Matching Items (121)

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Synthesis and Characterization of Laser Plasma that Produces Pseudocarbyne Using Laser Pulses

Description

Carbon allotropes are the basis for many exciting advancements in technology. While sp² and sp³ hybridizations are well understood, the sp¹ hybridized carbon has been elusive. However, with recent advances

Carbon allotropes are the basis for many exciting advancements in technology. While sp² and sp³ hybridizations are well understood, the sp¹ hybridized carbon has been elusive. However, with recent advances made using a pulsed laser ablation in liquid technique, sp¹ hybridized carbon allotropes have been created. The fabricated carbon chain is composed of sp¹ and sp³ hybridized bonds, but it also incorporates nanoparticles such as gold or possibly silver to stabilize the chain. The polyyne generated in this process is called pseudocarbyne due to its striking resemblance to the theoretical carbyne. The formation of these carbon chains is yet to be fully understood, but significant progress has been made in determining the temperature of the plasma in which the pseudocarbyne is formed. When a 532 nm pulsed laser with a pulsed energy of 250 mJ and pulse length of 10ns is used to ablate a gold target, a peak temperature of 13400 K is measured. When measured using Laser-Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) the average temperature of the neutral carbon plasma over one second was 4590±172 K. This temperature strongly suggests that the current theoretical model used to describe the temperature at which pseudocarbyne generates is accurate.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Post-Optimization of Permutation Coverings

Description

Covering subsequences with sets of permutations arises in many applications, including event-sequence testing. Given a set of subsequences to cover, one is often interested in knowing the fewest number of

Covering subsequences with sets of permutations arises in many applications, including event-sequence testing. Given a set of subsequences to cover, one is often interested in knowing the fewest number of permutations required to cover each subsequence, and in finding an explicit construction of such a set of permutations that has size close to or equal to the minimum possible. The construction of such permutation coverings has proven to be computationally difficult. While many examples for permutations of small length have been found, and strong asymptotic behavior is known, there are few explicit constructions for permutations of intermediate lengths. Most of these are generated from scratch using greedy algorithms. We explore a different approach here. Starting with a set of permutations with the desired coverage properties, we compute local changes to individual permutations that retain the total coverage of the set. By choosing these local changes so as to make one permutation less "essential" in maintaining the coverage of the set, our method attempts to make a permutation completely non-essential, so it can be removed without sacrificing total coverage. We develop a post-optimization method to do this and present results on sequence covering arrays and other types of permutation covering problems demonstrating that it is surprisingly effective.

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Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Comparison of the Mesonic and Diquark Effects on Tetraquark States via Resonance Synchronization with Thresholds

Description

We develop the mathematical tools necessary to describe the interaction between a resonant pole and a threshold energy. Using these tools, we analyze the properties an opening threshold has on

We develop the mathematical tools necessary to describe the interaction between a resonant pole and a threshold energy. Using these tools, we analyze the properties an opening threshold has on the resonant pole mass (the "cusp effect"), leading to an effect called "pole-dragging." We consider two models for resonances: a molecular, mesonic model, and a color-nonsinglet diquark plus antidiquark model. Then, we compare the pole-dragging effect due to these models on the masses of the f0(980), the X(3872), and the Zb(10610) and compare the effect's magnitude. We find that, while for lower masses, such as the f 0 (980), the pole-dragging effect that arises from the molecular model is more significant, the diquark model's pole-dragging effect becomes dominant at higher masses such as those of the X(3872) and the Z b (10610). This indicates that for lower threshold energies, diquark models may have less significant effects on predicted resonant masses than mesonic models, but for higher threshold energies, it is necessary to include the pole-dragging effect due to a diquark threshold in high-precision QCD calculations.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Spin Transport in Metallic Films with Strong Spin-Orbital Coupling

Description

In a pure spin current, electrons of opposite spins flow in opposite directions, thus information is conveyed by spin current without any charge current. This process almost causes no power

In a pure spin current, electrons of opposite spins flow in opposite directions, thus information is conveyed by spin current without any charge current. This process almost causes no power consumption, which has the potential to realize ultra-low-power-consumption electronics. Recently, thermal effects in magnetic materials have attracted a great deal of attention because of its potential to generate pure spin currents using a thermal gradient (∇T), such as the spin Seebeck effect. However, unlike electric potential, the exact thermal gradient direction is experimentally difficult to control, which has already caused misinterpretation of the thermal effects in Py and Py/Pt films. In this work, we show that a well-defined ∇T can be created by two thermoelectric coolers (TECs) based on Peltier effect. The ∇T as well as its sign can be accurately controlled by the driven voltage on the TECs. Using a square-wave driven potential, thermal effects of a few μV can be measured. Using this technique, we have measured the anomalous Nernst effect in magnetic Co/Py and Py/Pt layers and determined their angular dependence. The angular dependence shows the same symmetry as the anomalous Hall effect in these films.
This work has been carried out under the guidance of the author’s thesis advisor, Professor Tingyong Chen.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Ab-Initio Phasing Using Nanocrystal Shape Transforms With Incomplete Unit Cells

Description

X-ray free electron lasers are used in measuring diffraction patterns from nanocrystals in the 'diffract-before-destroy' mode by outrunning radiation damage. The finite-sized nanocrystals provide an opportunity to recover intensity between

X-ray free electron lasers are used in measuring diffraction patterns from nanocrystals in the 'diffract-before-destroy' mode by outrunning radiation damage. The finite-sized nanocrystals provide an opportunity to recover intensity between Bragg spots by removing the modulating function that depends on crystal shape, i.e. the transform of the crystal shape. This shape-transform dividing-out scheme for solving the phase problem has been tested using simulated examples with cubic crystals. It provides a phasing method which does not require atomic resolution data, chemical modification to the sample, or modelling based on the protein databases. It is common to find multiple structural units (e.g. molecules, in symmetry-related positions) within a single unit cell, therefore incomplete unit cells (e.g. one additional molecule) can be observed at surface layers of crystals. In this work, the effects of such incomplete unit cells on the 'dividing-out' phasing algorithm are investigated using 2D crystals within the projection approximation. It is found that the incomplete unit cells do not hinder the recovery of the scattering pattern from a single unit cell (after dividing out the shape transforms from data merged from many nanocrystals of different sizes), assuming that certain unit-cell types are preferred. The results also suggest that the dynamic range of the data is a critical issue to be resolved in order to apply the shape transform method practically.

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Date Created
  • 2014-01-01

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Advances in Thermionic Energy Conversion Through Single-Crystal n-Type Diamond

Description

Thermionic energy conversion, a process that allows direct transformation of thermal to electrical energy, presents a means of efficient electrical power generation as the hot and cold side of the

Thermionic energy conversion, a process that allows direct transformation of thermal to electrical energy, presents a means of efficient electrical power generation as the hot and cold side of the corresponding heat engine are separated by a vacuum gap. Conversion efficiencies approaching those of the Carnot cycle are possible if material parameters of the active elements at the converter, i.e., electron emitter or cathode and collector or anode, are optimized for operation in the desired temperature range.

These parameters can be defined through the law of Richardson–Dushman that quantifies the ability of a material to release an electron current at a certain temperature as a function of the emission barrier or work function and the emission or Richardson constant. Engineering materials to defined parameter values presents the key challenge in constructing practical thermionic converters. The elevated temperature regime of operation presents a constraint that eliminates most semiconductors and identifies diamond, a wide band-gap semiconductor, as a suitable thermionic material through its unique material properties. For its surface, a configuration can be established, the negative electron affinity, that shifts the vacuum level below the conduction band minimum eliminating the surface barrier for electron emission.

In addition, its ability to accept impurities as donor states allows materials engineering to control the work function and the emission constant. Single-crystal diamond electrodes with nitrogen levels at 1.7 eV and phosphorus levels at 0.6 eV were prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition where the work function was controlled from 2.88 to 0.67 eV, one of the lowest thermionic work functions reported. This work function range was achieved through control of the doping concentration where a relation to the amount of band bending emerged. Upward band bending that contributed to the work function was attributed to surface states where lower doped homoepitaxial films exhibited a surface state density of ∼3 × 10[superscript 11] cm[superscript −2]. With these optimized doped diamond electrodes, highly efficient thermionic converters are feasible with a Schottky barrier at the diamond collector contact mitigated through operation at elevated temperatures.

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Date Created
  • 2017-12-06

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Densification of Li7La3Zr2O12 Electrospun Nanowires Through Processing Control of Intermediate La2Zr2O7 Phase (Electrospinning Synthesis of Electrolytes for Solid-state Lithium-ion Batteries)

Description

Solid-state lithium-ion batteries are a major area of research due to their increased safety characteristics over conventional liquid electrolyte batteries. Lithium lanthanum zirconate (LLZO) is a promising garnet-type ceramic for

Solid-state lithium-ion batteries are a major area of research due to their increased safety characteristics over conventional liquid electrolyte batteries. Lithium lanthanum zirconate (LLZO) is a promising garnet-type ceramic for use as a solid-state electrolyte due to its high ionic conductivity. The material exists in two dierent phases, one that is cubic in structure and one that is tetragonal. One potential synthesis method that results in LLZO in the more useful, cubic phase, is electrospinning, where a mat of nanowires is spun and then calcined into LLZO. A phase containing lanthanum zirconate (LZO) and amorphous lithium occursas an intermediate during the calcination process. LZO has been shown to be a sintering aid for LLZO, allowing for lower sintering temperatures. Here it is shown the eects of internal LZO on the sintered pellets. This is done by varying the 700C calcination time to transform diering amounts of LZO and LLZO in electrospun nanowires, and then using the same sintering parameters for each sample. X-ray diraction was used to get structural and compositional analysis of both the calcined powders and sintered pellets. Pellets formed from wires calcined at 1 hour or longer contained only LLZO even if the calcined powder had only undergone the rst phase transformation. The relative density of the pellet with no initial LLZO of 61.0% was higher than that of the pellet with no LZO, which had a relative density of 57.7%. This allows for the same, or slightly higher, quality material to be synthesized with a shorter amount of processing time.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Cryogenic Testing of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs)

Description

We designed and constructed a cryostat setup for MKID detectors. The goal for the cryostat is to have four stages: 40K, 4K, 1K and 250mK. Prior to the start of

We designed and constructed a cryostat setup for MKID detectors. The goal for the cryostat is to have four stages: 40K, 4K, 1K and 250mK. Prior to the start of my thesis, the cryostat was reaching 70K and 9K on the first and second stages respectively. During the first semester of my thesis I worked on getting the second stage to reach below 4K such that it would be cold enough to add a sorption fridge to reach 250mK. Various parts were machined for the cryostat and some tweaks were made to existing pieces. The largest changes were we thinned our stainless steel supports from 2mm to 10mil and we added roughly 6-10 layers of multi-layer insulation to the first and second stages. Our result was that we now reach temperatures of 36K and 2.6K on the first and second stages respectively. Next we added the sorption fridge to the 4K stage by having the 4K stage remachined to allow the sorption fridge to be mounted to the stage. Then I designed a final, two stage, setup for the 1K and 250mK stages that has maximum capabilities of housing a six inch wafer for testing. The design was sent to a machinist, but the parts were unfinished by the end of my thesis, so the parts and stage were not tested. Once the cryostat was fully tested and proven to reach the necessary temperatures, preliminary testing was done on a Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) provided by Stanford. Data was collected on the resonance and quality factor as they shifted with final stage temperature (5K to 285mK) and with input power (60dB to 15dB). The data was analyzed and the results agreed within expectations, as the resonant frequency and quality factor shifted down with increased temperature on the MKID. Finally, a noise characterization setup was designed to test the noise of devices, but was not fully implemented.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Probing the Radio Sky with the Low Frequency Array

Description

The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is a new and innovative radio telescope designed and constructed by the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON). LOFAR unique capable of operating in very

The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is a new and innovative radio telescope designed and constructed by the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON). LOFAR unique capable of operating in very low frequencies (10-240 MHz) and consists of an extensive interferometry array of dipole antenna stations distributed throughout the Netherlands and Europe which allows it to achieve superb angular resolution. I investigate a part of the northern sky to search for rare radio objects such as radio haloes and radio relics that may have not been able to have been resolved by other radio telescopes.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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The Mathematical Successes and Failures of Students in an Introductory Physics Course

Description

A working knowledge of mathematics is a vital requirement for introductory university physics courses. However, there is mounting evidence which shows that many incoming introductory physics students do not have

A working knowledge of mathematics is a vital requirement for introductory university physics courses. However, there is mounting evidence which shows that many incoming introductory physics students do not have the necessary mathematical ability to succeed in physics. The investigation reported in this thesis used preinstruction diagnostics and interviews to examine this problem in depth. It was found that in some cases, over 75% of students could not solve the most basic mathematics problems. We asked questions involving right triangles, vector addition, vector direction, systems of equations, and arithmetic, to give a few examples. The correct response rates were typically between 25% and 75%, which is worrying, because these problems are far simpler than the typical problem encountered in an introductory quantitative physics course. This thesis uncovered a few common problem solving strategies that were not particularly effective. When solving trigonometry problems, 13% of students wrote down the mnemonic "SOH CAH TOA," but a chi-squared test revealed that this was not a statistically significant factor in getting the correct answer, and was actually detrimental in certain situations. Also, about 50% of students used a tip-to-tail method to add vectors. But there is evidence to suggest that this method is not as effective as using components. There are also a number of problem solving strategies that successful students use to solve mathematics problems. Using the components of a vector increases student success when adding vectors and examining their direction. Preliminary evidence also suggests that repetitive trigonometry practice may be the best way to improve student performance on trigonometry problems. In addition, teaching students to use a wide variety of algebraic techniques like the distributive property may help them from getting stuck when working through problems. Finally, evidence suggests that checking work could eliminate up to a third of student errors.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12