Matching Items (199)

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The Effects of Recent Minimum Wage Increases on the Wage Distribution in the State of Arizona

Description

Minimum wage legislation has always been a controversial topic within the fields of politics and economics. There are those who support it under the belief that those affected will be

Minimum wage legislation has always been a controversial topic within the fields of politics and economics. There are those who support it under the belief that those affected will be better off, seeing increased wages, greater efficiency, and overall economic prosperity, whereas its opponents argue against it under the belief that it could lead to negative effects such as decreased employment, higher prices, and loss of productivity. This is something that has recently come up in Arizona after the enactment of Proposition 206 (Prop.206), a law which is set to raise the state minimum wage from $8.05 in 2016 to $12.00 by 2020. In this paper, rather than taking a political stance, however, we seek to find answers about the real effects that this minimum wage law has had on wage earners through the manner in which it has affected the state’s wage distribution, meaning the percentage of earners making a certain hourly rate, or between a certain wage range (i.e. $10.00 to $10.50). We begin this search by looking at May Wage Estimates offered by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). From that data, we created wage distributions for the state of Arizona for the years 2011-2018. These showed us what percentage of workers in the state are making a certain hourly rate based on the total number of employees in Arizona. By summarizing this through tables and histograms, we can also visually see the way in which AZ wage distributions have changed over time. However, we also sought to visually compare the AZ wage distributions with that of nearby states, so we also used wage distribution data from Nevada, Utah, and New Mexico. Finally, we also wanted to quantify the fixed effects of enacting the legislation in the state of AZ. To do so we ran a difference-in-differences analysis that gave us an actual value measuring how recent minimum wage increases have affected the percentage of total wage earning less than $11.40 per hour. We discovered that our results, although not extremely significant (due to available data), do strongly indicate that the recent minimum wage legislation in AZ has increased the percentage of workers earning more than that amount per hour. Following that, we also give recommendations that could improve the results found in this report.

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  • 2019-05

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Chinese Finance: Policy and Institutions

Description

This paper intends to examine topics related to Chinese financial policy and
institutions mainly in the early 21st century. China has gone through enormous changes in the late 20th

This paper intends to examine topics related to Chinese financial policy and
institutions mainly in the early 21st century. China has gone through enormous changes in the late 20th century and early 21st century, and financial policy reforms and adjustments have been at times instrumental to aiding that growth, and at other times have served as impediments to the country’s success. As China’s clout has grown both economically and politically in the wider world, it has become evermore important to understand the Chinese financial system, particularly as other authoritarian regimes may seek to emulate it in the perhaps recent future. The paper will examine the institutional elements of Chinese finance, including the broader structure of the party state apparatus and the role of legislative and executive authorities in determining financial policy. Next, the paper will go through both the legal-regulatory environment of the country and the structure of the preeminent Chinese banks. Finally, issues in Chinese monetary policy, particularly exchange rate system reforms, and the developing stock and bond markets will be addressed.

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  • 2019-05

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Approaching the Evolving Music Industry with Modern Marketing Theory

Description

The pace at which technology advances beats many marketers’ responses; in the music industry, technological advancements have driven the changes in music consumption and music marketing, which has created a

The pace at which technology advances beats many marketers’ responses; in the music industry, technological advancements have driven the changes in music consumption and music marketing, which has created a need for a different marketing approach. Specifically, the digitalization of music has changed the way it is consumed—consumers now have access to digital music libraries with millions of songs directly on their phones, making streaming the driver of today’s music consumption—and social media has played an important role in the need for changes in music marketing. Additionally, the consumers behind this shift from buying physical albums to streaming music are millennials and Gen Z. For this reason, both groups were focused on in this research.
For decades, the music industry followed a structured business model that relied on the sale of albums in order for musicians and record labels to see revenues. Due to the rise of streaming services and changes in consumer behavior, this is no longer the case. Aldo Cundari argues that because of these changes, we are in the Customer Era of marketing, where marketers must use customer-centricity in order to drive consumers to want to engage with brands, as we now face informed and empowered consumers. Taking this theory and Vargo and Lusch’s argument that marketing is now service-centered—where consumers should be a part of the production process through co-creation of value, relationships, and customization of offerings—requires an analysis of the drivers of digital streaming and approaching them through a value-adding approach, finding the right channel of distribution, determining potential brand advocates, and assessing their preferences and behavior.
This paper first examines the history of music consumption, assesses today’s consumption, the shift from buying to streaming, and uncovers the indirect relationship between music and social media. I find that millennials and Generation Z are the drivers behind streaming, so primary research via a questionnaire is conducted to further evaluate their preferences and what they value in order to recommend customer-centric marketing strategies for music marketing. It was found that today’s consumer is a heavy social media user, integrates his/her social media and music consumption, and that the best channel of distribution is Instagram. To allow the consumer to co-create value, I found that the use of brand advocates and organic influencer marketing (through playlists and sponsored posts) is needed in the dynamic of today’s music industry.

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  • 2019-05

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Generating Division One Sports

Description

Purpose: The purpose of this project was to map the process by which Division I sports are added at universities and to create a blueprint for any passionate and driven

Purpose: The purpose of this project was to map the process by which Division I sports are added at universities and to create a blueprint for any passionate and driven individual who would like to see their sport of choice added at any college.

Methods: Information for this study was gathered through qualitative interviews with sports administrators at eleven of the twelve universities in the PAC-12 conference. This primary research was supplemented with secondary research of media sources and
PAC-12 and NCAA documents.

Results: Four key factors are involved in adding a new Division I sports program at any university. These factors are: funding, Title IX status, conference and sport status, and administrative mindset.

Conclusion: The four factors stated above are critical in the addition of any new sports program, though there will be significant variations from sport to sport and from university to university. In the case of men’s wrestling at USC, the group of advocates needs to demonstrate the significant value adding wrestling will bring to the athletic department and school. They should also follow this up with a clear plan of how they will navigate the funding, Title IX requirements and conference status.

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  • 2019-05

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EmPOWERed: A Study of Solar Energy in Mayan Belize

Description

The Solar Mamas Program, created by the Indian-based non-profit Barefoot College, brings illiterate and semi-literate older women from rural communities around the world to India for a six-month training on

The Solar Mamas Program, created by the Indian-based non-profit Barefoot College, brings illiterate and semi-literate older women from rural communities around the world to India for a six-month training on solar engineering and entrepreneurship. The Barefoot enterprise is unique in that it contrasts the typical flow of humanitarian aid and implements a South-South development dynamic. Belize is one country that Barefoot selects potential Solar Mamas from with help from its ground partner, Plenty Belize. This ethnographic study aims to identify and assess the direct and indirect impacts the solar project has created in traditional Mayan life in the Toledo District. Interviews were conducted in Santa Elena and Jalacte, which are two villages with and without solar electrification, respectively. The study observed positive impacts on various aspects of health, education, and economics, as well as gender relations. Although relatively successful in its mission, constructive feedback was provided to all actors in the solar project with the aim of enhancing the Solar Mamas’ experience and effectiveness as a “new class of leaders” in their communities, as well as to ensure the continued success that solar electrification has had in the Mayan communities.

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  • 2019-05

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The Effects of Education on Economic Growth: An Empirical Study

Description

In this paper, I attempt to measure the impact of education levels on a country’s productivity, measured by its Gross Domestic Product. I find that educational attainment is significantly correlated

In this paper, I attempt to measure the impact of education levels on a country’s productivity, measured by its Gross Domestic Product. I find that educational attainment is significantly correlated with economic growth. Previous research on this topic has shown similar results and concluded the importance of education on improving the GDP levels in a country.

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  • 2019-05

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Developing a new model organism in cancer research: Trichoplax adhaerens (Placozoa)

Description

All multicellular organisms are susceptible to developing cancer, but some organisms have varying sensitivities to the disease. One such organism is the Trichoplax adhaerens which has no documented case of

All multicellular organisms are susceptible to developing cancer, but some organisms have varying sensitivities to the disease. One such organism is the Trichoplax adhaerens which has no documented case of cancer development. T. adhaerens cancer resistance was studied by observing physiological and morphological changes of the organism after radiation treatment. Preliminary experiments suggested that this organism is able to survive exposure to 160 gray radiation treatment almost as well as untreated organisms. The T. adhaerens have two genes, TriadG6402 and TriadG5479, similar to the human genes TP53 and MDM2 respectively. TP53 and MDM2 are the two main genes associated with apoptosis in humans: an important cell regulatory checkpoint involved in cancer prevention. PCR analysis, done after radiation treatment, showed an overexpression of the ortholog gene MDM2 in the T. adhaerens. This may suggest that T. adhaerens block apoptosis from occurring and that their ortholog gene is involved in DNA repair. It is significant to study the gene expression of TriadG6402 and TriadG54791 in T. adhaerens because these genes are well conserved in humans. Future studies of these genes in the T. adhaerens can be used to understand the evolution of the function of these genes in more complex organisms and be used for human cancer prevention.

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  • 2019-05

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Hate in America and Across the Pond: Analysis of Case Law and the Emerging Differences in Free Speech Rights across Two Western Societies

Description

Normally, the United States and most of Europe are grouped into the same category as “Western countries”, yet their ideological differences have become larger in the last 50 years, especially

Normally, the United States and most of Europe are grouped into the same category as “Western countries”, yet their ideological differences have become larger in the last 50 years, especially in regards to free speech/expression protections. This raises the possibility that extremely broad free speech/expression protections aren’t intrinsic values of a Western society, but are instead an American experiment that was gradually adopted by Western Europe. Analyzing historical documents from both Europe and the United States, this becomes much more of a probability than a possibility and would help explain the recent differences in case law regarding free speech rights in American and European jurisprudence. Furthermore, Europe is also experiencing a potential threat to social stability in the form of massive, sudden demographic shifts, something that America has not experienced on nearly the same scale. Due to the heightened sensitivity towards hateful expression resulting from such a demographic shift, governmental action in the form of restrictions on racially, religiously, and ethnically charged forms of expressions may be deemed necessary in order to preserve social cohesion. Often throughout history, governments have deemed it necessary to limit free expression/speech and the spread of information in order to prevent any threat to its ability to rule, regardless of whether or not said government is tyrannical or democratized. Although not a direct threat to power, in a representative democracy social unrest created by increased division in the populace rooted in the spread of hateful ideology is nonetheless still a threat to those who depend on social harmony in order to govern in a representative democracy. In analyzing these two possible reasons for emerging differences and considering supporting textual and historical evidence, it becomes much clearer as to what the differences in case law and fundamental beliefs regarding the extent of free speech protections are attributable to.

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  • 2019-05

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HOW MANUFACTURING LOCATION DECISIONS CORRELATE WITH STATE BUSINESS CLIMATE FACTORS

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This paper analyzes the correlation between unionization, corporate income taxes, and educational attainment with manufacturing firm locations at the state level across the USA. The paper analyzes the factors that

This paper analyzes the correlation between unionization, corporate income taxes, and educational attainment with manufacturing firm locations at the state level across the USA. The paper analyzes the factors that influence firms per capita in a state using the Ordinary Least Squares regression model, with panel data, and fixed effects. The regression takes data from 2012 through 2016 and shows the correlation between unionization, educational attainment, and taxes on firm location. The paper cites Timothy Bartik’s findings (1985) and addresses reasons for changes in results for today’s economy.

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  • 2019-05

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The Economic Effectiveness of Sanctions Imposed by the US and UN

Description

This study attempts to reconcile the gap in literature between the abundant research in the social consequences of sanctions but a consistent lack of information regarding its economic effectiveness. I

This study attempts to reconcile the gap in literature between the abundant research in the social consequences of sanctions but a consistent lack of information regarding its economic effectiveness. I apply a modified neoclassical growth model to analyze the extent that sanctions imposed by the US and UN impact real per capita GDP growth rate. Using the original data, I modify the model employed in the Neuenkirch and Neumeier (2015) study by replacing a fixed effect model with time trends. The results are more aligned with previous economic research on sanctions where sanctions imposed by the US have a moderate but significant 1.5 percent decline effect on GDP growth rate. On the other hand, sanctions imposed by the UN are similarly negative, imposing about a .9 percent decline in GDP growth, however are not statistically significant. While I cannot reject the conclusion by the original authors, I feel that this model provides a more fitting analysis of the impact sanctions impose on GDP growth.

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  • 2019-05