Method for fabrication and verification of conjugated nanoparticle-antibody tuning elements for multiplexed electrochemical biosensors
There is a critical need for more accurate, highly sensitive and specific assay for disease diagnosis and management. A novel, multiplexed, single sensor using rapid and label free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tuning method has been developed. The key challenges while monitoring multiple targets is frequency overlap. Here we describe the methods to circumvent the overlap, tune by use of nanopartide (NP) and discuss the various fabrication and characterization methods to develop this technique. First sensors were fabricated using printed circuit board (PCB) technology and nickel and gold layers were electrodeposited onto the PCB sensors. An off-chip conjugation of gold NP's to molecular recognition elements (with verification technique) is described as well. A standard covalent immobilization of the molecular recognition elements is also discussed with quality control techniques. Finally use and verification of sensitivity and specificity is also presented. By use of gold NP's of various sizes, we have demonstrated the possibility and shown little loss of sensitivity and specificity in the molecular recognition of inflammatory markers as "model" targets for our tuning system. By selection of other sized NP's or NP's of various materials, the tuning effect can be further exploited. The novel platform technology developed could be utilized in critical care, clinical management and at home health and disease management.