp¹ and sp³ hybridized bonds, but it also incorporates nanoparticles such as gold or possibly silver to stabilize the chain. The polyyne generated in this process is called pseudocarbyne due to its striking resemblance to the theoretical carbyne. The formation of these carbon chains is yet to be fully understood, but significant progress has been made in determining the temperature of the plasma in which the pseudocarbyne is formed. When a 532 nm pulsed laser with a pulsed energy of 250 mJ and pulse length of 10ns is used to ablate a gold target, a peak temperature of 13400 K is measured. When measured using Laser-Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) the average temperature of the neutral carbon plasma over one second was 4590±172 K. This temperature strongly suggests that the current theoretical model used to describe the temperature at which pseudocarbyne generates is accurate.

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2019-05

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Algebraic Structures in Mathematical Analysis

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The purpose of this senior thesis is to explore the abstract ideas that give rise to the well-known Fourier series and transforms. More specifically, finite group representations are used to study the structure of Hilbert spaces to determine under what

The purpose of this senior thesis is to explore the abstract ideas that give rise to the well-known Fourier series and transforms. More specifically, finite group representations are used to study the structure of Hilbert spaces to determine under what conditions an element of the space can be expanded as a sum. The Peter-Weyl theorem is the result that shows why integrable functions can be expressed in terms of trigonometric functions. Although some theorems will not be proved, the results that can be derived from them will be briefly discussed. For instance, the Pontryagin Duality theorem states that there is a canonical isomorphism between a group and the second dual of the group, and it can be used to prove $Plancherel$ theorem which essentially says that the Fourier transform is itself a unitary isomorphism.

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2019-05

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The Electrodynamic Ion Trap

Description

In this experiment an Electrodynamic Ion Ring Trap was constructed and tested. Due to the nature of Electrostatic fields, the setup required an oscillating voltage source to stably trap the particles. It was built in a safe manner, The power

In this experiment an Electrodynamic Ion Ring Trap was constructed and tested. Due to the nature of Electrostatic fields, the setup required an oscillating voltage source to stably trap the particles. It was built in a safe manner, The power supply was kept in a project box to avoid incidental contact, and was connected to a small copper wire in the shape of a ring. The maximum voltage that could be experienced via incidental contact was well within safe ranges a 0.3mA. Within minutes of its completion the trap was able to trap small Lycopodium powder spores mass of approximately 1.7*10^{-11}kg in clusters of 15-30 for long timescales. The oscillations of these spores were observed to be roughly 1.01mm at their maximum, and in an attempt to understand the dynamics of the Ion Trap, a concept called the pseudo-potential of the trap was used. This method proved fairly inaccurate, involving much estimation and using a static field estimation of 9.39*10^8 N\C and a charge estimate on the particles of ~1e, a maximum oscillation distance of 1.37m was calculated. Though the derived static field strength was not far off from the field strength required to achieve the correct oscillation distance (Percent error of 9.92%, the small discrepancy caused major calculation errors. The trap's intended purpose however was to eventually trap protein molecules for mapping via XFEL laser, and after its successful construction that goal is fairly achievable. The trap was also housed in a vacuum chamber so that it could be more effectively implemented with the XFEL.

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2019-05

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Effects of rooftop photovoltaics on building cooling demand and ambient air

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Photovoltaic panels are commonly used for their versatility in on-site generation of clean electricity in urban environments, specifically on rooftops. However, their implementation on rooftops poses potential (positive and negative) impacts on the energy use of buildings, and urban climates.

Photovoltaic panels are commonly used for their versatility in on-site generation of clean electricity in urban environments, specifically on rooftops. However, their implementation on rooftops poses potential (positive and negative) impacts on the energy use of buildings, and urban climates. The negative impacts are compounded if PV is installed on top of a high-albedo rooftop. This study quantitively investigates these impacts from PV installation on top of a building with a white roof in Phoenix, AZ. We supplemented our measurements with EnergyPlus simulations to model the energy implications for archetypical residential and retail buildings and calculated the energy penalty to generation ratio as well as sensible heat flux for each combination of panel height and building type. Results indicate that the daily cooling energy penalty to due blockage of outgoing longwave radiation can be 4.9—11.2% of the PV generation. In addition, while we observed a small decrease in nighttime sensible heat flux to the ambient, PV cases increased the daytime heat flux by more than a factor of 10. This study highlights the potential unintended consequences of rooftop PV under certain conditions and provides a broader perspective for building designers and urban planners.

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2019-05

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Numerical Simulations of Heavy Quark Exotica

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The first numerical predictions of the dynamical diquark model of multiquark exotic hadrons are presented. Using Born-Oppenheimer potentials calculated from lattice QCD and phenomenological diquark(triquark) masses, mass eigenvalues that are degenerate in spin and isospin are computed from numerical solutions

The first numerical predictions of the dynamical diquark model of multiquark exotic hadrons are presented. Using Born-Oppenheimer potentials calculated from lattice QCD and phenomenological diquark(triquark) masses, mass eigenvalues that are degenerate in spin and isospin are computed from numerical solutions to both coupled and uncoupled Schroedinger equations. Assuming reasonable estimates of the fine-structure splittings, we find that the band structure of our mass spectra agrees well with the experimentally observed spectrum of charmonium-like states. Using our best fits, we predict a number of unobserved states, such as pentaquark states that lie below the charmonium-plus-nucleon threshold.

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2019-05

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Detections of GRBs with the Telescope DDOTI and Code Manuals

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At the start of this honors thesis project, a new telescope called the deca-degree optical transient imager (DDOTI) needed assistance to help it gather photometric data about Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). Contributions to help DDOTI produce scientifically ready reductions will

At the start of this honors thesis project, a new telescope called the deca-degree optical transient imager (DDOTI) needed assistance to help it gather photometric data about Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). Contributions to help DDOTI produce scientifically ready reductions will be discussed.
First, performance assessment tests were run in order to prevent data backlog and optimize the way in which DDOTI reduces the data it collects. The results of these tests yielded a general framework regarding how DDOTI should reduce collected images depending on how many computer cores can be used. These tests also indicated that DDOTI’s alignment portion of the reduction code (ddoti_align) should be completed after every image is collected, while the other parts of the reduction software (ddoti_stack, ddoti_phot, ddoti_summary) should be run after every four images are collected.
Second, reductions created by DDOTI were inspected to determine if the telescope’s reduction software was working properly. Reductions were observed and indicated that two reduction related problems needed to be corrected by the research team before DDOTI would be ready for future scientific work. The first identified problem was that DDOTI’s reduction code was not properly correcting optical distortions for one of DDOTI’s two functional cameras. The second problem was that the reduction code was not correcting for atmospheric refraction. As a result, below zenith distances of approximately sixty degrees, ddoti_align was unable to align detected sources to their catalogue equivalents due to their distorted positions.
Third, code manuals were produced in both English and Spanish so that English and Spanish-speaking researchers working on DDOTI could understand how its reductions software reduces images. Functional flow chart diagrams were also produced only in English to graphically describe the flow of information through DDOTI’s reduction software.
These three contributions helped DDOTI to more accurately be able to observe GRBs. DDOTI’s improved reduction abilities were confirmed by a produced report about GRB 190129B after a 10-hour observation, and by the fact that DDOTI could accurately observed asteroid fields. In addition, code manuals and functional flow chart diagrams were all produced by the end of this project.

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2019-05

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Analysis of the Polarization Observables H & P for gamma p -> pi^+ n

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A search is underway to find baryon resonances that have been predicted, but yet remain unobserved. Nucleon resonances, due to their broad energy widths, overlap and must be disentangled in order to be identified. Meson photoproduction observables related to the

A search is underway to find baryon resonances that have been predicted, but yet remain unobserved. Nucleon resonances, due to their broad energy widths, overlap and must be disentangled in order to be identified. Meson photoproduction observables related to the orientation of the spin of the incoming photon and the spin of the target proton are useful tools to deconvolve the nucleon resonance spectrum. These observables are particularly sensitive to interference between phases of the complex amplitudes. A set of these observables has been measured using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab with linearly-polarized photons having energies from 725 to 1575 MeV with polar angle values of cos(theta) between -0.8 and 0.9 and transversely-polarized protons in the Jefferson Lab FRozen Spin Target (FROST). By fitting neutron yields from gamma p -> pi^+ n over azimuthal scattering angle, the observables \H and P have been extracted. These observables manifest as azimuthal modulations in the yields for the double-polarization experiment. Preliminary results for these observables will be presented and compared with predictions provided by the SAID Partial-Wave Analysis Facility.

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2018-05

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Environmental Systematics and the Impact on 21-cm Epoch of Reionization Measurements

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The Epoch of Reionization (EoR) is the period in the evolution of the universe during which neutral hydrogen was ionized by the first luminous sources, and is closely linked to the formation of structure in the early universe. The Hydrogen

The Epoch of Reionization (EoR) is the period in the evolution of the universe during which neutral hydrogen was ionized by the first luminous sources, and is closely linked to the formation of structure in the early universe. The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) is a radio interferometer currently under construction in South Africa designed to study this era. Specifically, HERA is dedicated to studying the large-scale structure during the EoR and the preceding Cosmic Dawn by measuring the redshifted 21-cm line from neutral hydrogen. However, the 21-cm signal from the EoR is extremely faint relative to galactic and extragalactic radio foregrounds, and instrumental and environmental systematics make measuring the signal all the more difficult. Radio frequency interference (RFI) from terrestrial sources is one such systematic. In this thesis, we explore various methods of removing RFI from early science-grade HERA data and characterize the effects of different removal patterns on the final 21-cm power spectrum. In particular, we focus on the impact of masking narrowband signals, such as those characteristic of FM radio and aircraft or satellite communications, in the context of the algorithms currently used by the HERA collaboration for analysis.

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2019-05